After giving some global information about the country, we will analyze the economic trends of Brazil and the energy policy set up for the last decades. The current energy sector will be developed in a section with both renewable and conventional energies.
The main part of the report will focus on the study of the renewable energypotential of Brazil. For each of the renewable energies, we will assess the technical potential of all regions of Brazil, based on official data, and identify the most suitable areas for the specific energy to be tapped. We will then focus on the market penetration, advantages and issues of such exploitations.
New Zealand is targeting 90 percent of electricity generation to be from renewable sources by 2025, providing electricity supply is secure. This target is challenging but realistic, given New Zealand’s untapped renewable energypotential, our expertise in renewable development, and our Emissions Trading Scheme. That said, the electricity system faces a number of challenges to the achievement of this goal. New projects face consenting restraints. Integrating intermittent renewable energy into the existing system creates system challenges. Some types of renewable energy are located in areas remote from the main grid, requiring transmission investment.
In Rondônia little is known about the behavior of solar radiation, thus follows in this paper the maximum annual distribution, minimum and average for global and direct solar radiation, the annual distribution of temperature, the maximum possible sunshine for the city of Rolim de Moura, thus providing useful information for planning and use of renewable resources. In the article follows a literature review on the conceptual characterization of the sun, solar radiation, the photothermal and photovoltaic energy, radiation measuring instruments, types of cells, the conversion of solar energy into electrical, designing a photovoltaic system, evaluation of the energypotential from the perspective of solar energy. The mathematical equations are described in material and methods. The results show that Rolim de Moura in Rondônia (Brazil), has adequate solar energypotential, but there is electricity in rural areas and the high cost of the initial investment for a solar system, makes this type of energy is not used. In addition, ends the work with the considerations final.
Technical barriers were resulted from the lack of standards on bioenergy systems and equipment, especially where the energy sources are so diverse [ 58 ]. Biomass technologies are still in emerging stage in Myanmar. Despite the research findings for the rural development of some areas by several non-governmental organizations, only limited research and development have been made on the biomass energy utilization for local communities. Insufficient and inaccurate data collection and information about biomass energy sources could make energy planners and project developers completely hard to implement the sustainable development of biomass energy sector in Myanmar. Although the local research institutions and universities could predominantly carry out the research and development of biomass energy, most research institutions and universities are hardly gaining specific research grants by the ministries or the government annually. Therefore, the concerned ministries will need to take a strong cooperation with the local research institutions to create and innovate the green technologies (in some cases, locally accessible and affordable technologies) that are well suited to the local conditions. Local technological standards for the different biomass energy sources could be carried out by the cooperation of the ministries, technical consultancy agencies and research institutions. Therefore, if the government or ministries would support reasonable grants or finical aids to the biomass energy research projects, including technical and economic research, the biomass energy sector could be comparatively advanced in the country.
rewarding the electrical energy as there is small drop in this energy due to more demand and decline tendencies of conventional source of powers collapse of fuels like coal, petroleum, natural gases and constant of environmental and climatic deviations to manage active this photovoltaic connection is being done in an electrical structure to recompense and develop the energy. A photovoltaic installation in an electrical structure is made from the gathering of numerous photovoltaic units that uses solar energy to produce the electricity in a low-priced way from sun energy. Till now the usage and scope of solar energy is limited and has not extended up to crowds also the effectiveness of the system is also short due to which the output is not sufficient as associated to input as in some installed case of solar panel it has been experimental that effectiveness is not more that 27%. To make it multipurpose and additional valuable for the masses innovative trends and innovations resolve will help. These take deliberated in this paper. A numerous of technical difficulties aﬀecting renewable energy investigation are also decorated, beside with beneﬁcial interfaces among regulation policy frameworks. In order to help open different ways with affection to solar energy study and carry out, a future roadmap for the ﬁeld of solar research is discussed.
required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by any international standards. However, the Department of Energy has introduced the White Paper on Renewable Energy and Clean Energy Development to support a less carbon-intensive energy economy. This requires 10000 GWh of energy to come from renewable sources, mainly biomass, wind, and solar by 2013. This along with the Integrated Energy Plan, are policies that are trying to make the country more sustainable in the future. Currently, companies like Aurora are trying set up solar farms to meet the energy needs of the country. Another company, Building Energy Africa in conjunction with WBHO, plans to complete the Kathu Solar Park by 2014.
Key issues in Africa’s energy sector are insufficient generation capacity and poor system reliability . Scholars, experts, entrepreneurs, corporations, and inter- national development agencies are leveraging their resources to support Africa’s energy development efforts. A noteworthy initiative is Power Africa by the US Agency for International Development (USAID). Power Africa has kindled in- terest in, mobilized financial support for, and incentivized technical assistance toward Africa’s energy situation , . Power Africa promotes renewable en- ergy. This thesis focuses on the economics of solar photovoltaic (PV) applications in Nigeria.
modification through increased discharge of carbon dioxide, particulates and other materials. Nuclear energy, while imposing no threat of climate modification, is associated with serious problems, such as waste disposal, accidents and weapons proliferation. Nuclear energy also releases waste heat into the environment through on site cooling processes and through transportation and use of the electricity it produces. In short, continuous uses of fossil fuels are bound to pollute the atmosphere and consequently unwanted greenhouse and climate change effects will come to dominate every part of the earth. It is, therefore, vital to exploit clean energy resources, and for many nations in the world to try to assess their environmentally friendly, clean energy resources such as geothermal energy.
Fortunately, domestic natural gas is relatively abundant. The Potential Gas Committee, in their latest assessment, estimated that the U.S. has a total natural gas resource base of about 2,074 trillion cubic feet (Tcf). This figure includes 1,836 Tcf of potential natural gas resources (including probable, possible, and speculative resources) and 238 Tcf of proved reserves. However, as demand for natural gas continues to grow, more supplies will be needed. Natural gas has many end-uses. It provides fuel for residential heating, and it is the fuel of choice for a wide range of industries, including paper and chemical production, petroleum refining, and glass manufacturing. It is used as a feedstock to produce fertilizers, chemicals, fabrics, pharmaceuticals, plastics, and electric power generation. Total electricity generation capacity from natural gas is projected to increase from 338 gigawatts in 2008 (33 percent of total capacity) to about 454 gigawatts in 2035 (46 percent of total capacity). While the volume of natural gas used to fuel vehicles is comparatively small, it is also growing. The amount of natural gas used for transportation in the U.S. tripled from 1998 to 2008, and it is projected to triple again by 2025.
Thirdly, even if the above mentioned conditions are fulfilled, still the natural gas sector in Macedonia remains highly dependent on the development of the infrastructure in the country as well as the building connections to the regional pipeline network. Because Macedonia does not poses domestic reserves of natural gas the development of the natural gas sector is the most important issue that concerns the entire energy sector in Macedonia. Except the 98 km long transmission pipeline currently the country does not possess any primary and secondary infrastructure that will allow for increased exploitation of the natural gas and will secure the energy stability within the regional context. Thus, Macedonia needs urgent realization of new infrastructure projects. The latter requires big financial investments and respect of the principles of transparency in the government’s work, law enforcement and lawful resolution of the pipeline ownership dispute between “Makpetrol” and the Government of Macedonia. Without resolution of this issue mobilization of finance for projects reliant on the pipeline will be problematic.
Firstly, utilize advanced energy-saving technologies to gradually make China’s industrial energy efficiency reach world-leading levels, and continue to refine mandatory national standards for energy consumption per unit product in key industries. Secondly, implement a green building plan to promote energy efficient building, and improve the level of energy efficiency with the support of regulations, technology, standards and design. Thirdly, promote energy-efficient transportation; speed up the construction of comprehensive transport systems; optimize transportation structure; encourage the use of energy efficient and environmentally friendly vehicles; promote the construction of energy efficient transportation infrastructure; increase investment in research and develop- ment of new energy vehicles; scientifically plan the construction of supporting facilities for gas refilling, battery charging, amongst other areas.
This growth in interest in energy storage was recently emphasized in Ontario, via that province’s recent Long- Term Energy Plan, which calls for the procurement of 50 MW of energy storage capacity by the end of 2014. Consequently, an energy storage procurement framework was jointly submitted by the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) and Ontario Power Authority (OPA), and supported by the Minister of Energy in the province. The procurement framework allows for a diverse portfolio of energy storage technologies, so as to foster improved understanding of and experience with 1) the services energy storages can provide, 2) the bene- fits they bring to operations and 3) how storage can best be integrated into electricity markets. In Phase I of the procurement framework, released March 12, 2014, the IESO issued a request for proposals for up to 35 MW of grid energy storage capacity from various storage technologies that can provide ancillary and other grid services (e.g., energy time-shifting, transmission congestion relief).
Experiences encountered during Project SENSIBLE have underlined the need for a stable policy and regulations for the community energy sector, and the definition of a replicable energy storage framework. On the one hand, the UK government has lauded the potential benefits of community energy and energy storage in meeting national and local climate-change objectives and energy security targets (Department of Energy and Climate Change, 2014, Paliamentary Office of Science & Technology, 2015). On the other hand, minimal progress has been made in dismantling the identified regulatory barriers (Bird & Bird, 2016, Community Energy England, 2016, New Power, 2016, Regen SW, 2016, Renewable Energy Association, 2016). Whereas it is appreciated that the government is keen to take a consultative approach to the matter (Department for Energy and Climate Change, 2015, Office of Gas and Electricity Markets, 2016), it is hoped that it will go ahead and set long-term policy guidelines that make it easier for the market to embrace energy storage, especially where regulations negatively affect the interaction of smaller players such as community energy groups. In the Meadows, the relationship with the DNO has been challenging. Despite early contact with them, the approval system has been especially difficult with a lack of clarity encountered from the onset preventing timely connections and leading to project delays. Additional costs for witness testing of equipment demanded by the DNO has led to extra costs of approximately £20,000 for just four installations. In hind-sight, more thought should have gone into debunking the potential problems related to the installation of storage and monitoring equipment. As the project deadlines were not built around the supply of equipment, the supply date has been pushed back many times jeopardising the ability to collect a whole year’s data stream.
The losses in the electrical network are of the order of 8% as per the data available even though precise evaluation of the distribution losses in the electrical network is not possible unless a long duration study of loading of various sub- networks is carried out. The surveys of load cum power quality with power analyser at various load centres indicates that the PF is low at many places resulting in flow of higher currents and consequential higher distribution losses. Thus, a distributed PF correction can yield significant reduction in energy losses in the distribution system. The harmonics are very high at some places at the airport, which call for mitigation action. Though the energy losses caused by these harmonics may not be significant, the functional performance of sensitive equipment may be adversely affected by harmonics and therefore, there is need for mitigation action.
government has promised to invest 38 billion pounds to improve the railway network, which is mainly to speed up and build high speed railway. In July 2017, the British Parliament approved the construction of a 550 kilometer high-speed rail Connecting cities such as London, Bermingham, Mann, Chester and Liz. The rate of railway electrification will be improved quickly if the United States can achieve its massive high-speed railway program. Australia announced the feasibility study of high speed railway in 2013, planning to build a full length of 1748km with a designed speed of not less than 300km high-speed railway on the east coast. The project will cost $114 billion. According to the report from Czech News Agency in February 24, 2016, Czech's Prime Minister Sobotka announced on his twitter that he and Stanislaw Tillich, the governor of Isaacson, Germany, had agreed to support the high speed railway construction between Prague and Dresden. It can be said that, from the global point of view, the development of high speed railway is in the ascendant. According to the data from the Union of International Railway, the high-speed rail under construction in the world is 15,790km, and the planned high-speed track is 35,061km. A recent study by the Boston consultancy group, a US consultancy, predicted that the global high-speed rail market was worth about $133 billion in 2019, higher than the value of $112 billion in 2014. It can be seen that the development space of electric traction is considerably large, which creates a solid technical platform for the large-scale application of new and renewable energy.
Pakistan is blessed with huge potential of solar and wind resources that can be utilized for energy creation. GOP has decided to grow new renewable energy projects especially wind and solar based on budget availability. According to (SDPI, 2014), GOP has included various renewable and non-renewable energy projects in two scenarios (see Table 3, 4). Over the last five years, eighteen wind power projects of 1006MW accumulative capacity are supplying electricity to the national grid, while five solar energy projects of 430MW capacity have been made operational in 2018. Power generation from bagasse, approximate six sugar mills with a capacity of 201MW are working. The comparison of different renewable energy sources and non-renewable energy sources are given below Table 3, 4. According to the latest two scenarios provide heavy investment on solar, wind, and bagasse from 2014 to 2035. According to (IRENA, 2015), the average value of PV modules drops by nearly 80%. At the same time, the price of wind turbines also fell by 33%. This situation can make Pakistan most prosperous in energy growth. Technology is the main barrier in Pakistan because of the high cost in technology import. Additionally, Pakistan seems low-cost coal and gas energy for the future which is not supportive of climate and human life. For this, policymakers must take actions towards technologies making renewables more instantly cost-effective. Moreover, in Pakistan, most of the electric companies have a monopoly on electric distribution, and they should encourage cost-effectiveness and energy efficiency measures. For example, the World Bank's Regulatory Indicators for Sustainable Energy (RISE) advise a task force to screen and evaluate energy output in a country (World Bank, 2016)(World Bank, 2016). So far, the Government of Pakistan has approved the maximum budget for the renewables in promoting the energy efficiency of Pakistan.
The crucial turning point for E-infinity was when the Author’s basic work came in touch with the work on non-commutative geometry  . In particular the superb analysis which the great French mathematician Alain Connes undertook on Penrose’s Fractal Tiling Universe using Von-Neumann’s pointless geometry   is in re- trospect the most important central piece in our current understanding of high energy physics and cosmology -. It turned out that the bijection formula which relates the Hausdorff dimension of an n -dimensional Cantor manifold to its topological di- mension n