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Utilising stored wind energy by hydro-pumped storage to provide frequency support at high levels of wind energy penetration

Utilising stored wind energy by hydro-pumped storage to provide frequency support at high levels of wind energy penetration

The seven WFs will replace certain portion from the system initial conventional capacity based on their capacity factors. Generally, the actual capacity of a WF counts on several parameters including WF area, number of WTs per WF, types of installed WTs in WF and the implemented operation criteria. However, accurate estimation for wind energy capacity factor could not be achieved due to WS fluctuating nature. The actual capacity based on probabilistic and chronological estimations was in range of 25 to 45% [16]. Meanwhile, according to practical estimation in relevance to WSs records and WFs specifications in certain region, the actual capacity reached 55% [17]. Thus, it is assumed that the integrated WFs actual capacity is 50% from their rated powers to determine the shut-down conventional generation capacity. Applying a relatively high capacity factor is an additional challenge to the proposed algorithm. In particular, the retired conventional capacity is higher (i.e., higher wind energy penetration), hence the test system is more affected and the role of the HPSS is emphasized.
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Near-infrared photonic energy penetration: can infrared phototherapy effectively reach the human brain?

Near-infrared photonic energy penetration: can infrared phototherapy effectively reach the human brain?

Ex vivo studies of NIR penetration through 3 cm of lamb skull, tissue, and brain in a segmented head revealed a profound decrease in power density which was related to wavelength and wattage (Table 3, Figure 3). The Custom 0.05 W LED did not penetrate 3 cm through either air or brain tissue. No detectible energy from the 0.2 W 650/880 (In Light) LED system could be detected at 3 cm through air or tissue. The 6 W LED (Eltech K-Laser 6D) showed a 99.995% drop in power density across 3 cm of tissue. When compared to the power density of penetration through 3 cm of air, the 10 W 810/980 nm (LiteCure) device showed a 99.65% drop in power density across 3 cm of skin, skull, and brain tissue. The 15 W 810 nm (Diowave) device in continuous (non-pulsed) NIR delivered 2.9% of the surface power density, while only 1.22% of the surface power den- sity at 980 nm reached the 3 cm depth through brain tissue indicating that wavelength is indeed an important parameter in reaching deep tissues. Photonic energy penetration with
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The experience curve effect on renewable energy penetration

The experience curve effect on renewable energy penetration

Abstract — The experience curve effect has always challenged technology-related decisions. In the electricity sector, new renewable electricity generation technologies have shown a considerably high learning rate up to now, which could differentiate the profitability of energy generation technologies in the near future. The scope of this work is to investigate the effect that the Experience Curve of the renewable energy technologies may have on the orders for new electricity generation technologies and therefore, on the future electricity generation mix of Greece. The official renewable energy generation targets are considered as a constraint of the system, and the learning rates of the various technologies are included in the calculations. Three scenarios of learning rates have been applied, to examine the experience curve effect on renewable energy penetration. The national electricity generation system is modeled for long-term analysis and a linear programming method is applied, in order to come up with the optimal generating mix that minimizes electricity generation cost, while satisfying the national emissions reduction targets. In addition, two scenarios for future emission allowance prices are considered, in order to examine the effect of changes in this very volatile parameter. Furthermore, an investigation is made to identify if a point should be expected when renewable energy will be more profitable than conventional fuel electricity generation.
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Assessment On The Impact Of Distributed Generation (Renewable Energy) Penetration To The National Grid Protection System Performance Using Eracs Software

Assessment On The Impact Of Distributed Generation (Renewable Energy) Penetration To The National Grid Protection System Performance Using Eracs Software

The evolving world and invention technology have made our life as easy. This also apply to how the electrical energy sector have development for the past years. Electrical distribution network and system are not spared in the advancement towards better living, driven by the growing demand. Electrical distribution network have changed greatly in past decades along with the technology advancement.

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Assessment of energy storage technologies for case studies with increased renewable energy penetration

Assessment of energy storage technologies for case studies with increased renewable energy penetration

The results of the offshore wind farm scenario can be seen in the Figure 7 and Table B4 in Appendix B. PHS and CAES systems are the most suitable for storage in future offshore wind farms in UK. Their power and energy range can fully cover the needs of this scenario and these two technologies have been applied on large scale power systems. Adiabatic CAES achieves the highest AI score but its low TRL score does not allow it to be considered as a suitable storage for that application. In this scenario, the power demand of the storage systems has been raised signifi cantly and for this reason most technologies have been moved to the left-direction of the x-axis. So, when it comes to large scale systems, it is obvious that only PHES and CAES along with HESS can offer a reliable storage solution. Molten salt is also an interesting ESS but in real life applications this technology should mainly be coupled with solar power plants. This is the fi rst case study where the
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Emission Constrained Economic Dispatch with PV Energy Penetration

Emission Constrained Economic Dispatch with PV Energy Penetration

The results obtained by PSO for CEED with PVpenetration were compared with CEED without PV penetration. It is important to note that emission levels,related costs and fossil fuel costs were considerably reduced. However, but the overall cost of power generation is increased. Power generation cost of the hybrid plant can be expected to be the same as the unit cost of wind mills.This could become a reality when the manufacturing cost of thin film PV Photo Voltaic cell or single crystalline Photo Voltaic cell is made lesser.The disadvantage of the present method is that the power is considered for a loss account and the gap between generation and demand is increased after PV penetration. This is due to the fact that PV plant requires large area of land for its infrastructure and high insolation area;hence it is not possible to commission the large size PV Photo Voltaic plant very near the load centre. This createsa gap between power generation and power demand which can be considered as transmission loss. This paper is certainly an initiative to counter Global warming and serious hazards of pollution.
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Challenges of Increased Wind Energy Penetration in Ireland

Challenges of Increased Wind Energy Penetration in Ireland

This paper serves as a contextual outline of some relevant issues in wind deployment in Ireland. It has been established that various issues surrounding the interaction between wind energy and the electricity network are some of the more formidable obstacles to increased deployment of wind generation. There is a requirement to address these in a rigorous manner based on detailed analysis. While high levels of penetration are feasible without significant system reinforcement [12], there are many technical challenges which need to be overcome before they can be realised. These challenges include, fault ride through capability, development of robust and reliable models for use in power system studies, novel operating methodologies and changes to grid codes, practices and regulatory structures. These challenges are all surmountable but need to be done in a cost effective and timely manner in order to facilitate the deployment of large amounts of wind generation in a timely manner.
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The potential of variable speed diesel application in increasing renewable energy source penetration

The potential of variable speed diesel application in increasing renewable energy source penetration

Case studies simulation has been used to assess the economic viability of variable speed diesel application for remote island electrification. The case study presented considers the island of Kondey, located within the Republic of Maldives. The Republic of Maldives represents a vast island nation consisting of 199 inhabited islands. The islands are formed on a chain of 26 coral reef atolls situated within the Indian Ocean, 800km due south west of Sri Lanka. Approximately a third of inhabited islands have populations of less than 1000 people [32]. All islands are primarily serviced by diesel generation, with the more remote islands facing some of the highest cost and lowest reliability electricity generation. Cost for energy within the Republic of Maldives have historically exceeded $400/MWh, with smaller and more remote loads paying considerably more for diesel supply and transport [33]. In recognition of increasingly volatile diesel fuel pricing, and the adverse impacts of climate change on the low lying atoll community, the Government of Maldives is planning to become a low to carbon neutral economy within the next decade [34]. The most suitable technologies for the Republic of Maldives include wind and solar PV, however space is strictly limited in most applications, with communities tasked to maximise the capacity factor or efficiency of each installation. Within this context, variable speed diesel application holds the potential to increase both the efficiency of the existing diesel generation, but also to increase renewable energy penetration from existing wind and solar assets. Importantly, the approach would not require any additional land area.
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Electromagnetic heating for industrial kilning of malt: a feasibility study

Electromagnetic heating for industrial kilning of malt: a feasibility study

and 27 MHz, with a rapid increase in penetration depth below ~12% moisture content and a relatively consistent penetration depth above ~30% moisture content. The penetration depths calculated at the industrially utilised microwave frequencies of 2450 and 900 MHz represent a significant limitation in the application of microwave heating at the scales typically seen in commercial malt kilning processes. Typically kiln bed depths are in the order of 0.5-1 metre in height; given that the penetration depth of microwave energy at 900 MHz only reaches this scale below ~7% moisture microwave heating is not suited to batch processing at this scale, and would be more suitable for continuous processing. Whilst penetration depth challenges at microwave frequencies have been overcome by tumbling materials with the microwave field (Filly et al. 2014), this is likely to be impractical at commercial scale. Likewise, microwave systems with multiple energy feeds can be designed that increase the volume of material effectively treated (Mehdizadeh 2015); however, the penetration depths at radio frequencies are an order of magnitude greater (metres vs cm) and this strongly indicates that radio frequency heating is most technically feasible for the dielectric kilning of malt at industrial scales.
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Economics of renewable energy integration and energy storage via low load diesel application

Economics of renewable energy integration and energy storage via low load diesel application

Low Load Diesel (LLD) is the name assigned to modified engine application, allowing an engine’s full capacity to be employed. LLD is implemented via removal of an engine’s low load limit, as set within the station sequencer or controller. LLD is applicable to all diesel engine makes and models, irrespective of age or capacity [21,27,28]. The ability to exploit existing diesel assets results in a very low capital cost and minimal hardware or software disruption. Conventionally, load limits are set between 30% and 40% of an engine’s rated capacity, prohibiting operation below this level. Engine manufacturers stipulate compliance with load limits as part of their standard warranty terms and conditions. Subsequently, most power system operators adopt the practice across an engine’s lifetime [3]. Unfortunately, as the available renewable generation increases, load limits serve to restrict the balance of generation offered to any renewable technologies (Figure 1a). LLD allows for improved engine response, permitting engine operation across its full range, opening up an additional 30–40% of engine capacity for renewable pairing Figure 1b. All three scenarios presented in Figure 1a–c assume an identical twin peak load profile and RE resource. In all cases the consumer load is met by diesel and/or renewable generation. If no renewable generation is available, the load is met entirely via diesel generation. If renewable generation is available, the load is met by the renewable generation plus diesel generation, with the diesel generation able to reduce to the specified low load limit. In this manner, the lower the diesel load limit, the greater share of renewable generation can be utilized. If the available renewable generation exceeds the consumer load, this generation is spilt from the system. High renewable spillage can be addressed via the integration of energy storage (Figure 1c).
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Energy Absorption Buildup factor for some Oxide Glasses: Penetration Depth, Photon Energy and Effective Atomic Number Dependence

Energy Absorption Buildup factor for some Oxide Glasses: Penetration Depth, Photon Energy and Effective Atomic Number Dependence

energy and fails to remove a photon completely. Because of multiple scattering of photons they exist for longer time in material which leads to a higher value of buildup factor. Here it is also observed that at gamma ray energy around 0.2 MeV, buildup factor value is very high because of exclusive dominance of Compton effect. Furthermore it is also observed that for energies greater than 2.0 MeV, the dominance of pair production phenomenon over Compton effect increases, so values of buildup factor decreases. The variation of EABF with incident photon energy seems to be independent of chemical composition of above materials beyond 2.0 MeV respectively.
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Grid Synchronization Method for Three-Phase Three-Wire Networks under Grid Fault Conditions

Grid Synchronization Method for Three-Phase Three-Wire Networks under Grid Fault Conditions

[1] A. Zervos and C. Kjaer, Pure Power: Wind Energy Scenarios for 2030. Brussels, Belgium: European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), Apr. 2008. [Online]. Available: http://www.ewea.org/index.php?id=11 [2] e-on, “Grid code—High and extra high voltage,” Bayreuth, Germany. Apr. 2006.

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Grid Voltage Synchronization for Distributed Generation Systems under Grid Fault Conditions

Grid Voltage Synchronization for Distributed Generation Systems under Grid Fault Conditions

Nowadays, the use of power electronics and information and communication technology (ICT) applications are key issues in the development of future electrical networks. The high penetration of renewable energy sources such as wind power and photovoltaic, experienced in the last decades is a good example, as both generation systems are connected to the grid by means of power electronics- based power processors, that should not only control the power delivered to the network, but also contribute to the grid stability, supporting the grid services voltage/frequency under generic conditions, even under grid faults. One of the most important issues in the connection of power converters to the grid is the synchronization with the grid voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC) .Although the grid voltage waveforms are sinusoidal and balanced under regular operating conditions, they can easily
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Monte Carlo Simulation and a Review of the Physics of the Positron Annihilation Process in PET

Monte Carlo Simulation and a Review of the Physics of the Positron Annihilation Process in PET

In this paper, we investigate the physics of the positron annihilation process, which occurs in a PET imaging system. In particular, the diffusion of beta particles (positrons) within water was addressed. Beta particles are emitted isotropically from the same source point with random directions and randomly chosen energy levels. After traversing a certain dis- tance within water, beta particles lose a certain amount of its energy. The inelastic collisions with atomic electrons are mainly responsible for the energy dissipation of charged particles, such as electrons and positrons (that have low mass). The energy loss rate due to inelastic process is estimated by using the Beta-Bloch formula. These results help in under- standing how to develop and implement a computationally efficient Monte Carlo Simulation of the positron annihilation process.
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A Grid Synchronization Method for Three-Phase Three-Wire Networks under Grid Fault Conditions

A Grid Synchronization Method for Three-Phase Three-Wire Networks under Grid Fault Conditions

The high penetration of renewable energy sources such as wind power and photovoltaic, experienced in the last decades is a good example, as both generation systems are connect[r]

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Dynamic Control of FACTS devices to enable large scale penetration of Renewable Energy Resources.

Dynamic Control of FACTS devices to enable large scale penetration of Renewable Energy Resources.

Modern electric power systems are widely interconnected, with different utilities interconnected with each other using high voltage transmission lines. A highly interconnected electrical network allows the pooling of generation resources and loads to achieve optimum power generation while reducing transmission losses [2]. Currently, the system load and generation capacity is projected to increase at a steady rate due to population growth and increased per capita consumption of electricity [3]. Further, the increased penetration of distributed renewable energy resources alters the local power flows in an unpredictable manner due to the non-deterministic power output of these energy resources. Faced with these changes, the utilities need to reinforce the power system infrastructure by increasing its capacity and making the transmission network smarter, fault tolerant and self-healing.
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Research Article From Firm Solar Power Forecasts to Firm Solar Power Generation An effective path to ultra-high renewable penetration A New York Case Study

Research Article From Firm Solar Power Forecasts to Firm Solar Power Generation An effective path to ultra-high renewable penetration A New York Case Study

Abstract: We introduce firm solar forecasts as a strategy to operate optimally overbuilt solar power plants in conjunction with optimally sized storage systems so as to make up for any power prediction errors, hence entirely remove load balancing uncertainty emanating from grid-connected solar fleets. A central part of this strategy is plant overbuilding that we term implicit storage. We show that strategy, while economically justifiable on its own account, is an effective entry step to least-cost ultra-high solar penetration where firm power generation will be a prerequisite. We demonstrate that in absence of an implicit storage strategy, ultra-high solar penetration would be vastly more expensive. Using the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) as a case study, we determine current and future cost of firm forecasts for a comprehensive set of scenarios in each ISO electrical region, comparing centralized vs. decentralized production and assessing load flexibility’s impact. We simulate the growth of the strategy from firm forecast to firm power generation. We conclude that ultra-high solar penetration enabled by the present strategy, whereby solar would firmly supply the entire NYISO load, could be achieved locally at electricity production costs comparable to current NYISO wholesale market prices.
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FEM Analysis of Ogive Nose Projectile Impact on Aluminum Plates

FEM Analysis of Ogive Nose Projectile Impact on Aluminum Plates

The present study is a numerical investigation on the behavior of thin aluminum plates of 2 mm, 4 mm thickness subjected to impact by ogival nosed projectile. Projectile was impacted on the targets with varying the projectile velocities. Impact and residual velocities have been predicted and energy absorbed by the target plates has been predicted. Residual velocity and velocity drop of the projectiles have been related to the impact velocity and plate thickness.

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The Role of Energy Support Schemes in Renewable Energy Market Penetration

The Role of Energy Support Schemes in Renewable Energy Market Penetration

This qualitative case study focused on issues of how energy subsidies and other support instruments could pro- mote the diffusion of renewable energy in Finland and selected other European countries. The results revealed that RE is subsidised and supported by varying methods in different countries, but fossil fuels are also subsidised by enormous funding by many nations. The most common support mechanisms are feed-in tariffs and production premiums that guarantee a certain price for the electricity fed into the grid. Some of the key informants also criticised the fact that in some countries the subsidies are too extensive, increasing the consumer prices and skewing free competi- tion. As regards renewable energy innovation and diffusion, the most sustainable growth appears to take place in coun- tries like Denmark and Germany, for example, that imple- ment a predictable, long-term, and broad portfolio of support schemes for renewable energy. Direct energy subsidies and indirect price-based incentives are the most important in- struments, but other support forms, such as government or private investments into an adequate energy infrastructure and general public support are equally important for the diffusion of wind power and bio-energy. The biggest hin- drances include unpredictable short-term stop-and-go sup- port policies, and uncompetitive emerging technologies. Based on the favorable diffusion of RES in the studied countries, Denmark and Germany, and the key informants’ opinions, we can conclude that the most probable future scenario is that the share of RES will increase significantly in countries that implement adequate support schemes. The wide diffusion of wind power and bio-energy paves the way to their competitiveness without subsidies in 10-20 years. The study contributes to earlier research by confirming that a predictable, long-term array of support instruments is necessary for the competitiveness of emerging technologies and ecosystems prior to their technological maturity and the effects of scale of economies, for example.
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Perormance Optimization of a Hybrid Wind Turbine-diesel Microgrid Power System

Perormance Optimization of a Hybrid Wind Turbine-diesel Microgrid Power System

systems [24]. As indicated by the name, these systems do not utilize energy storage devices but rather rely on effective and timely power system management to provide for system stability. Some of the existing research is quite impressive, as exemplified by the creation of the MATLAB/Simulink SimPowerSystems™ module – created specifically to model transients for these types of systems. Although excellent work in this area continues, little attention has been given to those systems that rely on diesel generators for their thermal capacity [18-20]. For example, most of the Antarctic systems rely solely on diesel generators to provide for both their thermal and electrical needs. When a wind turbine system is added, the use of the diesel generators is minimized but this also reduces or entirely eliminates the thermal supply for these facilities. As a result, these facilities typically rely on fossil-fueled boilers for their thermal needs.
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