Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX)

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ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL SAMPLES  USING ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE TECHNIQUE

ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL SAMPLES USING ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE TECHNIQUE

The work presented in this paper deals with the elemental analysis of soil samples, by using a method based upon Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence(EDXRF) technique. The soil pollution is a major global problem affecting the physio-chemical properties of the soil. The assessment of pollutant elemental levels and identification of their sources are prerequisite for understanding of their effect on humans, plants and animals. Particularly in the areas near industries there is an urgent need to determine the concentration of heavy metals. The main objective of the present work is to determine the concentration of various elements present in soil in the vicinity and away from industries. In order to check the level of pollutants the determined amounts of elements are compared with their maximum admissible limits. The results of the study show that iron and calcium concentration in soil varies from 8.97 gm/kg - 83.69 gm/kg and from 17.82 gm/kg - 108.0 gm/kg respectively. The present study also reveals that concentration of Fe and Ca is maximum near the industries. However the concentration of these elements decreases as the distance from the industries increases.
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Comparison of Chemical Elements on Carious & Normal Premolar’s Enamel Layers Using Energy Dispersive X Ray Spectrometer (X Ray EDS)

Comparison of Chemical Elements on Carious & Normal Premolar’s Enamel Layers Using Energy Dispersive X Ray Spectrometer (X Ray EDS)

Objectives: To compare the distribution of chemical elements among the carious and normal enamel layers on teenagers, using energy dispersive X ray spectrometer (EDS Rx). Materials and Methods: The EDS Rx analyzer is integrated to scanner electron microscope. The macro and mi- croelements were made in 30 premolars of teenager: 14 carious enamel layers and 16 normal enamel layers. Results: The quantitative and qualitative microanalyses of macro and microele- ments were found between the enamel layers of carious and normal premolar in term of variation and concentration expressed in percentage atomic weight. The statistical data analysis of ANOVA showed that the macroelements [C, Ca, P] and the microelements [Al, Cl, Mg, Na] were significantly different (P < 0.05) while, the macro [O] and the microelements [In, Si, W, S] were not significantly different (P < 0.05) among the carious and normal enamel layers. Moreover, the microelements Sb, Ba, Br, I, Ir, K, Pt, Sc, Sr, Sn and Yb were absent in carious enamel layers and present in normal enamel layers. Conclusion: The macro and microelements differ in composition and variation from the external to the internal enamel layers between the carious and the normal premolars. However, the deficiency or excess of these elements in the enamel layers determines the degree of susceptibility to carious and other dental disease. Clinical Relevance: The carious enamel in dental structure could be a major dental problem due to the deficiency or excess of macro and microele- ments which are responsible for secondary or recurrent caries, discoloration, pulpal inflammation, re-infection, abscess in jaw bone and dental disease.
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Comparison of Hydrothermal and Sol Gel Synthesis of Nano Particulate Hydroxyapatite by Characterisation at the Bulk and Particle Level

Comparison of Hydrothermal and Sol Gel Synthesis of Nano Particulate Hydroxyapatite by Characterisation at the Bulk and Particle Level

Hydrothermal and sol-gel synthesis methods have been used to prepare nano-particulate hydroxyapatite (HA) powders for detailed characterisation. Bulk elemental analysis data are compared from X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These show the presence of secondary phases in the sol-gel powders which can be attributed to evaporative loss of precursor phosphite phases during specimen preparation and breakdown of the pri- mary HA phase during calcination. Only the primary HA phase is detected in the hydrothermally prepared powder. In addition, Ca/P ratios of each powder are determined at the particle level using transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX), having first established a threshold electron fluence below which significant electron-beam-induced alteration of the composition of HA does not occur. The TEM-EDX results show a greater compositional variability of particles from the sol-gel preparation route compared to the hydrothermal route. Overall it is the combination of the analysis techniques that shows the hydrothermal synthesis route produces near- stoichiometric, single phase, hydroxyapatite.
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Synthesis and Characterization of Barium-Vanadium Oxide Nanocomposite Using a Facile thermolysis Approach

Synthesis and Characterization of Barium-Vanadium Oxide Nanocomposite Using a Facile thermolysis Approach

In this investigation, we report synthesis of new cationic-anionic Barium-Vanadium complex with 2, 6- pyridinedicarboxylic acid ligand. This compound [Ba(H 2 O) 8 ][VO 2 (dipic)] 2 (1) has been characterized using elemental analyses, FT-IR, UV–Vis and Cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. Also in this study we report facile synthesis of Barium-Vanadium Oxide nanoparticle under thermal decomposition, using precursor complex (1). Characterization of Barium-Vanadium Oxide nanocomposites was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X- ray analysis (EDX), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction pattern at room temperature revealed that, highly pure and crystallized Ba 3 (VO 4 ) 2 with rhombohedral structure.
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Preparation And Characterization Of Chitosan Powder From Shrimp Shells

Preparation And Characterization Of Chitosan Powder From Shrimp Shells

The preparation of Chitosan powder involving four steps such as raw material preparation, demineralization, deproteinization and deacetylation. The resulted Chitosan flakes will be milled with planetary ball mill with different rotational speed such as 100rpm, 150rpm, 200rpm and 250rpm for 1 hour. Several material characterizations will be done to observe the Chitosan in the term of physically characteristics such as; Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR).
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X ray computed tomography (XCT) and chemical analysis (EDX and XRF) used in conjunction for cultural conservation: the case of the earliest scientifically described dinosaur Megalosaurus bucklandii

X ray computed tomography (XCT) and chemical analysis (EDX and XRF) used in conjunction for cultural conservation: the case of the earliest scientifically described dinosaur Megalosaurus bucklandii

Here we demonstrate an example of how XCT can be combined with chemical analysis approaches, such as energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF), to better understand the composi- tion of repair plasters previously found in the lectotype dentary (lower jaw) of the first scientifically described dinosaur, Megalosaurus bucklandii Mantell, 1827 [38], a unique historical specimen housed at Oxford University Museum of Natural History (OUMNH) [39, 40]. The 167 million year old fossil, which was discovered in a lime- stone quarry over 200 years ago is known to have under- gone extensive repair throughout its long history in the collections of Buckland himself, Christ Church College of Anatomy and the modern OUMNH, with significant amounts of plaster being used to repair broken portions. A previous study using XCT [18] elucidated that the specimen had undergone significant treatment with plas- ter, previously of unknown extent, in two separate phases.
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Evaluation Of Aluminum Alloy Brake Drum For Automobile Application

Evaluation Of Aluminum Alloy Brake Drum For Automobile Application

. However, the wear rate of the composite disc decreased with increasing the sliding speed at all levels of load applied in the present work. For all sliding speeds, the friction coefficient of the composite disc decreased with applied load. The worn surfaces as well as wear debris were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzer and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. At load of 50 N and speed range of 3–12 m/s, the worn surface of the composite disc showed a dark adherent layer, which mostly consisted of constituents of the friction material. This layer acted as a protective coating and lubricant, resulting in an improvement in the wear resistance of the composite. Various other researchers [10- 20] have studied the braking behavior of metal matrix composite materials. In the present work Al-Si alloys (ADC12 and LM30) brake drums were made by casting technique. These drum brakes were tested in a brake test rig. The brake drum was rotated at various speeds namely 700, 1000 and 1300 RPM and various brake force in the range of 0.5 N to 20 N was applied and the temperature rise (inner and outer surface), coefficient of friction, stopping distance and braking efficiency were found out. The deceleration rate of the brake drum was found out by estimating the time required to stop after applying the brake by a high speed camera.
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Development of a Solid-State Magnesium-Persulfate Based Rechargeable Battery

Development of a Solid-State Magnesium-Persulfate Based Rechargeable Battery

The equipment that were used in this study are the following: sidEntry™ glove box, vacuum oven, BST8 potentiostat/galvanostat, BOSCH SAE200 electronic balance, JEOL 5300 scanning electron microscope (SEM), focused ion beam/field emission electron microscope (FIB/FEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), BANDELIN SONOREX sonicator bath, carver hydraulic press, and other glassware.

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Development of Silica Nanoparticle from Corn Cob Ash

Development of Silica Nanoparticle from Corn Cob Ash

The corn cod ash, extracted and nano silica was subjected to XRD, XRF, FTIR and SEM. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) was monitored using X-ray diffractometer GBC EMMA, CuKα radiation using an acceleration voltage of 25 kV and current of 400 µA. The diffraction angle was scanned from 15˚ to 60˚ 2θ, at a rate of 4.00 ˚/min. The quantitative analysis of chemical components of corn cob ash and silica extract was done using X-Ray flu- orescence (XRF). FTIR spectral were recorded in the range of 4000 - 350 cm −1 ; morphology was monitored us- ing Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX).
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Isothermal Section of Ga Ru Cu Ternary Phase Diagram at 1073 K: Formation of New Ternary Phase, Ga4Ru3Cu, and Its Structural Relation with the GaRu β Phase

Isothermal Section of Ga Ru Cu Ternary Phase Diagram at 1073 K: Formation of New Ternary Phase, Ga4Ru3Cu, and Its Structural Relation with the GaRu β Phase

The alloy composition of each phase was determined by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) measurements at an operating voltage of 20 kV (JSM-6010LA, JEOL Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). The phase compositions were determined from the average value of several EDX data points for each phase. The estimated compositional error for the EDX measurements was within a few atom percent for each element.

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Applying SEM EDX and XRD Techniques to Demonstrate the Overgrowth of Atmospheric Soot and Its Coalescence with Crystal Silicate Particles in Delhi

Applying SEM EDX and XRD Techniques to Demonstrate the Overgrowth of Atmospheric Soot and Its Coalescence with Crystal Silicate Particles in Delhi

Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) systems were used to demonstrate the overgrowth of soot to fractal like structure and its subsequent coalescence with crystal shaped silicate particles. Sample was obtained from a very clean area of Delhi at a height of 16 m from ground with the help of a five stage cascade impactor in the winters of 2006. Impactor collects particles in five different size ranges (i.e. ≥10.9, 10.9 - 5.4, 5.4 - 1.6, 1.6 - 0.7 and ≤0.7 μm). In the present investigation only the particles collected in the size range 1.6 - 0.7 μm (D 50 = 0.980 μm) have been considered. It has clearly been observed that the soot particles tend to
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Investigations on the cuticle of the polychaete elytra using energy dispersive X-ray analysis

Investigations on the cuticle of the polychaete elytra using energy dispersive X-ray analysis

For each element, the first column represents Lagisca extenuata (Banyuls), the second Lepidonotus clara (Naples), and the third Harmothoe areolata (Naples), respectiv[r]

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Solar Light Induced Degradation of Methylene Blue using Novel Co3V2O8 /TiO2 Nanocomposite

Solar Light Induced Degradation of Methylene Blue using Novel Co3V2O8 /TiO2 Nanocomposite

The synthesized nanocomposite was analyzed for the instigation of percentage of elements present in the composite molecules. This analysis was carried out by using EDX spectrometer, which was based on the energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (Figure 5). Basically it contains the elements such as Co, O, V and Ti, but in this analysis it was necessary to investigate the presence or absence of impurities in the composite. The results show that the composite doesn’t contains any impurities because all the impurities were removed by post treatment of product by washing and drying. And also it shows that highest mass and weight percentage found to be Cobalt element (64) and lowest element was Vanadium (21).
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ANALYTICAL STUDY OF TAMRA BHASMA .......

ANALYTICAL STUDY OF TAMRA BHASMA .......

closely spaced features can be examined at a high magnification. Due to the manner in which the figure is created, SEM figures have a characteristic three dimensional appearance and are useful for determin- ing the surface structure of the sample i.e. topogra- phy. It can magnify objects to extreme levels where even structure of nano particles could be clearly visible. Distribution of particles as clusters and ir- regular sharped flakes were seen in the micrographs of Tamra Bhasma. This may be due to hexagonal and tetragonal shaped structures of compounds found in the XRD. The surface area of Tamra Bhasma was observed to be smooth, may due to in- volvement of procedures like Shodhana, Bhavana and Marana in the preparation of Tamra Bhasma. Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) is an analytical technique used for elemental analysis or chemical characterization of a sample. It relies on the investigation of an interaction of some source of X-ray excitation and a sample. EDS of Tamra Bhasma revealed the significant presence of ele- ments like Oxygen, Sulphur, Copper and Mercury. The presence of other elements like Aluminium, Sil- ica, Potassium and Calcium may be due to addition of herbal ingredients during the preparation of Tamra Bhasma.
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The Phase Evolution at High-Temperature Treatment of the Oxide-Fluoride Ceramic Flux

The Phase Evolution at High-Temperature Treatment of the Oxide-Fluoride Ceramic Flux

SEM analysis: The slags obtained by the ceramic flux remelting at 1773 K and subsequent quenching were examined by SEM with Jeol JSM 7700 F microscope. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis was performed with an Oxford Inca spectrometer that attached to the JSM 7700 F microscope. To prevent charges caused by the electron beam in the low conductive solids, 3 nm thick layer of pure platinum was sputtered on the surface of the samples.

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Mössbauer, X ray and Magnetic Studies of Black Sand from the Italian Mediterranean Sea

Mössbauer, X ray and Magnetic Studies of Black Sand from the Italian Mediterranean Sea

In this paper, the study of the room temperature Möss- bauer spectrum and the magnetism of a sample of black magnetic sand from Ladispoli is presented. The compo- sition of the sand was determined by powder X-ray dif- fraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectros- copy (EDS). The search for traces of radioactive nuclides was also performed.

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Structural, microstructural and Mössbauer studies of nanocrystalline Fe100-x Alx powders elaborated by mechanical alloying

Structural, microstructural and Mössbauer studies of nanocrystalline Fe100-x Alx powders elaborated by mechanical alloying

SEM and X-ray microanalysis studies were performed on a Philips XL 30 microscope coupled to an energy dispersive analyzer (EDX). Mössbauer spectra were obtained at room temperature with a Wissel instrument in the constant acceleration mode, using a radioactive 57Co source diffused into a Rhodium matrix. Metallic iron was used for energy calibration and also as a reference for isomer shift. Mössbauer spectra were evaluated with the Recoil software using the Voigt-based hyperfine field distribution method (HFD-VB-F) [26].

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Results from Multi Technique Investigation of Pottery from Different Early Neolithic Sites in Albania

Results from Multi Technique Investigation of Pottery from Different Early Neolithic Sites in Albania

While the typological study of the pottery is widely used by the archaeologists in Albania, only a few studies related with pottery materials and their production technology are published [1] [2] [3]. The main objective of the present study is the collection of data for the materials (clay composition and pigments) and tech- nology (tempers and firing conditions) used for the manufacture of pottery ex- cavated at the different early Neolithic sites and based on them to find similari- ties and/or differences that can be useful for better archaeological classifications. In this context different X-ray techniques EDXRF (Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence), Micro-XRF (Micro X-ray fluorescence), XRD (X-ray diffraction), Optical Microscopy together with various multivariate techniques are being used for the characterization of the raw materials and investigation of the technologies used for the production of ceramic finds from different sites in Albania. EDXRF spectrometry was employed for the determination of the chemical composition of the pottery. The evaluation of the chemical data through simple elemental bip- lots and their treatment by means of multivariate statistical analysis (CA) led to the potential classification of the samples into distinctive groups and provided feedback for further discussion about their provenance. OM, XRD and µ -XRF were used for the investigation of the internal texture of the ceramic body and identification of the major types of inclusions as well as the materials used for the external decorations.
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Wavelenght-Dispersive X-Ray Flourescence Accuration

Wavelenght-Dispersive X-Ray Flourescence Accuration

X-ray Fuorescence spectrometry semakin sering digunakan dalam bidang geokimia. X-Fuorescence spectrometry dikategorikan menjadi dua yakni – WDXRF (wavelenght – dispersive X- ray fluorescence spectrometer) dan EDXRF (energy-dispersive Xray fluorescence spectrometer). WDXRF dapat berbentuk sebagai sequential spectrometer, simultaneous spectrometer atau kelebihan dari kelebihan keduanya dikombinasikan menjadi satu perangkat yakni hibrid instrument. Masing-masing instrumen XFA mempunyai karakteristika dan kekhusussan dalam penggunaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan sequential spectrometer PW 1450 untuk menganalisis major, minor and trace elements dalam sample. Untuk mengkalibrasi PW 1450 digunakan 30 standar internasional dan 66 standar dari Institut für Mineralogie der Uni. Köln, Germany, yang telah diketahui konsentrasi masing-masing unsurnya. Interelement dan matrix effects dihilangkan dengan cara mencocokkan matrix pada sample dan standar, pengenceran, penambahan konsentrasi unsur-unsur yang dimaksud dalam jumlah tertentu, dan koreksi secara matematik pada saat analisis sedang berlangsung. Ujicoba pada dua sampel dan deskripsi statistik dengan standard deviation dan coefficient of variant menunjukkan bahwa XFA cukup akurat untuk beberapa unsur terutama unsur mayor, tetapi untuk Mg, Ca, K, Na, P, S, Co, Rb, Zn, Ni, Ba, Pb sensivitasnya masih lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan Atomic Absorpsion Spectrometry (AAS), Flame Emission Spectrometer (FES), Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) dan photometer.
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CoO 3 Perovskite Type Materials

CoO 3 Perovskite Type Materials

different temperatures. The structural characterizations of synthesized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectra and electric properties were investigated by impedance spectroscopy. The diffraction patterns of X-ray diffraction characterization indicates that the average particle size of the nanocrystalline La 0.9 Sr 0.1 CoO 3 is in the range of 30-35 nm. The frequency dependent

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