Power Aware EnergyEfficientRoutingProtocol will observe each nodes remaining power to avoid a route which is having a tendency to die out. The destination node will make a decision about the selection of best route among the multiple requests that reaches to it and sends reply packet to the destination through the selected route. PAEE avoid the additional computations required to find out the route as well as the multiple replies to the source. At the route request time it also compare the power of each intermediate node to the fixed threshold value and if a node have lower value tha RREQ packet is dropped there only.
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks can accumulate decisive and precise information in inaccessible and precarious environments, and can be utilized in Military Affairs, National Defence, Environmental Monitor, Industrial Control, Traffic Management, Smart Home, Medical Care, and many more. The sensors whose resources are inadequate are inexpensive, and rely upon the battery for supplying electricity, so it is very important for routing to conveniently make use of its power. Earlier, for wireless sensor networks an energy- efficient SHAC (Single-Hop Active Clustering) approach was proposed. This algorithm has mainly three parts. First, a timer mechanism was introduced to choose tentative cluster-heads. Second, a cost function was proposed for balancing efficiently energy of each node. Lastly, active clustering algorithm was proposed. During both numerical results and theoretical analysis, it is depicted that with such algorithm the lifetime of the network can be increased considerably compared to the other clustering protocols namely LEACH-C and EECS. Single Hop Active Clustering may extend the lifespan of the network by up to 50 percent as compared to EECS.
A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions such as warmth, echo, anxiety, etc. and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location. In Wireless Sensor Network the group of nodes form a network. It have a source and destination node. The source node want to send the information to the destination node. First it selects the path by interconnecting the rely nodes and pass the information to the destination via the gateway. A WSN have deployed for various purposes like military application, surveillance in volcanic or remote regions, etc. Wireless Networks collect and disseminate from the fields where ordinary networks are unreachable for various environmental and strategic reasons. The energy consumption rate for sensors in a wireless sensor network varies greatly based on the protocols the sensors use for communications. A critical constraint on sensors networks is that sensor nodes employ batteries. A second constraint is that sensors will be deployed unattended and in large numbers, so that it will be difficult to change or recharge batteries in the sensors. Therefore, all systems, processes and communication protocols for sensors and sensor networks must minimize power consumption. There are lot of energyefficientroutingprotocol in wireless sensor network. Because battery replacement is not possible in WSN. Therefore they introduce energyefficientroutingprotocol for improving energyefficient and to reduce the energy consumption.
Our work is intended to introduce energyefficientroutingprotocol, known as Position Responsive RoutingProtocol to enhance energy efficiency of WSN. Position responsive routingprotocol differs in several ways than other existing routing techniques. Position responsive routingprotocol shows significant improvement of 45% in energy efficiency of wireless sensor network life time as a whole by increasing battery life of individual nodes. This increamentation in energy value is directly proportional to range of transmission. Furthermore PRRP shows drastic increases for data throughput and provide better solution to routingenergy hole due to it fair distributed approach of gateway selection.Energy efficientroutingprotocol with assumptions closer to the real.We propose the Interference Alignment Technique with Destructive Interference.
The sensor nodes in WSNs have got only limited sources of energy and computing. The main constraint of these networks is the amount of energy consumption. The lifetime of a Wireless Sensor Network depends on its node’s energy level. In most of sensor networks there is no way to recharge node’s battery because of its unattended nature; therefore efficient use of the available energy sources of the node is essential. Since the nodes in the sensor networks are using the wireless communication medium, and radio transceivers to send and receive packet, it is contingent to make interference. That means the routingprotocol should consider the link quality and the possible interference and the noise level of the link before selecting a next hop node for communication. So the interference on the link and hence the SINR value is an important factor to be considered. So we are using this factor in the routing choice selection process of our proposed energyefficientroutingprotocol. This is an extension of the existing SGEAR algorithm. The new algorithm is designed to suit in the environment where the congestion is more and hence the interference on the link. The simulated results showing that the new protocol works well in the networks when the traffic is high, which imposes interference on the other links, than the existing algorithm. Our protocol has more packet reception rate, less end-to-end delay, as well as it consumes less energy.
Abstract: Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN) is an emerging branch of wireless sensor networks. In UWSN, tiny sized sensors nodes are deployed in the ocean for various monitoring operations. These sensors have limited energy, memory and lower bandwidth. Exploration of underwater resources, oceanographic data collection, tactical surveillance, and natural disaster prevention are some of the areas of UWSN applications. UWSN is different from traditional wireless sensor network. The later uses radio waves for communication between sensors while the former uses acoustic wave for data transmission. Communication in UWSN is more challenging because of many challenges, which are associated with acoustic channels such as low bandwidth, high transmission delay, usual path loss, and intermittent connectivity. Keeping in view the aforementioned challenging issues, energyefficient and reliable data transmission in UWSN becomes hot research area. In the area of UWSN, some algorithms were introduced to enhance networks lifetime, by using a smaller battery and other for critical data transmission. However, data packets flooding, path loss and low network lifetime are few challenges with immediate attention. This article proposes a novel routing scheme referred to as EnergyEfficient Multipath Routing (E 2 MR) for UWSN, which is basically designed for long-term monitoring with higher energy efficiency and delivery ratio. The E 2 MR establishes a priority table, the forwarder nodes are selected based on that priority table. Different experiments are carried out by simulating E 2 MR and compared against other state-of-the-art location- free routing protocols including DBR, EEDBR, and H2-DAB with respect to number of alive nodes, end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio and total energy consumption. Our results show that E 2 MR outperforms when compared with other routing protocols in UWSN.
CMIMO and cluster based WSN to perform energyefficient communication over WSN and revealed independent relationship between the number of nodes in CMIMO and the number of nodes having data for transmission. Siam et al.  applied multi-hop transmission to achieve efficient transmission however could not be address energy exhaustion due to multi-hop traversal. Islam et al.  developed a channel condition aware CH selection and energyefficient CMIMO for WSNs. Chaibrassou et al.  developed a distributed Multi Channel CMIMO model for cluster based WSNs (MCMIMO) that finishing clustering exhibits weighted link exploitation for the best cooperative nodes identification. Authors  applied Virtual MIMO (VMIMO) concept to derive a distributed Cooperative Clustering Protocol (CCP), where they used VMIMO diversity gain by performing CN selection within each cluster. Authors  developed a cluster-based VMIMO for energy-constrained WSN communication. Authors applied Space-Time Block Coding (STBC) based VMIMO  in conjunction with LEACH to achieve energyefficientrouting. Medhia et al.  applied mobility and CMIMO for WSN. To enable CMIMO communication each mobile node applied Alamouti diversity algorithm. The mobile sensor could move to a defined network location to collect sensed data and transmit it to the sink using CMIMO . Zhang et al.  where authors applied residual energy and the link quality between the CHs to perform data transmission. Energy Based Clustering Self organizing map (EBCS) based clustering was developed by Enami et al. . Amri et al.  developed a Multi-hop Hierarchical RoutingProtocol using Fuzzy Logic (EMHR-FL), where Fuzzy Logic Inference System (FIS) was used to perform next-hop selection by considering residual energy of CHs, distance between CHs and node density.
In this paper we have proposed an energyefficient usage of multiple, mobile base stations to increase the lifetime of wire- less sensor networks. Our approach uses an integer linear program to determine the locations of the base stations and a flow-based routingprotocol and LEACH protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster base stations (cluster- heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network. We conclude that using a rigorous approach to optimize energy utilization leads to a significant increase in network lifetime.A challenging and promising direction for fu- ture work is to explore the use of graph partitioning algorithms, particularly those for finding balanced partitions within such a framework.
LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Cluster Hierarchy) ,  is a self- organizing, adaptive clustering protocol. It is based on TDMA based MAC protocol which is used to provide data aggregation with energyefficient communication. Each node follows stochastic (random) algorithm at each round to become CH. The information is transmitted from node to CH and from CH to BS. Aggregation works are carried out by CH. Random CH selection in each round with rotation. Within clusters, TDMA is preferred and CDMA is used across the clusters. To reduce collisions, inter cluster and intra clusters are used. LEACH assumes all the nodes having the ability to act as CH. The major advantage is, it organizes entire network distributed without any global knowledge, less power consumption because of aggregation by cluster heads. The disadvantages are that it assumes each and every node in the network with equal energy and transmits this data will cause battery drainage and all the nodes should adhere to both TDMA and CDMA techniques. Hierarchical cluster- based routing , clusters are organized only for a short span time termed as round. A round has two phases; election as well as data transfer phase. Here in election phase all the nodes are organized into different set clusters and these cluster heads consist of a headset. While in data transfer phase, the head set node will only involve in long range communication with the base station from cluster head. TEEN (Threshold sensitive energyefficientprotocol)  is a reactive protocol because the nodes react immediately to sudden and drastic changes in the value of a sensed attribute. At every change of CH, that information can be broadcasted to its members. It is event driven protocol for time critical applications. There are two threshold levels
ABSTRACT: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) consists of sensor devices of low cost and small size based on the advancement of microsensor technology. It has many desirable characteristics, including easy deployment and self- organization, and is becoming increasingly important in modern society. The sensor nodes are battery-operated, most of which are not rechargeable, and cease to function once the battery expires. Owing to logistical issues such as remoteness or inaccessibility of distribution areas, it is not straightforward to replace sensor nodes with expired batteries. The applications of WSNs range from important societal issues such as environmental surveillance, intelligent transportation, disaster relief, and health care to military issues including battlefield biological and nuclear monitoring as well as target tracking. In the research work, it is designed that Load balancing based EnergyEfficientRouting Approach (LEERA) to improve the network lifetime. The system model states that nodes are aware of location and energy level. Each node should know the probabilities of packet sending and receiving calculation before the packet transmission. Energy of sensor nodes may get depleted due to link quality degradation. The concept of load balancing is determined. The simulation results show that improvement over the EDAL, EMRTEM and ADAPT protocol.
The proposed algorithm is focused for determining optimized route in multipath routing protocols. For this approach the proposed algorithm contributes to define multiple routes between a destination nodes and the source node by selecting a subset of all existing routes [9-11]. The route selection is dependent on node density and remaining energy of each nodes.
En-LEACH  produces an energyefficient way of collecting information about the environment. All the cluster members are aware about the energy left in its cluster head, which helps in finding the probability of failure of cluster head during the data transmission. Its simulation results show better results than LEACH. This paper  presented a scheme which reduces the amount of energy consumed by the sensing device. This is done by the distribution of equal load balance in the network. This scheme did it and showed better results than LEACH. In the proposed scheme , the base station collects the information regarding location of the nodes (logical structure of the network) and then on the basis of that information clusters were formed by the base station. In SEECH formation of cluster heads were assisted by BS rotation of cluster heads were performed.
In this paper, simulation analysis is carried out using the net-work simulator NS-2.35. It is a discrete event simulator used in research related to networks. It uses a visual tool called NAM which is Tcl/TK based animation tool for viewing real world packet trace data and network simulation traces. The existing protocols DSR (Dynamic Source Routing), OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing), CAIUAV (Clustering Algorithm in Unmanned Air Vehicles) and our proposed protocol EECA (EnergyEfficient Clustering Algorithm) are taken for comparison. The performance parameters are End to End Delay, Packet Delivery Fraction, Number of transmission and energy dissipated. Table 1 shows the parameters used in the simulation and simulation results are shown in Fig 6, Fig 7, Fig 8 and Fig 9.
Ring Routing relies on minimal amount of broadcasts. Th erefore, it is applicable to be used for sensors utilizing as ynchronous low-power MAC protocols designed for WSN s. Ring Routing does not have any MAC layer requiremen ts except the support for broadcasts. It can operate with any energy-aware, duty cycling MAC protocol (synchroni zed or asynchronized). Ring Routing is suitable for both event-driven and periodic data reporting applications. It is not query based so that data are disseminated reliably as they are generated. Ring Routing provides fast data d elivery due to the quick accessibility of the proposed ring structure, which allows the protocol to be used for time sensitive applications. No information about the motion of the sink is required for Ring Routing to operate. It doe
A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of a huge number of sensor nodes that are inadequate in energy, storage and processing power. One of the major tasks of the sensor nodes is the collection of data and forwarding the gathered data to the Base Station (BS). Hence, the network lifetime becomes the major criteria for effective design of the data gathering schemes in WSN. In this paper, an EnergyEfficient LEACH (EE-LEACH) Protocol for data gathering is introduced. It offers an energyefficientrouting in WSN based on the effective data ensemble and optimal clustering. In this system, a cluster head is elected for each cluster to minimize the energy dissipation of the sensor nodes and to optimize the resource utilization. The energyefficientrouting can be obtained by nodes which have the maximum residual energy. Hence, the highest residual energy nodes are selected to forward the data to BS. It helps to provide better packet delivery ratio with lesser energy utilization. The experimental results shows that the proposed EE-LEACH yields better performance than the existing Energy-Balanced RoutingProtocol(EBRP) and Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy(LEACH) Protocol in terms of better packet delivery ratio, lesser end- to-end delay and energy consumption. It is obviously proves that the proposed EE-LEACH can improve the network lifetime.
Wireless network is a network which can be deployed in an environment like military surveillances, habitat monitoring, rescue operations etc. without fixed infrastructure but with limited resources like energy, bandwidth, etc. This network can be a mobile ad hoc network or sensor network which are easy to deploy but to prolong the lifetime, smart utilization of resources are to be made. So designing a routingprotocol for such a network is a challenging task. Many energyefficientrouting protocols are proposed to improve the effective usage of energy resource. Energy harvesting sensor nodes are used to prolong network lifetime.
Basically there are major differences between our proposed protocol and the two aforementioned. Our protocol assumes the existence of several and concurrent traffic-generating sources where creates paths between single source and the sink. When WSN is deployed, hundreds of sensors are deployed in the field, so depending on a single (unreliable) sensor to report the events will not be the best assumption in terms of fault tolerance. Furthermore, when a heterogeneous WSN is deployed to monitor a variety of phenomena, it is likely to find two non-similar events that are being reported concurrently by two non-similar sensors. For these reasons, we believe that we accommodate more *realistic assumptions in developing GMCAR.
All the networks having the assured lifetime concurrently with activity which nodes have restricted energy by using of gathering the information, processing, and transmitting the information. So all the sensor ideal must be outline to be intensely energyefficient. To shorten energy dissipation, protocols should be identifying the node failures, fault- tolerant, and to maximize system lifetime. The proposed method is exploiting the characteristics of both Proactive (PEGASIS) and Reactive (DSR) routingprotocol
Abstract— The Adhoc network is a wireless network without a fixed infrastructure, and this usually established on a temporary basis for a particular purpose like emergency rescue or military communication. And energy management in adhoc networks deal with the process of managing energy resources that means the controlling of battery discharge, modifying the transmission power, and scheduling the power sources for the increasing of lifetime of the nodes in an adhoc network. In adhoc network all mobile nodes are powered by energy constraint battery, it could be difficult for a mobile node to sustain for a long time if it send and receive data more often. To solve this problem we describe the energyefficientrouting in mobile adhoc network using Zone RoutingProtocol (ZRP) and anycast addressing and we also simulate using NS2 simulator. The zone routingprotocol behave as hybrid routing, proactive (table driven) and reactive (on demand) methodology to provide scalable routing in the ad-hoc network.
Salah Abdblghari et. Al have studied the performance and suitability comparison between the dynamic routing protocols which they are, Enhanced Interior Gateway RoutingProtocol(EIGRP), Open Shortest Path First(OSPF) and Routing Information Protocol(RIP). The result shows that Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is rapid and better reliable than Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Enhanced Interior Gateway RoutingProtocol(EIGRP) which is achieved by using packet Tracer simulation program. Emad Alnawafa et. al have analyzed two techniques which are Digital Mobile Radio(DMR) and Split Multi-path Routing(SMR). He proposed a new technology for the WSN that depends on the area leveling. They have used two types of data routing techniques such as inter-cluster routing and intra-cluster routing. Finally, they have analyzed that are Digital Mobile Radio (DMR) is better in providing high performance in optimizing energy by comparing with other existing protocols.