Hypothetically adding another camera to the MIT Lab will allow us to appre- ciate how much energy a pulse of light contains, understand the characteristics of pure light and appreciate how much can be extracted from a single pulse of light. The other sensor must sense the light. This means a single photon can cre- ate itself in more than one direction, a property that needs to be appreciated over and above the main scope of the discussion that light can create itself. Not only can it create itself, but multiple sensors can, and will sense it placed in the right location.
In the case of bits of bit-energy, if they don’t divide further under the compression of medium, they become the complete recipe of a levitating electron at its start to at its end when it shapes like opposite integral symbol. But, on placement of bit-energy along configured trajectory of levitated period of electron, its shape looks like integral symbol. On connecting another bit-energy to back surface to placed energy at center edge, placing along the configuring trajectory of that electron in gravitating period at front side resulting into generate a unit photon shape like ‘Gaussian distribution symbol with both ends turned’. When neutral state silicon atom deals inter-state electron-dynamics, the relevant electron is being levitated south to north while starting the motion against its inertia and ending the motion against its inertia where bit-energy is being placed along its configuring trajectory. A top left-side electron of the silicon atom when dealing the neutral state is shown in Figure 3 (a) along with directions of the poles. A neutral state of an atom infers where all occupied electrons are in their states dealing perfect clamping energy knots as discussed elsewhere . A neutral state of the silicon atom is just after its re-crystallization state where electronic structure shows four-dimensional structure at point of centre where no force is influencing as shown in Figure 3 (a), thus, electrons of outer ring self-control their inter-state dynamics purely under existing forces of own poles. In this context, each electron of the silicon atom while at neutral state deals and undertakes its own force without influencing energy knot clamping states of other electrons. In Figure 3 (a), electron of filled state at top left-side of silicon atom experiences levitation behavior on entering the bit-energy from the front side of surface resulting into the disappearances of paired forces (north west forces), as a result, that electron leaves the state being clamped by its energy knot under the appearances of paired forces (south east forces). At centre of silicon atom, a zero-force is working because of no left space where central electrons are related to nucleus (zeroth ring) dealing perfect position of clamped energy knots under neutral force, thus, providing room to enter/dissipate heat energy/bit-energy as shown in Figure 3 (a).
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In the earlier work, the photons were detected by organic scintillators and total –absorption – proportional counters. The accuracy of the final results was limited by the poor efficiency of either of these detectors. A good photon detector with high-energy-resolution characteristics as used in the present measurements is an essential requirement for higher accuracy. Solid-state detectors have the high-energy-resolution characteristics necessary for such measurements to be performed accurately. The present paper reports photon interaction parameters like mass (µ/ρ) and linear attenuation coefficients (µ) of Cr in the energy range 10 keV to 1500 keV through photon transmission measurements perform under narrow-beam counting geometry with HP (Ge) as a photon detector.
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11. No, fewer electrons are emitted, but each one is emitted with higher kinetic energy, when the 400-nm light strikes the metal surface. The intensity (energy per unit time) of both light beams is the same, but the 400-nm photons each have more energy than the 450-nm photons. Thus there are fewer photons hitting the surface per unit time. This means that fewer electrons will be ejected per unit time from the surface with the 400-nm light. The maximum kinetic energy of the electrons leaving the metal surface will be greater, though, since the incoming photons have shorter wavelengths and more energy per photon, and it still takes the same amount of energy (the work function) to remove each electron. This “extra” energy goes into higher kinetic energy of the ejected electrons.
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It can be seen qualitatively that the DFT simulations reproduce the trend of peak I increasing in relative intensity with photon energy, but none of the functionals reproduce this behavior quantitatively. The experimental data at the lowest photon energy shows peak I weaker than peak II. DFT doesn’t predict any orbitals with lower PDOS in peak I than peak II, indicating the orbital character of the VB predicted by DFT cannot be correct. This result is independent of the photoionization cross sections applied. However, it can be seen that reducing the Cd 4d contribution to peak I, which is achieved by LDA + U, does significantly improve the experimental agreement. In the experimental data the relative intensity of peak I increases consistently towards the highest photon energy, whereas the simulations predict an initially rapid increase which slows toward the highest photon energy. To address this photon energy dependence, it seems likely that the photoionization cross sections may exhibit a more complex energy dependence than encapsulated by the one-electron cross sections applied here. The rate of decrease of the O 2p one-electron cross section with photon energy appears to be overestimated here, as this would result in the more rapid relative increase in peak I intensity with photon energy, as illustrated by the DFT models. Similar conclusions regarding the O 2p photoionization cross sections being underestimated at higher photon energies were reached in the case of β -PbO 2 [34,35] and In 2 O 3 , where alternative
Generally, positron e + can be produced from a Surko-type  source and accumulator. In early of 2016, Xu et al .  presented a method of experimental generation of ultrashort MeV electron and positron beams with high intensity and high density using a setup in which a compact laser beam above an argon gas jet emitted from a supersonic conical nozzle to produce electrons which are directed onto a high- Z solid target behind the gas jet to generate electron-posi- tron pairs. This means high energy γ ray photon can transfer into some kind of matter and antimatter, so the follow formula can be gained.
were shown in figure 5a and 5b. The direct and indirect optical band gap energy of the films was extrapolated from the plot of ℎ and ℎ against photon energy (eV) respectively. A linear fit was performed for the curve and the values were estimated from the intercept with the energy axis. There is slight effect of concentration on the both the direct allow and indirect band gap energy. The estimated direct allow bandgap energy for the thin films are 3.79eV, 3.81eV and 3.82eV respectively. These results are in agreement with previously reported value [3, 35]. The wide direct band gap makes these films good material for potential applications in optoelectronic devices such as multilayer dielectric filters and solar cell. The estimated indirect allow bandgap energy for the thin films are 3.65eV, 3.63eV and 3.60eV respectively. Figure 6a-c shows the micrographs of the film prepared at films A, B and C at concentration of 0.6 M, 0.4 M and 0.2 M respectively. The surface is apparently compact, adhesive and slightly rough. The particle size distribution is even across the surface and existence of some agglomerates of small rounded particles is evident. There is evidence of granularity which is a feature seen in crystalline films. . This could be associated with the super-saturation of the tin oxide ions in the methanol solution. The tin oxide presents a spherical geometry that is evenly dispersed on its surface. Further examination of the micrographs showed that the size, numbers and the densification of the particles increases with higher concentration.
The term ’polariton’ is generally used in solid state physics, when an optical excitation is strongly coupled to a matter excitation. The matter excitation can be provided by a plasmon, a phonon, an electron, or an exciton. This review article exclusively discusses exciton- polaritons in microcavity systems. The excitons, which are bosonic composite quasi-particles consisting of an electron and a hole bound via their Coulomb attraction in a semiconductor, can be confined in quantum well (QW) structures embedded in optical microcavities. If the conditions for strong light-matter coupling are fulfilled, the properties of the bosonic matter excitation and the photon light field inside the microcavity are mixed, and new eigenstates of the coupled system evolve [1, 2]. Being bosonic quasi-particles, polaritons can in principle condense in a single particle energy state of a finite size . This dynamical condensation of bosons is closely related to the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) phase which is usually studied in ultra-cold atomic systems . However, due to the finite lifetime of polaritons even in state-of-the-art microcavities, the thermal equilibrium between the polaritons and their environment is very hard to establish. Nevertheless, the long-range spatial [3, 5] and temporal [6, 7, 8] coherence of polariton condensates has been demonstrated, revealing the characteristic signatures of a BEC . The effective mass of a microcavity polariton is approximately five orders of magnitude smaller than that of a free electron and 8 − 9 orders of magnitude smaller than that of an atom. Since the critical temperature for the Bose condensation is inversely proportional to the particle mass , polaritons are well suited for the studies of condensation in the temperature range from liquid helium up to room temperature.
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both cases, the residual energy is comparable to the thermal broadening. This residual energy can be transfered in two ways: The electrons relax into the contacts by emitting phonons. On the other hand, the electrons can relax into the real excited state and then tunnel out into the contacts or simply relax into the ground state. In the former case, as long as the ground state is depopulated, tunneling through the excited state is enabled, which is otherwise blocked by Coulomb-blockade. Electron transport in this case con- sists of two parts: Inelastic two-photon absorption by an electron in the ground state and elastic resonant tunneling through the excited state. This phenomenon, in anal- ogy to photo-ionization of real atoms by light, was observed earlier by Oosterkamp et al. [OKAEAKH97]. Electron transport through the dot is partly incoherent since relax- ation processes are involved. Both relaxation processes discussed above are possible and can compete with each other. Partly due to this competition process, the relative amplitude between PX and P1 varies at different microwave frequencies, as shown in Fig. 5.2 (a) and (b).
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Radioactive source of 203 Hg had thin beryllium windows for the exit of photon radiations. The source was kept in a lead container which was provided with an aperture for the exit of photons. The source container assembly was then kept over the collimator so as to allow a narrow, well- collimated photon beam from the collimator incident normally on the absorbers. The source and the detector were well aligned with the collimators. The incident energy of photon radiations from the source was known accurately from the photon spectrum. The chosen absorbers include thin and uniform foils of high purity of chromium, nickel, copper, and silver. These foils were weighed accurately using a digital balance, and from their measured area the thickness proportional to the areal density in g cm -2 was determined. The absorbers had varying thicknesses of a few mg cm -2 and higher thicknesses were obtained by stacking the foils together.
On the superluminal cases, limits on the photon splitting are usually less restrictive than those obtained via photon decay. The photon splitting results in a change of the spectrum and its effects could only be seen in a study involving the whole spectrum. The photon decay, on the other hand, is an abrupt effect and just the most energetic photon is enough to impose limits. Also, for the photon decay, no astrophysical assumptions about the source or the propagation are made and only the systematics on the energy estimation influence the resulting limits. For this reason, these limits are more robust and less model dependent. Improvement in these limits depend on the detection of more energetic photons, which may be possible with future experiments such as the SGSO [69,70].
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Extinction coefficient refers to the quantity of absorbed energy of the film, in other word it is the quantity of absorbed incident photon energy by the electrons of the film material. That means it enacts the exhibit attenuation in electromagnetic wave inside the matter. Extinction coefficient calculated by equation below.
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Since the mass of anybody generates gravitational field thus one expects the inverse process to take place i.e. the gravitational field frozen out to generate masses. This re- sembles what happens in the pair production, where a photon generates a pair of a particle and the anti-particle annihilate to form a photon. To see how the gravitational field generates masses one can utilize the contracted form of the GGR, i.e.; Equation (1) to get;
The computational model FREYA [1–7] generates complete fission events, i.e. it provides the full kinematic information on the two product nuclei as well as all the emitted neutrons and photons. In its development, an emphasis had been put on speed so that large event samples can be generated fast. To make FREYA events as realistic as possible, FREYA relies on experimental data supplemented by simple physics-based modeling. In its standard version, to treat a given fission case, FREYA needs the fission fragment mass distribution Y(A) and the total kinetic energy TKE(A) for the relevant energy. Y(A) is taken either directly from the measured yields or as a five-Gaussian fit to the data which makes it possible to parameterize its energy dependence .
When the bundle of photon incidence on the surface of consider material the energy of bundle photons goes to distributed to con- sider surface of material. Now, if we consider a single photon from the bundle then the energy of this photon also goes to distribu- tion to the consider surface of material. The distribution of the energy of single photon is only possible if it is composition i.e. photon has tiny segment photon in side it.
In later experiments, Compton observed that electrons were ejected from the graphite block during the experiment. He suggested that the X-ray photons collided with electrons in the graphite target and transferred energy and momentum to them. Compton thought that these photon- electron collisions were similar to the elastic collisions experienced by billiard balls, as shown in Figure 27-8. He tested this idea by measuring the energy of the ejected electrons. Compton found that the energy and momentum gained by the electrons equaled the energy and momentum lost by the photons. Thus, photons obey the laws of conservation of momentum and energy when they are involved in collisions with other particles.
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a tag and probe method with a procedure described in Ref. . The energy scale corrections are about 0.5 (1.5) % for photon candidate compatibles at B = 3.8 T (B = 0 T). The additional Gaussian smearing for the MC prediction is similar for both values of the magnetic field and of the order of 0.8 % and 1.5 % (2 − 2.5 %) for photon candidates which are centrally (in the forward region) detected. The energy scale correction factors measured for the B = 0 T dataset are found to be about 1 % higher than the B = 3.8 T factors. The comparison with the MC prediction after all energy corrections are applied is reported in Figure 4. The variation of the corrections is studied with Z → e + e − events as a
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is determine by the amount of milliamp second (mAs) on the organ surface area of the irradiated body . It controls the quantity or the amount of x-ray photons produced and describe the quantity of ions in the x-ray beam as the beam approach the irradiated organ surface. The sum of a specific energy per unit surface area contained by the particles with which an organ is irradiated is described as energy fluence . This is determine by the Kilovolt Peak (kVp) of the incident beam on the irradiated organ surface area. It determine the quality of the incident beam and controls the contrast or grey level in the image. The most important radiation exposure quantities that relate radiation dose to an organs from any given CT study depend on tube current scanning time in milliamp-seconds (mAs) and the tube voltage in kilovolt peaks (kVp). These quantities determine the relative image noise level by either increasing or reducing the mAs and kVp. However, reduction in relative noise in CT images will automatically give rise to an increase in radiation dose and vice visa. Hence, there will always be a tradeoff between minimal image noise and low doses of radiation to patients in medical imaging . It is important to note that photons are energetic enough to overcome the binding energy of an orbiting electrons in an atoms. This energetic photon can knock off electron from its orbital shell, thereby creating ions. In human body exposure to photons, results in the creation of hydroxyl radicals in the body. These are due to the x-ray interactions with the body cells which consist of mainly water molecules. The nearby DNA will cause a base damage or strand breaks and the hydroxyl may even ionize DNA directly. It should be noted that, various systems within the cell may rapidly repair most of these radiation-induced damage. However, it is less easy to repaired double-strand breaks, which may lead to induction of cancer. These biological exposure to photon energy give rise to the determination of various fundamental dosimetric quantity in radiological imaging . The effect of this quantities determine the dose to human body.
with respect to the excitation wavelength. We believe that for a laser with photon energy above GaAs bandgap, the photon-excited carriers are predominantly generated on the substrate side of the GaAs layers and, thus, fa- vored to fill the ground-state energy level of the SQDs while the AlGaAs layer could act as a carrier barrier to make carrier transfer not efficient as in sample A. In particular, the peak at E 1 = 1.149 eV appears to exhibit a
The energy gap for the allowed direct transmittance is calculated by plotting the relationship between (𝛼ℎ𝜈)² and the photon energy; for thickness (235nm) it is increased after thermal treatment because that the high temperature increases the crystalline size of the thin film and decreases crystalline defects , resulting in a decrease in the levels of the defect within the energy gap, so that the energy gap increased, this can be attributed to the change of lattice constant or to the change of thin film composition from cubic phase to monoclinic phase  . For the thickness (400nm) we notice that the energy gap decreased and this can be explained by the increase in thickness led to a clear increase in the number of photon collisions with the material and this will lead to an increase in the number of electrons and holes leading to a decrease in the energy gap, the result agrees with the results of refs . The value and type of energy gap depend on the material, its nature and