months showed a higher number of days with around 30 % of them with persistent contrails occurring in January 2011. In June 2011 only 10 % of the days were observed with per- sistent contrails Overall, there are only few studies dealing with measurements of the effect of contrails on ground-based diffuse and direct irradiance. To the authors’ knowledge, no studies have examined possible effects of contrails on solar energy production losses. The present study investigates the effect of contrails on short-wave global irradiance incident on a horizontal plane and on solar energy production. In a first step the preliminary study by Weihs et al. (2013) was contin- ued by including more days and by performing the analysis for a time period of 1 year. Secondly, conclusions and esti- mations on a possible impact on solar energy gain have been made.
The main objective of this study is to develop a simple and easy way for finding daily, monthly, seasonally, half-yearly and fixed optimum tilt angles for any location in the high latitudes regions and to determine the yearly energy gain. As experimental data concerning the treated question in the studied region are not available to authors, the results of the present study could not be compared with the experimental results. However, the comparison with theoretical results of other researchers will be provided.
Any machine, to power it by human energy, the maximum power requirement should be 75Watts. Any machine or process requiring more than 75 Watts and if process is intermittent without affecting and product, can also be operated by human energy ( Alexandrove 1981). This is possible with the provision of intermediate energy storing unit which stores the energy of human and supply periodically at required rate to process unit, this is called as “human powered flywheel motor.” Modak J.P. and his associates are working on flywheel motor from 1977. A manually driven brick making machine was first of its kind in which manually energized flywheel motor is used for first time . Essentially the flywheel motor consists of flywheel, which is being driven by a human through a simple bicycle mechanism and pair of speed increasing gears . The schematic of flywheel motor is as shown in fig1.
Although general complex engineering simulations come to mind when identifying families of applications benefiting most from heterogeneous parallel architectures, in the upcoming era of IoT and Big Data, there is significant interest in exploiting the ca- pabilities offered by customised heterogeneous hardware such as FPGA, ASIP, MPSoC, heterogeneous CPU+GPU chips and hetero- geneous multi-processor clusters all of which with various mem- ory hierarchies, size and access performance properties. In fact, Big Data online with nearly instantaneous results demand massive parallelism and well devised divide-and-conquer approaches to ex- ploit heterogeneous hardware, both client and server sides, to its fullest extent. Moreover, heterogeneous systems can not only han- dle workload with fewer and/or smaller servers (cost saving) but also slash the energy used to run certain applications, which helps gain clear benefits and addresses the growing interest in green so- lutions and the pressure to reduce the environmental impact of, e.g. data centres. A common theme across all scenarios is the need for low-power computing systems that are fully interconnected, self-aware, context-aware and self-optimising within application boundaries .
Considering the rapeseed oil for biodiesel and the meal for animal feed, the energy ratio of the rape- seed production was 74005.40/23443.54 = 3.16 (Eq 5). The net energy gain of the rapeseed production was 74005.40 - 23443.54 = 50561.86 MJ/ha, or 50.56 GJ/ha (Eq. 6). The energy productivity of the pro- duction of rapeseed oil for biodiesel was 1154/23.44 = 49.23 L/GJ (Eq. 7). These values of energy balance are very close to the average values for Europe . They showed an energy ratio of 3.15 and a net en- ergy gain of 49.27 GJ/ha in rapeseed production, normally without using crop residues in the calcula- tion. Source  reported a net energy gain of 43.4 GJ/ha, and an energy output/input ratio of 2.8 in the production of rapeseed oil, and concluded that biofuels can be considered as an important source of renewable energy in the future. In comparison with other processes for fuel production from renewable agricultural resources, rapeseed oil gives a good output/input energy ratio and a substantial net energy gain. According to , efficient energy use is also one of the conditions for sustainable agriculture because it allows financial savings, the preservation of fossil-fuel resources and a reduc- tion in air pollution.
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In order to group individual foraging strategies, we performed a hierarchical clustering analysis based on the relative duration (%) of each behavioural mode within a foraging trip using the Pvclust package, specifying the Euclidean distance and Ward agglomeration method . Pvclust calculates P-values for hierarchical clustering via multiscale bootstrap resampling and significant clusters with probability P ≥ 0.95 were extracted. After individual grouping, clusters were characterised by means of move- ment and energetic parameters. Movement parameters in- cluded both mean and maximum speed (m s -1 ), maximum range (i.e., maximum distance attained from the colony; km) and trip duration (h). Energetic parameters included daily energy expenditure (kJ d -1 ), daily energy gain (kJ d -1 ), daily net energy gain (kJ d -1 ), prey mean weight (g), prey weight variability (i.e., SD in g), number of prey per day, foraging efficiency and mass at departure (kg). Then, an ANOVA analysis (when normally distributed) or a non- parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was applied for selecting the most significant parameters characterising clusters. Significance was set at P < 0.1 and marginal significance at P < 0.2. Finally, we classified low, intermediate and high mean values of behavioural modes, movement and ener- getic parameters per foraging strategy to better illustrate clustering output.
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Next, the difference of the local DOS of Fe(1c) atoms are compared for the four structures. Their curves are shown in Fig. 6(a) for the CsCl, Tri1 and Tri2 structures and Fig. 6(b) for the Tri2 and Tri3 structures. Comparing the curves of the CsCl and Tri1 structures, it is found that the highest peak of the Tri1 shifts to the higher energy range, compared with one of the CsCl structure. In the Tri2 structure, the highest peak lowers and the occupied states move to the states with the lower energy. The occupied states increase around the energy range from − 0 . 3 to − 0 . 2 Ryd. To focus the effect of the ap- proach between the Ti(1c) and Fe(1c) atoms, the DOS curves of the Tri2 and Tri3 structures are compared in Fig. 6(b). The curve of the Tri3 structure is similar to one of the Tri1 structure. The difference of the occupancy of electrons are clearly seen between the Tri2 and Tri3 structures, as seen for the Ni(1c) in TiNi. That is, the approach between the Ti(1c) and Fe(1c) lowers the band energy of the Fe(1c) atom. Thus the DOS curves of the four structures shows that the band en- ergy of the Fe(1c) atom lowers in the order of the Tri1, the CsCl, the Tri3 and the Tri2 structure, as seen in Fig. 3(b). Comparing the band energy of the Ni(1c) in Fig. 3(a) and one of the Fe(1c) in Fig. 3(b), we notice that the energy gain of the Fe(1c) atom is smaller, compared with one of the Ni(1c) atom. This features are seen in the change of DOS shapes due to the change of the crystal structure, which is lager for the Ni(1c) in TiNi than one of the Fe(1c) in TiNi 8 / 9 Fe 1 / 9 .
In the recent years of medical science, we have to see that the wireless body sensors are used everywhere. These technologies have made our life secure and comfortable. These sensors are widely used because of its weight is very light and size is very small. To design body sensor networks we have to face the main issue of energy efficient data transmission. The continuous data transmission is an important part of the network due to need of continuous attention. To reduce the heavy traffic on the network, prediction-based data transmission approach may be use for transmission. This technique combines a dual prediction flowchart and a low-complexity prediction algorithm that takes advantage of PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) control. The energy gain and RMSE are use as performance parameters.
Although several design and operational strategies for energy conservation are available to greenhouse operators, they are implemented to varying extents and greenhouses are still heavily dependent on fossil fuels. In an effort towards a sustainable energy supply, researchers in the Netherlands state that simple measures like installing a moveable energy screen in traditional greenhouses or improving existing designs on a small scale are not enough . Based on this, ‘closed’ greenhouse systems have been in development since the late 1990’s to conserve energy . Instead of using ventilation strategies during the summer months to release heat and dehumidify the greenhouse, active cooling and dehumidification systems are used. Excess solar energy collected during the summer months is stored via some form of seasonal thermal energy storage (STES), typically aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), and re-used in the winter to heat the greenhouse . A general schematic diagram of the closed greenhouse energy flow is shown in Figure 1B. In practice, ‘semi-closed’ systems are most common where the cooling system is designed to meet a base load and peak demands are still met with ventilation strategies. Alternatively, in closed greenhouses without an STES system, heat recovery ventilation can be utilized where the warm greenhouse air being removed can heat the colder incoming air from the outside, reducing the overall demand .
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Table 4.1. Ingredient and composition of the experimental diets based on equal nutrient intake except metabolisable energy intake ............................................................................... 69 Table 4.2. Analysed chemical composition of the experiment diets........................................ 74 Table 4.3. Influence of supplementing a basal feed with two levels of soybean oil or tallow on broiler chickens performance between 21-42 days of age ....................................... 76 Table 4.4. Apparent metabolisable energy (MJ/kg) of the diets that differ in the concentration of fat, determined between 28-31 and 38-41 days of age ................................. 77 Table 4.5. Apparent ileal digestibility coefficients for nutrients in the experimental diets that differ in the concentration of fat........................................................................................ 78 Table 4.6. The ileal digestible nutrients and energy intake for broiler chicken fed a basal diet or basal supplemented with two levels of soybean oil or tallow between 21 and 42days of age............................................................................................................................ 79 Table 4.7. De-feathered carcass composition for broiler chicken fed a basal diet or basal diet supplemented with two levels of soybean oil or tallow between 21 and 42 days of age ............................................................................................................................................ 81 Table 4.8. Deposition rate (g/d) of fat, protein, ash and water for broiler chicken fed a basal diet or basal diet supplemented with two levels of soybean oil or tallow between 21 and 42 days of age .............................................................................................................. .82 Table 4.9. Utilisation of apparent metabolisable energy (MJ/bird) for broiler chickens fed a basal diet or basal diet supplemented with two levels of soybean oil or tallow ............. 84 Table 4.10. Regression equations of AMEI as function of energy retention as fat (ERF) and protein (ERP) to estimates the fat deposition efficiencies in broiler chickens .................. 86 Chapter 5
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Homogeneous Scenarios: The simulation results under the greedy and log rule scheduling policies are shown in Fig. 5(a)–(c) for a homogeneous scenario where both users are at exactly the same distance from the BS and have iden- tical traffic demands. Fig. 5(a) shows that JSQ results in the lowest average delay independent of the scheduling policy, as expected. Under performance-centric case (w = 0), traffic spreading can reduce the average delay as much as JSQ does, independent of the scheduling policies. Both JSQ and the traffic spreading have delay improvement up to 18% (greedy) and 14% (log rule) compared to no re-routing. Besides, the gap between our proposed algorithm and the lower bound increases with the decrease of weight. This is because the smaller the weight, the more re-routing at the users will occur. Thus the BS has more opportunities to re-route a user’s own data from others’ queues to save re-routing cost, and then is able to re-route a user’s data to other users. The results in Fig. 5(b) show that these strategies also correspond to the highest power expenditure. Traffic spreading re-routes as much as JSQ does when w = 0. Under energy-sensitive cases (w > 0), increasing the weight of re-routing cost results in the energy consumption decreasing rapidly along with increasing average file transfer delay.
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents modern single switch dc to dc converter modelling and control of a grid connected renewable energy. The system consists of a Photo voltaic cells, a SEPIC DC-DC converter used for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), a three-phase grid converter. A nonlinear control performance of a three-phase inverter is proposed to recompense unstable load currents. It permits whole control of DC bus voltage, while calculating power flow from the PV cells to the system and guarantying objective sinusoidal grid currents at unity Power factor under varying solar irradiation. Moreover, a sliding mode control system for a SEPIC DC-DC converter is used to extract the MPPT. The proposed control techniques have exposed good performance. The system is validated using the "Power system Block set" simulator under different values of the solar irradiation.
• To find out the efficiency of the boiler and to find out the Evaporation ratio The purpose of the performance test is to determine actual performance and efficiency of the boiler and compare it with design values or norms. It is an indicator for tracking day-to-day and season-to-season variations in boiler efficiency and energy efficiency improvements.
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In this paper, the zvzcs asymmetrical full bridge converter with high voltage gain is interfaced with a PV module. The converter is able to provide a high efficiency and high-voltage gain with relatively low transformer turns ratio. The ZVS of all power switches and ZCS of the output diodes are achieved. Therefore, the converter is suitable for high-voltage applications. In this paper, both dc and solar energy sources are used as input source. And from both the result high voltage gain and high efficiency is obtained. So in this highly energy concerned world effective utilization of solar energy with this concept of converter can be used for many applications. Also from this paper performance of different types of loads are studied and from that we obtained the conclusion that R load has the highest efficiency and for all loads(R, RL, RLE)-ZVS and ZCS are achieved.
To simulate lasing dynamics, we present here a faster numerical simulation model for the four energy level atomic system. We use the populations of each level while the fields are achieving steady state as the initial value, in this way, the simulation time will sharply be reduced. The electromagnetic fields and atomic energy level populations at any time step can be calculated in terms of known quantities. Comparing the results of this model with those which putting all the electrons on the
Here, this paper had shown the results for SNR (dB) vs. probability of detection for Equal Gain Combining (EGC) with ED and CAV. All simulations in this work are executed on MATLAB (Version R2017a). Monte Carlo (MC) method, which is a stochastic technique (based on the use of random numbers) forms the basis of these simulations.
According to some authors, occupant behaviour affects energy use to the same extent as mechanical parameters such as equipment and appliances , causing variations in energy use as large as a factor of two in similar dwellings with identical equipment and appliances. In an empirical study of 600 households in Sweden, Linde´n et al.  found that households living in detached houses have to accept lower indoor temperatures than households living in flats. In addition, they found that for households living in dwellings where the energy bill is paid collectively, the indoor temperature is higher by about 2◦C, indicating that the differences are more likely to be due to occupant behaviour than to building characteristics.
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An increase in oxygen consumption with swimming speed has been demonstrated for humans (Holmer 1972) as well as seals and sea lions (Davis et al. 1985, Feldkamp 1987, Fedak et al. 1988, Williams et al.1991). Swimming speed has therefore been assumed to directly reflect metabolic rate. In these studies, however, the animals were often placed in water flumes and required to swim continuously just below the water surface where drag is higher than a few meters below. Several studies (Weihs 1974, Videler and Weihs 1982) have shown that different swimming pattern, such as stroke and glide swimming in fish, may result in significant energy savings over continuous stroking without an apparent change in velocity. Another study by Skrovan et al. (1999) suggested that swimming speed alone was a poor indicator of locomotor cost because both gliding and active swimming (stroking) often occur at similar speeds in vertical swimming. The present study supports this observation; even when
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through each power switch and constrained the input current ripple by approximately 6%. The experimental results indicate that leakage energy is recycled through capacitor Cb to the output terminal. Meanwhile, the voltage stresses over the power switches are restricted and are much lower than the output voltage (380 V). These switches, conducted to low voltage rated and low on-state resistance MOSFET, can be selected. Furthermore, the full-load efficiency is 96.1% at Po = 1000 W, and the highest efficiency is 96.8% at Po = 400 W. Thus, the proposed converter is suitable for PV systems or other renewable energy applications that need high step-up high-power energy conversion . REFERENCES
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Main objective in this project is to build up a waste heat recovery system and obtain energy form the wasted heat in this system. This study also will prove that the theory that wasted heat can be recovered by heat recovery system. Moreover, the ancillary objective in this study is to analyse the different of heat in the radiator that will produce a high energy for the recovery system.
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