This article describes recent policy in- novation in California that focuses on the need to develop adaptive policy at the re- gional and local levels to protect climate refugia throughout the state. Resource managers increasingly recognize that adaptive policy must occur at regional levels with local land use decisions and management actions that can protect en- dangered species dependent on climate refugia. Protecting endangered species and their habitats on private and public lands will become increasingly difficult as plants, animals and insects adjust their ranges in response to climate change. More importantly, conservation effort is needed to protect endangered species in parts of their habitat range that are rela- tively stable “climate refugia” – areas that function as important source areas from which species can expand given climate disturbance. This article offers a number of preliminary strategies that should be developed at regional levels to begin to protect endangered species and climate refugia areas. Among the most recent recommendations in the sci- entific literature is the need to identify and protect climate refugia across a rap- idly changing landscape and seascape (Barnosky 2007). Evidence is accumu- lating that emphasizes the importance of managing climate refugia that have historically supported ecological resil- ience during periods of dramatic climate disturbance, such as long term changes in environmental conditions.
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lation was then subject to poor weather conditions (i.e. drought), and this probably eliminated the final few Karn- er blues in Ohio. After years of its absence from the region, a group of experts studied the possibility of reintroduc- ing the species into northwest Ohio. Finally, in 1998, the To- ledo Zoo, The Nature Conser- vancy, and the Michigan and Ohio Departments of Natural Resources decided to capture first brood Karner blues at Allegan State Game Area in Michigan (Figure 2), breed them in captivity at the Toledo Zoo, and then release the but- terflies into the wild in Ohio during their second brood. The methodology included bringing butterflies into cap- tivity, assuring proper breed- ing, and collecting oviposited eggs on host-plants within a greenhouse environment. One particular area was deemed most suitable for the Karner blue which was located at The Nature Conservancy’s Kitty Todd Preserve in Lucas County, Ohio. At this preserve, The Nature Conservancy owns one of the largest pieces of oak savanna in Ohio. The Nature Conservancy had also instigated a prescribed burning program over the past several years prior to the butterfly’s return. Additionally, the most well known factors affecting the but- terfly, canopy cover and the presence of wild blue lupine, appeared most suitable at the Kitty Todd Preserve. The first re- introduction took place at one site with- in Kitty Todd Preserve in 1998. From 1998 to 2004, over 1500 Karner blues were released into the oak savanna.
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The 1973 Act repealed the Endangered Species Conservation Act of 1969, 15 broadened federal responsibilities to list species, and increased federal authorization and programs to ensure their survival. 16 The impetus for the renewed Act was congressional concern about rapidly deteriorating fish, wildlife and plant habitats, the indiscriminate utilization of plants and animals, and the increasing numbers of species threatened with extinction. 17 Congress expressed concern not only about hunting and direct destruction or exploitation of endangered species, but also development, which destroys habitats and leads to the extinction of species. 18 Because of economic growth, various species had already become extinct and other species were rapidly decreasing in numbers and in danger of extinction. 19
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the clone was producing seeds asexually (i.e. by apomixis) or (b) the clone was completely homozygous at all loci across its genome. Apomixis is common among many fami- lies of flowering plants (Hanna and Bashaw 1987; Carneiro et al. 2006) but it has not been identified in conifers (Dogra 1966; Sedgley and Griffin 1989; Mogie 1992; Bicknell and Koltunow 2004). It is likely that Wollemi pine seedlings have arisen from sexual reproduction and will therefore ex- hibit genetic variation, even if they are progeny of a single clone, provided their parent possesses some level of hetero- zygosity. However, genetic theory predicts that heterozygo- sity can be lost from small populations if they have a low mutation rate and little or no selection against homozygo- sity (Peakall et al. 2003; Scott et al. 2005). Low, but non- zero, levels of heterozygosity have been detected in Agathis robusta and Araucaria cunninghamii (Peakall et al. 2003; Scott et al. 2005), but high levels have been found in Arau- caria araucana and Araucaria bidwillii (Bekessy et al. 2002; Pye and Gadek 2004). The Wollemi pine could, just possibly, be an extreme case of a single clone completely lacking heterozygosity, with all plants in the ex situ collec- tions being, effectively, ramets of the same clone. More likely, there is some genetic variation among the seedling populations both in situ and ex situ, whether or not there is clonality in the adult natural populations. We have observed considerable variation in proliferation rates among seed- lings that have been germinated and multiplied in vitro, where environmental differences between plants have been negligible. These phenotypic differences in vitro suggest strongly that there are genotypic differences among Wol- lemi pine seedlings.
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2. Over the years, wildlife trade regulations have shifted from a national matter to one of Community competence. External trade rules are an exclusive Community competence and hence require Community involvement. Further, implementation of the CITES Convention by individual Member States was only possible under a derogation from the provision of the Treaty of Rome that Member States cannot adopt quantitative trade restrictions between them. Article 36 of the Rome Treaty conditionally allows such trade restrictions between Member States for the protection of the life and health of animals and plants. Generally, this does not apply to areas covered by Community legislation.
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Establishment of the U.S Endangered Species Act (ESA), 1973 represented a powerful new approach to wildlife protection. According to this act, Endangered Species are those considered in imminent danger of extinction, while Threatened Species are those that are likely to become endangered. Bald eagles, gray wolves, brown (or grizzly) bears and sea otters with a number of native orchids and other rare plants are considered to be locally threatened. Vulnerable Species are naturally rare or have been locally depleted by human activities to a level that puts them to risk.
In the second plot there were 10 Carabidae belonging to the 8 species trapped – Abax parallelus, Amara equestris, Cylindera germanica, Harpalus aﬃ nis, Harpalus rubripes, Molops piceus, Ophonus rupicola, Poecilus cupreus. In the third area there were only 2 pieces recorded – Harpalus aﬃ nis and Poecilus cupreus both belonging to the indication group E. The fourth plot (third quarry terrace) was again not inhabited by Carabid beetles, only two specimens were found there – eurytopic Pseudoophonus ruﬁ pes and Harpalus aﬃ nis. In the last examined terrace the abundance was slightly higher. In total 7 specimens belonging to 7 species were trapped here. Due to their low abundance, all species were evaluated as eudominant. Numbers of species at individual sites are summarized in Tab. I. Species dominance and aﬃ liation to bioindication groups are shown in Tab. II.
Historical distribution data are confounded by misidentification and taxonomic issues though the blue skate appears to have a more southerly distribution that the flapper skate (Griffiths et al., 2010). The historical geographical range of D. batis-complex may have covered much of the continental shelf of the Northeast Atlantic, from Madeira and the coast of northern Morocco in the south, to Iceland in the north (Stehmann and Bürkel 1984a). At the start of the twentieth century it was considered to have a wide distribution over the shallower waters of the continental shelf surrounding the British Isles, albeit more common in western regions (Walker and Heessen 1996). Though individual specimens are reported very occasionally from the Irish Sea, outer Bristol Channel and central and northern North Sea, the current range tends to occupy the deeper waters off Iceland, the western seaboard of the British Isles, including the Celtic Sea, along the edge of the continental shelf, and in the Bay of Biscay and Atlantic Iberian waters (ICES 2010, 2012). The species’ northerly limits are not known precisely, however confirmed specimens are known from Iceland, Rockall Bank and the western Isles off Scotland (58 o N). The bathymetric ranges of the species are poorly known
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In ESRI Training Matters, Boden (2010) described how location-based data points can be used to map time. A previous case study in Arc Marine: GIS for a Blue Planet mapped species abundance in relation to time and used a time series approach and related tables based on chosen attributes to map (Thompson et al., 2005). Species average abundance over time can be mapped using a time series analysis by breaking up all of the individual species abundances by locale and year. The second spreadsheet format was used in the organization for this dataset (Appendix C). The time series analysis was used to create an animated video of the year-by-year changes to analyze change in spatial distribution over time. A time interval of one year was used with the data points for each year being displayed non-cumulatively. Also, the time series was coded to not display any data points with a value of zero in order to highlight the only the locations with abundance data. Once completed, it is possible to overlay the CZMAI layers to the mapped REEF dataset to observe the natural or human-induced environmental impacts on certain portions of the reef to see if a potential correlation exists between these threats and reports of species as well as a rise or fall in their abundances over time.
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Next, an optimization model was used to select sites to be included in a Biosphere Reserve in the CCZ and DMZ. The objective of the model was to protect the habitat of as many spe- cies as possible subject to a constraint on the amount of land that could be set aside for the Reserve. In the CCZ and DMZ, such a constraint is appropriate because the establishment of a Reserve must compete with agricultural and commercial development and the use of land for security purposes by the mili- tary and state police (Westing 1992). To incorporate social criteria into the area prioritization process, 10 000 solutions to the model were found using the ex- plicit exclusion algorithm of Arthur et al. (1997). All of the solutions covered the same number of species but the so- lutions differed with respect to which sites were selected to be in the Reserve. As a result, the solutions also differed with respect to social and economic cri- teria important to stakeholders in South Korea. After the 10 000 solutions were generated, the MultCSync software package was used to find a subset of the
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P. africana is a high value tree species. The species wood is used for carving mortar and pestle; these products are used in every household for pounding yam among others. The wood is also used for the production of high value charcoal; these harvests are destructive in nature hence the need to protect the tree species in the tropical forests among the developing countries. The seeds are used as condiments, just as seed of Parkia biglobosa. International trade on P. africanabarks from Africa was worth US$220 million per year , while annual export from Cameroon alone was 2000 tones per year, worth 1.3 million . This species is found in Nigeria only in the Mambilla Plateau, reported in GashakaGumti National Park and NgelNyaki Forest Reserve , but trade in P. africanabark trade in Nigeria is not well known, but Chapman  reported extensive debarking in the NgelNyaki Forest Reserve in 2003.
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Cinnamomum Schaeff. belongs to the family Lauraceae, with approximately 350 species distributed from Southeast Asia to Australia and the New World (Rohwer 1993; van der Werff 2009). The species was described by Gamble (1925) based on the specimen collected by T.F. Bourdillon from Chemunji Hills of Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve, Kerala, India in 1895. Owing to its affinity to C. sulphuratum Nees several botanists incorrectly reported this species from different localities (Ramachandran & Nair 1988; Mohanan & Sivadasan 2002; Geethakumary et al. 2013). During recent explorations in 2012 from the Kerala part of the Western Ghats, the present authors collected one unknown Cinnamomum species from Pandipath in Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve, Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala. Scrutiny of the collected specimens and comparison with the type sheets deposited at L (Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden), CAL (Central National Herbarium, Howrah, India), TBGT (Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Trivandrum, India) proved that the collected material was C. travancoricum Gamble, a Critically Endangered and endemic plant with a very narrow distribution in Kerala. The misleading report of Geethakumary et al. (2013) from the Anamalai Hill ranges, however, confused us and it led us to the reinvestigation of the literature, type specimens and expert opinions to confirm the correct identity of the species. There are only a few small trees
Having completed the Choice Experiment again, Loch of Strathbeg ‘visitors’ did not think that one particular attribute in the choice sets had influenced their choice. Further discussion suggested that this might not have been the case. The group indicated that they thought protection measures should only apply to endangered species of wild geese. All were in favour of managed and regulated shooting, thus the presence of shooting in the choice sets had not led to the rejection of particular policy options. They all knew what habitat management could involve, but wanted more details about what was on offer regarding habitat management in the policy options. On Islay, ‘locals’ were able to say which attributes of the choice set most influenced their choice but no common influence was identified. For some it was shooting, for other locational policy or species. In common with the ‘visitor’ group, ‘locals’ were of the opinion that protection measures should be targeted at endangered species only. Interestingly, no one from Islay mentioned taxation as having influenced their selection of policy options.
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Abstract: Biodiversity is a huge variety of ecosystems, species and genes, which represent the natural capital. The biodiversity values make up the natural heritage that must be used by the present generations without jeopardizing the chance of the next generations to enjoy the same living conditions. The protected natural areas represent the most important method to preserve biodiversity and to provide development patterns in harmony with nature, in the context of the fast economic development in the last decades. Natura 2000 represents a protected areas network, designated at from European level. Its aim is the preservation of the wild habitats and of endangered vegetal and animal species, as the proper management of these areas.
As per Biodiversity Acts 2002 & National environment policy 2005, Floral & Faunal diversities are the most important components of biodiversity they covers the variety & variations among species. So there is need to prepare the comprehensive lists of rare, endangered and threatened important medicinal plants & animal species region wise to know the exact status of biodiversity. Manudevi forest is one of the richest floristic regions among satpuda forest ranges of Maharashtra. An attempt has been made to document the rare, endangered and threatened species of Manudevi forest area which become helpful for the protection, management & conservation of biodiversity in general. According to IUCN an endangered species is a population of organisms whi
Podostemaceae (Riverweeds, ~50 genera, ~300 spp.) are distributed across much of the tropics, with highest diversity in Africa, India, southeast Asia and the Americas. These plants grow attached to rocks in swift currents of river-rapids and waterfalls; environments that are extreme, yet fragile. Local species endemism pervades the family, with near 40% of species in some regions occurring only in a single river. Large dams are the single most significant threat to these plants. Dams convert rivers into reservoirs, which destroy habitat upstream for a distance equal to the length of the reservoir, and downstream to the extent where the natural flood-pulse is disrupted. Loss of habitat from a single dam can span hundreds of kilometers. Placement of dams is biased toward regions of significant altitudinal gradients – areas where habitat for Podostemaceae is most abundant. Economic and political forces driving large dam construction are strong with major efforts underway to expand hydropower capacity. For instance, around 250 dams are planned or under construction in the Amazon basin alone. Other examples from Africa and southeast Asia will be discussed. Effective strategies for conservation of species remain elusive. Conserving in situ requires mitigating impacts (e.g., building of dams) and/or modifying dam operation. Transplantation between rivers is a logical alternative, although to date such attempts have met with limited success. Effective methods for ex situ cultivation remain to be developed. Conservation plans are essential and will require political, economic and scientific support.
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consumer awareness (Miller, Jessel & Mariani, 2012; Mariani et al., 2014). Even products, such as tuna, that are typically known to exhibit high levels of mislabeling, showed a remarkable level of compliance, corroborating the idea that seafood trade in the EU is addressing issues concerning mislabeling and food authenticity (Mariani et al., 2015). Although the substitutions appear infrequent compared to studies in other territories, or those conducted some years ago, improvements can be made to increase the reliability of the market. The legislation on labelling differs between restaurants, fresh sales and deep-frozen fish. For some groups, such as tuna, snapper or eel, the authorized commercial names cover a large number of species, including species with serious conservation and management issues. In such cases, consumers are unable to choose according to sustainability criteria. Additionally, because our study was restricted to seafood sold in a specific type of food service, at the end of a complex supply chain, it is difficult to determine if fraud is occurring at the landing site, during processing, at the wholesale level, at the retail counter or somewhere else along the way (Cawthorn, Steinman & Witthuhn, 2012). Therefore, in such a complex landscape, where restaurants may be just as much victims of mislabelling practices as consumers, more interdisciplinary research will be necessary to identify the mechanisms that still pose a threat to a transparent seafood supply chain.
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The US Endangered Species Act is legislation with the power to limit human activities that may have deleterious effects on the viability of threa- tened and endangered species of fauna and flo- ra. However, because most endangered species face multiple threats, it is often unclear whether limiting specific activities will improve the like- lihood of long-term survival, particularly when the relative importance of different stressors is uncertain. Wildlife managers responsible for pro- tecting these species face the challenge of de- termining the optimal allocation of limited funds and personnel among risk management and con- servation priorities, in the absence of a good un- derstanding of the relative importance of these stressors. We present an analytical framework that can serve as a technical basis for evaluating multiple risks to endangered species. Predictive and retrospective causal analysis applications are considered. The former address proposed pro- jects where the potential exists for adverse in- teraction between the project and an endanger- ed species. The latter involve existing projects or products for which a determination is being or has been made concerning the threats posed to an endangered species. The causal analysis me- thod described herein is a well-established pro- cedure that is widely used in other scientific fields and offers a practical and logical process through which threats to endangered species can be assessed and recovery actions prioritized. Keywords: Endangered Species Act; Risk Management; Conservation Priorities; Multiple Stressor Analysis; Causal Analysis
However, the higher multiplication rate in corm explants could only be achieved with the addition of PGRs; in some instances, like in the case of H. acuminata, first culturing corm explants on PGR free basal MS medium before transferring to PGR containing medium seemed to positively influence the regeneration process. Almost all corm explants responded fairly well to in vitro regeneration when cultured with a piece of shoot attached in the presence of PGRs; 100% and 80% indirect regeneration was achieved in H. filiformis when explants were cultured on MS supplemented with 3 mg·l −1 kinetin and 3 mg·l −1 BAP, respectively. The highest regeneration of 70% in H. argentea was also obtained when 3 mg·l −1 BAP was added into the basic MS medium; however, this was not the case with the other two species tested in this study. Even without the presence of PGRs, corm ex- plants cultured with shoot performed better compared to those cultured without in H. acuminata, H. argentea, and H. filiformis. These results clearly indicate that plant growth regulators play a crucial role in the in vitro re- generation of Hypoxis species, and such effects are species or genotype-dependent. In addition, leaving a piece of shoot attached to the corm relatively enhanced regeneration.
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Results. This article contains information about the first finding in the Republic of Mordovia the stinkhorn mushroom (Mutinus ravenelii (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) E. Fisch). Then the author describes the form species definition history, its system- atic identity, name etymology, fruiting bodies, general spread on the earth, especially its ecology, and the appearance of the American species in Europe. M. ravenelii has been often found in European countries, including Russia in recent years. This is coused by climate warming and globalization processes (cargo of seeds, plants, ani- mals, gardening substrates, traveling) the increase of the greenhouse area and field crops with using the fertile substrates, mulching crops and planting of vegetable crops bark, sawdust, straw. The article indicates macromycetes location, gives their coordinates and finding dates.
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