energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS)

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Improvement and effectiveness of polymers through reinforced materials coupled with environmental nuisance of the Cissus populnea fiber remains an area of concern. Tensile responses of chemically treated C. populnea fibers were investigated. Gravimetric analysis was used to determine the composition of C. populnea fibers. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), acetic anhydride (AC) and ethylene diaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA), respectively, were used for fiber treatment and optimized with variable parameters (concentration and time) using response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were studied. At optimum treatment conditions, NaOH, AC and EDTA, respectively, increased the tensile strength of C. populnea fiber by 33.49, 274 and 194.52% as well as tensile modulus by 793.43, 20799.43 and 855%. Hence acetic anhydride treatment gave the best tensile properties of C. populnea fibers as corroborated by SEM with EDS. Thus, the effective use of C. populnea fiber in composite applications can be improved by chemical surface modifications.
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Synthesis, Structural And Magnetic Properties Of SrFe12O19 Hexaferrites

Synthesis, Structural And Magnetic Properties Of SrFe12O19 Hexaferrites

Diffraction analysis (XRD), Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier Transformer Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and magnetic studies (VSM) are applied to study the characteristics of the sample prepared. The X -ray diffraction patterns are used to analyse the structural properties of the sample. The information about the particle formation and size are obtained using scanning electron microscope (SEM). An energy-dispersive x-ray analysis tool (EDX) provides the elemental composition of the nano-particle. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra revealed about the functional group bonds between metal and oxygen (M–O). The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) technique, which is recorded at room temperature, revealed the magnetic properties of the sample with the hysteresis loops showing its magnetic behaviour.
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MgO-ZnO/carbon nanofiber nanocomposite as an adsorbent for ultrasound-assisted dispersive solid-phase microextraction of carbamazepine from wastewater prior to high-performance liquid chromatographic detection

MgO-ZnO/carbon nanofiber nanocomposite as an adsorbent for ultrasound-assisted dispersive solid-phase microextraction of carbamazepine from wastewater prior to high-performance liquid chromatographic detection

ANOVA: Analysis of variance; CBZ: Carbamazepine; COD: Chemical oxygen demand; DLLME: Dispersive liquid – liquid microextraction; EDS: Energy- dispersive spectroscopy; ET: Extraction time; EV: Eluent volume; HPLC- DAD: High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array; LOD: Limits of detection; LOQ: Limits of quantification; MA: Mass of adsorbent; MgO-ZnO@CNFs: Carbon nanofibers coated with magnesium oxide-zinc oxide; PF: Preconcentration factor; RSD: Relative standard deviations; RSM: Response surface methodology; SEM: Scanning electron microscopy; SPE: Solid-phase extraction; SPME: Solid-phase microextraction; TDS: Total dissolved solid; TEM: Transmission electron microscopy; TOC: Total organic carbon; UA-DSPME: Ultrasound-assisted dispersive solid-phase micro- extraction; UAEME: Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction; XRD: X-ray diffraction
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Upconversion-Magnetic Carbon Sphere for Near Infrared Light-Triggered Bioimaging and Photothermal Therapy

Upconversion-Magnetic Carbon Sphere for Near Infrared Light-Triggered Bioimaging and Photothermal Therapy

2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; EDS: energy dispersive spectroscopy; FBS: fetal bovine serum; FeCUPs: amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol)-coated FeCU; FeP: the precursor of FeC; FeCU: the UCNP-loaded FeC; FTIR: Fourier transform infrared; H&E: hematoxylin- eosin; HMT: hexamethylenetetranrine; HRTEM: high- resolution transmission electron microscopy; ICP- AES: inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry; Mn: number-average molecular weight; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; NIR: near infrared; FeC: the Fe 3 O 4 -loaded hollow carbon sphere; OA:
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Synthesis and Characterisation of ZnO Nanoparticals by XRD, EDX, SEM, FTIR and UV-DRS A. E. Athare

Synthesis and Characterisation of ZnO Nanoparticals by XRD, EDX, SEM, FTIR and UV-DRS A. E. Athare

Nano sized materials have been an important subject in basic and applied science. ZnO nano particle were synthesized using a simple co-precipitation method with zinc nitrate and poly ethylene glycol as a starting material. The sample where characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) Scanning electron, microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy(EDX), SEM images show various morphological changes of ZnO obtained by the above method. The average crystallite sizes of the samples were calculated from the full width at half maximum of XRD peaks by using Debye-Scherer’s formula. EDS shows that the above route produced highly pure ZnO nanostructures. The optical band gaps of various ZnO powders were calculated from UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopic studies. Antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticls is tested against gram positive and gram negative bacteria by using agar-well method.
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Study of the Electrochemical Corrosion Behaviour of X70 Steel in H2SO4 Contaminated Silty Soil

Study of the Electrochemical Corrosion Behaviour of X70 Steel in H2SO4 Contaminated Silty Soil

Many scholars had studied the mechanism of metal corrosion, especially buried pipeline steel. Currently, type of buried steel used include X52, X60, X70, X80 and Q235, whose corrosion resistance vary greatly in soil[5-10]. Considering the factors of cost, corrosion resistance and strength, X70 steel is the most widely steel used in buried pipelines. At present, most of the research on the corrosion of buried pipeline steel has introduced corrosive ions into a solution or used a soil simulated solution as the corrosive medium[11-17]. However, there are still some significant differences between the soil medium and the solution medium. Therefore, increasingly more scholars have begun to explore the corrosion characteristics of steel in soil[18]. Various methods have been used in the process of analysis because of the diversity and complexity of soil, such as electrochemical impedance testing, polarization curves, electrical resistance sensors, weightlessness, electrochemical noise and other testing methods[19-27]. Nevertheless, the methods for corrosion test and analysis are not yet systematic in the soil medium. In recent years, the methods which combined scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), polarization curves (PC) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were being used to study the corrosion behaviour of steel in the soil, i.e., the above methods were mainly used to study the corrosion behaviour of Q235 steel in heavy metal contaminated sandy soil[28, 31] and the corrosion characteristics of X70 steel in sandy soil with different particle sizes[33, 34]. In this paper, the corrosive medium was silty soil which widely distributed in China, and was one of the most common types of soil. Properties of silty soil were between sand and cohesive soil. Silty soil and sandy soil which mentioned above had great differences in the corrosion characteristics of the steel structure. This paper focused on the hot issues such as environmental pollution. Silty soil contaminated with different concentrations H 2 SO 4 solutions were
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Synthesis of Carbon Nanospheres From Vanadium B-Diketonate Catalyst

Synthesis of Carbon Nanospheres From Vanadium B-Diketonate Catalyst

Carbon nanospheres (CNS) were synthesized using bis(acaetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV) as catalyst precursor in a traditional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) carbon nanotube synthetic reactor. The as- prepared products were characterized with Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, High resolution transmission electron microscopy, (HR-TEM), Thermogravimetric analysis, (TGA), Powder X-ray diffraction, (PXRD) and Energy dispersive spectroscopy, (EDS). All indicate the presence of carbon nanospheres with uniform diameter, together with small amounts of carbon nanotubes and amorphous carbon.
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EBSD microstructure mapping of Zr 47.5 Cu 45.5 Al 5Co2 bulk metallic glass matrix composite to ascertain the effect of inoculation in promoting crystallinity Muhammad Musaddique Ali RAFIQUE 1, Milan BRANDT2 , Mark Easton 3

EBSD microstructure mapping of Zr 47.5 Cu 45.5 Al 5Co2 bulk metallic glass matrix composite to ascertain the effect of inoculation in promoting crystallinity Muhammad Musaddique Ali RAFIQUE 1, Milan BRANDT2 , Mark Easton 3

Simultaneous energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) performed on bulk metallic glass matrix composite samples with the help of EDS and EBSD detectors attached with high speed digital cameras enables both to be used as imaging devices. This enables acquisition of images exhibiting topographic, atomic density and orientation contrast. Resulting images and their details are described below

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SEM AND EDX ANALYSIS OF KASEESA BHASMA .......

SEM AND EDX ANALYSIS OF KASEESA BHASMA .......

Rasashastra is a specialized branch of Ayurveda which deals with the pharmaceutics of its unique and potent preparations. Bhasmas (calx) are one among such preparations which are prepared after various Samskaras (processings) like Shodhana (purification), Jarana (roasting), Marana (incin- eration), Amrutikarana (nectarization) etc. They are said to be properly prepared if they pass certain bhasma parikshas (tests) enlisted in classical Rasashastra texts. Modern tools of analysis help to under- stand the bhasmas in a better way that we could know not only by naked eyes. It gives us a microscopic vision to understand its structure and components rather than only satisfying the modern scientific world. Hence the present study was carried out to evaluate the analysis of Kaseesa bhasma by carrying out SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and EDX (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy). SEM analysis showed the particle size ranging between 409.5 nm at 4Kx magnification and 327.5 nm at 10Kx magni- fication. EDX showed the presence of elements Fe-59.66%, O-33.89%, S-3.02%, K-1.80%, Ca- 1.63% w/w.
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REDUCTION OF MERCURY CONTENT IN A SOLUTION BY ACTIVATED BENTONITE

REDUCTION OF MERCURY CONTENT IN A SOLUTION BY ACTIVATED BENTONITE

Mercury is dangerous material that gives negative impact for environment and human health. Bentonite as a local material can utilize as an adsorbent to reduce mercury in a solution. Bentonite has characterized use x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Bentonite has activated used KOH, NaOH, HCl, ZnCl 2 , and H3PO4. These activators

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BIOFABRICATION OF GOLD NANOPARTICLES BY COUROUPITA GUIANENSIS

BIOFABRICATION OF GOLD NANOPARTICLES BY COUROUPITA GUIANENSIS

In this present study, biofabrication and characterization of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and their application on human pathogenic bacteria and fungus were investigated. The AuNPs was prepared by the method of green synthesis using the extract of Couroupita guianensis. The formation and characterization of AuNPs were confirmed by UV- Vis spectroscopy, Fourier Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) energy- dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The AuNPs were challenged against certain pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains. In antimicrobial activity, the AuNPs was most effective against Salmonella typhimurium while smaller effect was noticed from Micrococcus luteus.
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Bioremediation: Copper Nanoparticles from Electronic-waste

Bioremediation: Copper Nanoparticles from Electronic-waste

A single-step eco-friendly approach has been employed to synthesize copper nanoparticles. The superfast advancement in the field of electronics has given rise to a new type of waste called electronic waste. Since the physical and chemical recycling procedures have proved to be hazardous, the present work aims at the bioremediation of e-waste in order to recycle valuable metals. Microorganisms such as Fusarium oxysporum and Pseudomonas sp. were able to leach copper (84-130 nm) from integrated circuits present on electronic boards under ambient conditions. Lantana camara, a weed commonly found in Maharashtra was also screened for leaching copper. The characteristics of the copper nanoparticles obtained were studied using X-ray diffraction analysis, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier Tranform Infrared analysis, Transmission electron microscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis and Cyclic Voltammetry. Copper nanoparticles were found to be effective against hospital strain Escherichia coli 2065.
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Preparation and Characterization of Master Alloys Fe48Cr15Mo14C15B6Y2 Metallic Glasses

Preparation and Characterization of Master Alloys Fe48Cr15Mo14C15B6Y2 Metallic Glasses

has been prepared by the use of pure element and the other B2 which has been prepared by the use of raw materials. The thermal and structural properties of the samples are measured by a combination of high temperature differential scanning calorimeter (HTDSC), X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical compositions are checked by energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis.

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Clay Mineralogy and Petrography of Basal Sand Reservoir of Badin Block, Southern Indus Basin, Pakistan: Implications for Diagenesis and Reservoir Damage Potential Assessment

Clay Mineralogy and Petrography of Basal Sand Reservoir of Badin Block, Southern Indus Basin, Pakistan: Implications for Diagenesis and Reservoir Damage Potential Assessment

Received: 16 November, 2018 Accepted: 7 February, 2018 Abstract: Lower Goru Basal sand reservoirs of Cretaceous age offer a multiple challenge such as subtle migration, microporosity and diagenesis due to its heterogeneity. Petrography, scanning electron microscopic analysis with energy dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray diffractometry analysis on selected core samples show that it contains quartz, which is a major framework detrital grain associated with authigenic kaolinite, illite and chlorite minerals. Quartz overgrowth is the major cementation phase, whereas calcareous cement also occurs occasionally, although, basal sand is classified as quartz arenite. Major diagenetic events recognized in the area include compaction, cementation, dissolution and clay authigenesis. While basal sand is clean quartz rich sand, while presence of labile clays like kaolinite, illite and chlorite may cause problem during drilling and production operations. By maintaining fluid turbulence, drilling with mud of less than 10 pH and using hydrofluoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in acidizing may help increasing production and reducing drilling operations related problems.
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Online Full Text

Online Full Text

In this study we use scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping to examine the impact of vacuum sintering on the microstructure and elemental[r]

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Effect of Temperature on Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanomaterial Synthesized by Hydrothermal Approach

Effect of Temperature on Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanomaterial Synthesized by Hydrothermal Approach

Energy dispersive spectroscopy, shown in Fig. 3a, was applied to verify the purity as well as the stoichiometry of the CZTS nanoproduct prepared at 240 o C. The quantitative measurement shows that percentage of Cu:Zn:Sn:S element was closed to stoichiometry ratio 2:1:1:4. No clear trace of carbon was detected in the sample. It is important to get a pure CZTS product without carbon residue because carbon is reported to increase the series resistance of solar cell and results in detachment of CZTS absorber layer from substrates [11- 13]. The results show that the as-prepared CZTS powder met the criteria for making absorber layer for solar cell.
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X ray computed tomography (XCT) and chemical analysis (EDX and XRF) used in conjunction for cultural conservation: the case of the earliest scientifically described dinosaur Megalosaurus bucklandii

X ray computed tomography (XCT) and chemical analysis (EDX and XRF) used in conjunction for cultural conservation: the case of the earliest scientifically described dinosaur Megalosaurus bucklandii

a pre-stage to sample preparation [11, 29] and even in identifying forgeries and repaired artefacts that would have otherwise evaded detection [15, 30]. The major benefit that this approach provides is the ability to image the internal structure of an object non-destructively and with extremely low-risk to the artefact itself. It also pro- vides the ability to work at a wide variety of scales, rang- ing from medical XCT imaging for larger objects down to synchrotron XCT for objects at the sub-millimetric scale [22]. As a result, XCT imaging is a technique with significant potential in the non-destructive analysis of the internal structure and make-up of museum objects [11]. However, one limitation is that while it is capable of high- lighting secondary structures and characterising areas of prior conservation, the technique is less adept at identi- fying the composition of the different materials within the object, although dual-energy CT is an approach can be utilised to gain a better understanding of the this [31, 32]. This approach utilises two separate X-ray tubes simultaneously at different voltage values (kV) to iden- tify relative compositional differences, as some materials attenuate differently at different scanning energies and is commonly used in medicine [33, 34] and occasionally in cultural heritage [32, 35, 36]. However, this does require some prior knowledge and categorisation of how these materials behave at different kV values, although this has been categorised for a number of different materials [33, 37]. Unfortunately, this makes this useful non-destruc- tive approach of limited use in dealing with unknown or uncertain materials. Given that the composition of these materials is a key aspect of conservation that strongly influences the types of treatments that can be safely applied to objects at risk. Thus XCT should be combined with other approaches that directly complement its rela- tive strengths and weaknesses.
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Synthesis and Characterization of Onion Mediated Silver Doped Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

Synthesis and Characterization of Onion Mediated Silver Doped Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

C. Recovery and Characterization of nanoparticles The nanoparticles thus obtained were purified by repeated centrifugation at 10000 rpm at 25°C for 10minutes. It was followed by re-dispersion of the pellet in deionized water to get rid of any uncoordinated biological molecules. The process of centrifugation and re-dispersion were repeated with sterile distilled water to ensure better separation of free entities from the nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy Analysis (EDAX), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Zeta potential analyses.
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Composition Analysis of III Nitrides at the Nanometer Scale: Comparison of Energy Dispersive X ray Spectroscopy and Atom Probe Tomography

Composition Analysis of III Nitrides at the Nanometer Scale: Comparison of Energy Dispersive X ray Spectroscopy and Atom Probe Tomography

stack. The evaporation of such a layer of known com- position (Al/(Ga+Al) = 5.6% as determined from EDX) allows fine tuning of the analysis parameters (the laser energy is varied to obtain the correct Al/(Al+Ga) ratio) before reaching the stack. In our experiment, the best conditions corresponded to a laser energy of 1 nJ, and we measured a charge state ratio Ga++/Ga+ around 0.15 [11]. The atom positions and their time of flight were re- corded, and the 3D sample volume was reconstructed using the IVAS software, which enables an iterative process in which the initial geometrical characteristics of the tip as well as the detector efficiency are varied until
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Isothermal Section of Ga Ru Cu Ternary Phase Diagram at 1073 K: Formation of New Ternary Phase, Ga4Ru3Cu, and Its Structural Relation with the GaRu β Phase

Isothermal Section of Ga Ru Cu Ternary Phase Diagram at 1073 K: Formation of New Ternary Phase, Ga4Ru3Cu, and Its Structural Relation with the GaRu β Phase

The alloy composition of each phase was determined by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) measurements at an operating voltage of 20 kV (JSM-6010LA, JEOL Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). The phase compositions were determined from the average value of several EDX data points for each phase. The estimated compositional error for the EDX measurements was within a few atom percent for each element.

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