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A 200 year precipitation index for the Central English Lake District

A 200 year precipitation index for the Central English Lake District

Abstract The geographical context and hydroclimatology of the English Lake District means that the region is an important monitor of changes to nationally significant environmental assets. Using monthly rainfall series for sites in and around the central Lake District, a continuous ~200-year precipitation index was constructed for a repre- sentative station close to Grasmere. The bridged series shows a significant decline in summer rainfall since the 1960s, offset by increases in winter and spring that are strongly linked to North Atlantic forcing. Over longer time periods, the index exhibits several notable dry (1850s, 1880s, 1890s, 1930s, 1970s) and wet (1820s, 1870s, 1920s, 1940s, 1990s) decades. These patterns are strongly reflected by reservoir inflow series and by indicators of the biological status of the region’s freshwater lakes. It is argued that long-term climate indices will become increasingly important as managers seek to evaluate recent and project environmental changes within the context of long-term natural variability.
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The outdoor pursuits phenomenon and accommodation provision in the English Lake District c.1930-1997

The outdoor pursuits phenomenon and accommodation provision in the English Lake District c.1930-1997

There are almost 250 climbing and walking clubs affiliated to the British Mountaineering Council, which currently has 65,000 members. There are only a handful of clubs based in the Lake District but there are a large number of clubs in the north-west and north-east of England. Climbing clubs vary in their constituency; some are still men only. Some are national or international in their outlook and interests and some serve a local area. A number of clubs date from the end of the nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth century (the Fell and Rock Climbing Club of the English Lake District, the FRCC, originates from 1906). There was a resurgence in the post- war period, when many new clubs were formed, and one of the main reasons for joining a club in the 1950s and 60s was to obtain access to a hut (cheap accommodation). More than 20 clubs have so-called huts in the Lake District. These might be fairly large houses, former shepherd’s houses or barns and provide varying standards of accommodation. Most are rented properties but some are owned by the club itself.
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Lake remediation by top down and bottom up management:an ecosystem scale experiment in the English Lake District

Lake remediation by top down and bottom up management:an ecosystem scale experiment in the English Lake District

A simple before-after comparison suggests that the removal of fish cages from the lake in 2009, and the consequent cessation of waste inputs, had little effect on the AEP concentration of sediments from the central impact basin. However, the interpretation of this result is confounded when the trajectory of sediment AEP concentration in the northern control basin is also considered. While the BACI analysis confirmed that there was not a significant change in mean sediment AEP concentration in the central impact basin since the removal of the fish farm, it did determine a significant increase in the overall mean AEP concentration of lake sediments between 2001 and 2014. The mean AEP concentration of sediment in the northern control basin approximately doubled during this period. There are a few possible explanations for the increase, for example, an increase in the external phosphorus load to the lake or changes in the biogeochemical composition of the sediment, which resulted in the increased uptake of phosphorus from the water column. One of the fundamental assumptions of BACI analysis is that the environmental conditions which influence long-term trends in the response variable are comparable between the control and impact site (Stewart-Oaten et al. 1986). If variations in external phosphorus load or sediment characteristics were localised to the northern basin, its selection as control site in a BACI analysis to investigate the impact of the fish cage removal on the central impact basin would not be appropriate. Alternatively, it is possible that removal of aquaculture cages would have led to a decrease in sediment AEP concentration in the central impact basin, but this effect was masked by a lake-wide increase in sediment phosphorus uptake in recent years due to factors unrelated to fish farm operations. Another explanation is that the northern control basin, as the discharge point for most of the inflows to Esthwaite Water, retains much of the external phosphorus load, effectively buffering the central impact basin from increases in the external load over time. Therefore, the impact of phosphorus-rich aquaculture waste on sediment was not as obvious as it might have been had the external phosphorus load been retained uniformly by sediments throughout the lake.
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Implementing corpus analysis and GIS to examine historical accounts of the English Lake District

Implementing corpus analysis and GIS to examine historical accounts of the English Lake District

10 Studying the maps displayed in Figure 5 gives us a clearer sense of the areas throughout the Lake District with which “beautiful”, “picturesque”, and “sublime” are most commonly associated. What is most notable about these results is that whereas picturesque and beautiful most frequently occur in relation to locations near principle tourist centres (such as Grasmere, Ambleside, and Keswick), places that frequently collocate with sublime fall both near Keswick also in the region around Wasdale and Eskdale, which contains seven of the ten highest mountains in England. This finding suggests that the word sublime is most frequently associated with steep, mountainous terrain. In fact, if we tabulate the elevation of the locations associated with each search term—which can be done using a digital terrain model (see Gregory and Donaldson 2016)—we see that sublime is associated with places and features at high elevation more often than would be expected given the background geography of the corpus (Table 2).
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Hearing the silence: Finding the middle ground in the spatial humanities?:Extracting and comparing perceived silence and tranquility in the English Lake District

Hearing the silence: Finding the middle ground in the spatial humanities?:Extracting and comparing perceived silence and tranquility in the English Lake District

We saw earlier that it has certainly not always been the case that quietness was a desirable feature (Fisher 1999), and the greater linguistic variety of the CLDW indicates that quietness was a both a more common and a more complex phenomenon. William Gilpin, the Cumbrian curate most famous for his development of the picturesque mode of landscape evaluation, is influential over the promotion of quietness in the Lake District (Taylor 2018). In his Observations, Relative Chiefly to Picturesque Beauty (1786), Gilpin wrote of Lorton vale in the north-western Lakes that it was a place that could ‘pretend not to dignity’; it could only aspire to be a ‘mere [scene] of tranquillity’. Nevertheless, such a place held its own charms for Gilpin, not least because they had the potential to transport him into a particular mental state. He continued that he ‘might have wished for a quiet, tranquil hour, when the glimmering surfaces of things are sometimes perhaps more pleasing – at all times certainly more soothing, than images of the brightest hue’. Gilpin grammatically links quiet with tranquil here. Indeed, the lack of sound and move- ment in the surrounding area seems to calm his mind in ways that allow him to connect more effectively with the surrounding landscape; it is only in this quiet and tranquil state that Gilpin can appreciate the ‘glimmering surfaces of things’ around him.
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Population genetic structure of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes on Lake Victoria islands, west Kenya

Population genetic structure of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes on Lake Victoria islands, west Kenya

Mosquito migration may also be assisted by human activ- ities. A study on Aedes polynesiensis populations from islands found no significant effect of geographic distance on the population genetic structure, but detected a signif- icant correlation between gene flow and commercial traf- fic by planes and/or boats between islands [54]. The introduction of A. arabiensis to the Mascarene islands and Madagascar was thought to be caused by human transpor- tation by steamship lines [55,56]. In Lake Victoria, small wooden boats may transport mosquito larvae between the islands and the mainland. A. gambiae larvae were collected at the bottom of a wooden fishing boat [57]. Rushinga Island in the study area was connected to the mainland by a walkway, and the island mosquito larvae could be moved to the mainland by vehicle transportation. The results of this study of the population genetic stricture of island and mainland A. gambiae populations have implications for the ecological safety evaluation of the transgenic mosquito release program. During the initial field test of environmental safety and public health conse- quences by transgenic mosquito release, ideal sites would be islands that are totally genetically isolated from other islands and the mainland, with a sufficient number of human inhabitants and active malaria transmission on the island. Such an island may be extremely difficult to find, so islands with some genetic isolation from the mainland may have to be chosen. If so, the Lake Victoria islands could be used as field test sites; however, due to potential gene flow between the islands and between the islands and the mainland, mosquito dispersal between the islands and between the islands and the mainland should be vigorously monitored. After the release of the genetically modified mosquitoes, long-term monitoring programs should be launched to evaluate the spread of the transgenes to any unintended areas. In addition, methods to minimize the negative effects of transgene leak need to be developed prior to the field trial of trans- gene release [58].
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Macrozoobenthic community as biological indicators of pollution in Anchar lake of Kashmir

Macrozoobenthic community as biological indicators of pollution in Anchar lake of Kashmir

lake, Trigam Lake, Nigeen Lake, Khushalsar Lake, Wullar Lake, Anchar Lake and Nilnag Lake. The valley of Kashmir is also known as “Valley of Lakes” due to abundance of lakes and these lakes which are principle component of its of tourist attraction. The rapidly expanding human populations and the fast urbanization in addition to natural siltation threatening these ecosystems as Anchar Lake plays an important role in the regeneration and conservation of biological resources besides irrigation, water supply, transportation, fishery and wildlife. At the same time, it is becoming the victim of cultural eutrophication, which in turn is due to the increase in anthropogenic pressures in its catchment area ., 1980; Pandit, 1999). Population explosion, rapid rate of encroachments and increased utilization of lake waters for irrigation and disposal of sewage and sewerage from the adjoining settlements, development of floating gardens
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A working paper of the first analysis of data from the Lake District Osprey Project visitor survey, 2012

A working paper of the first analysis of data from the Lake District Osprey Project visitor survey, 2012

The previous figure shows the distance travelled from home for visitors staying longer than one night in the Lake District, who visited either Dodd Wood or Whinlatter Visitor Centre to view ospreys. Total number of respondents staying >1 night in Lake District was 163 (70.6% of respondents)

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Gold Mineralisation at the FAT Deposit, Courageous Lake Greenstone Belt, Northwest Territories, Canada

Gold Mineralisation at the FAT Deposit, Courageous Lake Greenstone Belt, Northwest Territories, Canada

deformation does not correlate spatially with mineralisation. The CLGB formed as a volcanic succession that was deposited on a 3218 Ma sodic granitoid gneissic complex. Periodic volcanism commencing at 2660 Ma formed an extrusive cycle of mafic flows to rhyolitic tuffs. The felsic units reach a maximum (post compression) thickness of 1800m proximal to the FAT deposit. Volcanic textures of the rocks hosting the FAT deposit are well preserved sub-aerial lapilli and lesser amounts of ash and bomb tuff. There is periodic intercalation with aqeuously reworked beds. These are overlain by greywacke turbiditic rocks. Three distinct structural/metamorphic events have affected the Courageous Lake Greenstone Belt: 1. compression and vertical tilting of stratigraphy and associated regional dynamothermal metamorphism to mid-greenschist facies commencing at 2592Ma; 2. concurrent discreet thermal metamorphism associated with local granitic intrusions; and 3. late retrograde hydrothermal alteration.
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Digital literary geography and the difficulties of locating 'Redgauntlet Country'

Digital literary geography and the difficulties of locating 'Redgauntlet Country'

Collectively, this corpus comprises nearly 100 works written between the early seventeenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century. The earliest items in the corpus are extracts from Michael Drayton’s chorographical poem Poly-Olbion (1622). The most recent item is the twenty-second edition of Adam and Charles Black’s popular ‘shilling’ Lakeland guidebook (1900). Arranged between these two titles is a diverse collection of accounts of the Lake District and its adjacent environs. In some instances, these appear as selections from works that are only partly concerned with the Lake District, such as Thomas Pennant’s A Tour in Scotland, and Voyage to the Hebrides (1774). For the most part, however, the
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Ecological Importance of Wetlands and Samples in Konya Closed Basin

Ecological Importance of Wetlands and Samples in Konya Closed Basin

The KCB area is located in the south of Ankara in the heart of Turkey (fig. 1). The area consists of two closed sub-basins that will further be referred to as Tuz Basin and Konya Basin ( Schipper and Schot, 2004 ). Each of them is characterized by the presence of a large lake, respectively Tuz Lake and Beysehir Lake ( Camur and Mutlu, 1995 ). The high mountains in the south of KCB belong to the Toros range, made up of Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous limestones, schists and Cretaceous limestones ( Meester 1971 ). The area is surrounded by mountains, reaching a height of up to 3200 m in the south. The central parts of the area are characterized by the presence of plains at an elevation of 900 – 1000 m. ( Schipper and Schot, 2004 ). The area covers an area 65.322 km 2 , and is located in the Aksaray, Ankara, Antalya, Isparta, Ġçel, Karaman, Konya, NevĢehir, Niğde provinces consist of 8.3% of Turkey's land area, and 12.14% of the agricultural area (2.889.500 ha).
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Guide to the Littoral Zone Vascular Flora of Carolina Bay Lakes.

Guide to the Littoral Zone Vascular Flora of Carolina Bay Lakes.

White Lake’s remarkable water clarity is attributed to the presence of artesian springs on the lake bottom (Wells and Boyce 1953). The clarity of the lake’s water yields a deep euphotic zone (i.e., sunlight can penetrate through the entirety of the water column) with submerged aquatic macrophytes (e.g., Myriophyllum humile (Raf.) Morong; N. Howell pers. obs.) present at the lakes deepest depths. White Lake receives its hydrologic inputs principally in two forms, precipitation and groundwater (through springs). Although this lake is primarily fed by springs, its overall water levels are determined by the regional water table (i.e., during drought years, White Lake’s water levels will drop just like all other bay lakes). Another unique feature of White Lake is the location of its outlet channel. White Lake’s outlet channel is located in the northwestern half of the lake as opposed to the southeastern half where it occurs in all other bay lakes. Frey (1954) reported that William Bartram, a renowned naturalist who documented the flora, fauna, and Native American culture of the southeastern United States in the 18 th century, operated a sawmill on White Lake during the 20 years following 1770. A map in Bartram and Harper (1942) shows that White Lake was formerly called Lake Bartram. Available water quality parameters for White Lake are provided in Table 11.
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Satellite microwave assessment of Northern Hemisphere lake ice phenology from 2002 to 2015

Satellite microwave assessment of Northern Hemisphere lake ice phenology from 2002 to 2015

This study utilizes satellite passive microwave remote sens- ing to detect lake ice changes for 5 km lake pixels in the Northern Hemisphere, with a particular focus on lake ice phenology in the mid- and high latitudes ( ≥ 30 ◦ N). The domain (Fig. 1) includes the high northern pan-Arctic re- gion and high-altitude Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, which are data-sparse but strongly sensitive to the Arctic amplifica- tion effect (Serreze and Francis, 2006; Woo et al., 2007) and/or elevation-dependent warming (Wang et al., 2011; Mountain Research Initiative EDW Working Group, 2015). Both regions are also characterized by cold climate con- ditions with extensive winter ice cover. The resulting do- main includes three sets of lakes for algorithm evaluation and lake ice phenology analysis. Among the lakes analyzed, four are represented in the Global Lake and River Ice Phe- nology Database (GLRIPD) (Benson and Magnuson, 2000) and were used to evaluate the LIP estimates on a per pixel basis against available ground-based observations; the four GLRIPD lakes evaluated include Lake Superior in the USA and Canada and Lake Oulujarvi, Lake Haukivesi, and Lake Paijanne in Finland. In addition, 12 North American lakes (GBL, GSL, Smallwood Lake, Nettiling Lake, Dubawnt Lake, Amadjuak Lake, Wollaston Lake, Baker Lake, Kasba Lake, Lesser Slave Lake, and Peter Pond Lake in Canada and Red Lake in USA) that experience annual breakup and freeze-up events were selected for lake-wide intercompar- isons between the LIP metrics derived from this study and alternative lake ice products from the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS) (Helfrich et al., 2007;
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Macrophyte diversity and trophic status of Sakhya Sagar Lake, Shivpuri, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Macrophyte diversity and trophic status of Sakhya Sagar Lake, Shivpuri, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Abstract: Aquatic habitats provide suitable environment for supporting survival of a diversity of aquatic life forms. The study was conducted in Sakhya Sagar Lake which is situated inside the Madhav National Park Shivpuri district of Madhya Pradesh. To assess the status and distribution of macrophytes, frequent trips were conducted in the study area. The plants were classified based on their habit and their presence was visually observed. A total of 16 plant species were recorded, of which 16 species, 5 species were sub-dominant, 6 species were common and 5 species were un- common. Among all the 16 plants 9 species are free floating, 4 species are submerged hydrophytes, 1 species is emergent type hydrophyte and 2 species are marginal hydrophytes. Aquatic macrophytes like Nymphaea nouchali, Nelumbo nucifera, Trapa natans, Ipomoea aquatica, Vallisnaria spiralis, Potamogeton crispus, and Azolla pinnata were recorded as the common plants of this lake. The trophic status and macrophyte diversity of Sakhya Sagar Lake has been discussed in the paper.
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A further note on the topography of Lake Fenton and district, National Park of Tasmania

A further note on the topography of Lake Fenton and district, National Park of Tasmania

It will be a race between the Lady Barron Creek and the Broad River as to which drainage system will drain Lake Fenton, but there is nothing more certain than that the lake will be drain[r]

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Conflicts over Natural Resource Scarcity in the Aquatic Ecosystem of the Lake Chilwa

Conflicts over Natural Resource Scarcity in the Aquatic Ecosystem of the Lake Chilwa

different groups as a result of the 2012 scarcity at Chisi based on the narratives of stratification, strain and cultural deviance [43, 44, 45]. Social stratification suggests that people violate the rules and regulations because of the breakdown of social control, while strain narrative views conflict as resulting from the anger that people experience over their inability to achieve legitimate social and economic success. These theories hold that most people share common values and beliefs but the ability to achieve them is differentiated throughout the social structure including gender inequalities [46]. Social structural differences between migrants and Chisi residents during the recession resulted in the former, especially the Nampeyas, being denied accommodation space on the island. However other migrants, expressly fish processors and traders, were allowed accommodation on the island. Subsequently, the Nampeyas constructed zimbowela, which later developed to established lake villages. Eventually other ancillary businesses, such as bars and grocery stores were opened in these villages. The zimbowela communities were independent of the local social arrangements where a village head was in charge of a village including its land. The situation brought up leadership questions on who controls the water space of the lake. It caused conflicts over access through competing claims of rightful authority over the water resources. Additionally, conflicts arose around waste management and general sanitation within the lake villages. Without safe domestic water and other waste disposal structures the villages became a health and sanitation hazard to the dwellers and even the surrounding communities. There was an outbreak of cholera on the mainland during the year which was entirely blamed on the zimbowela villages.
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Sex Ratio And Length-Weight Relationship Of Snakehead Fish ( Channa striata ) In Tempe Lake Wajo District, Indonesia

Sex Ratio And Length-Weight Relationship Of Snakehead Fish ( Channa striata ) In Tempe Lake Wajo District, Indonesia

Tempe Lake is one of the lakes that had considerable fisheries resources, one of which was snakehead fish. These fish was a fishery resource that has high economic value and was beneficial to human health because it was rich in albumin. This study aims to determine the sex ratio and the length-weight relationship of snakehead and carried out six months from September 2018 - February 2019. The Stratified Random Sampling method has been used to collect the data. The length weight relationship was analyzed using cubic equations and sex ratio by comparing the number of males and females in the sample. To find out whether the value of b equal 3 and whether the number of males and females was different is used the student t test and chi square test respectively. The results showed that 1,594 fish observed by gonad macroscopically had 515 (32.31%) males and 1,079 (67.69%) females, so that the sex ratio was 1: 2.10. The chi square test stated the number of males and females was different. The length weight relationship of male W = 0.115 L 3.060 , female W = 0.135L 2.966 and the combination W = 0.127L 3.003 . Student t-test results showed that b = 3 which
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Cholera outbreak caused by drinking lake water contaminated with human faeces in Kaiso Village, Hoima District, Western Uganda, October 2015

Cholera outbreak caused by drinking lake water contaminated with human faeces in Kaiso Village, Hoima District, Western Uganda, October 2015

We thank the Ministry of Health for giving us the opportunity to lead this outbreak investigation, and Hoima District Health Officer, Dr. Ruyonga, and health inspector, Fred Byenume, for their support during the investigation. We are highly indebted to Dr. Bao-Ping Zhu, US CDCs, for technical guidance during the fieldwork and data analysis, and critical review and revision of the final draft of the paper. We appreciate the health workers who volunteered to work at the CTC in Kaiso. We thank Mr. Chistmas Amooti for ensuring cold chain of samples in shipment to CPHL. We thank the village health workers in Kaiso for guiding us to find cases and administering the questionnaires. We thank the US CDCs for supporting the Uganda PHFP activities.
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Seasonal variations of physico chemical parameters from willington lake, cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu, India

Seasonal variations of physico chemical parameters from willington lake, cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu, India

The present study was carried out Seasonal variation of physico chemical parameters from Willington Lake (Latitude: 11° 20' 10" N; Longitude: 79° 32’ 40" E), Tittagudi taluk, Cuddalore district of Tamil d of one year from January 2016 to December 2016. The Mean (± SD) value of the Physico chemical parameters viz. Atmospheric Temperature, Water Temperature, Turbidity, Total Dissolved Solid, Electrical Conductivity, pH and Salinity was value was observed during summer season and the minimum was observed in Monsoon season. The Dissolved Oxygen, Total Alkalinity, Calcium, Nitrate, Nitrite, Phosphate and Silicate were also observed. The maximum value was recorded during Monsoon season and the minimum was investigated in summer season. It was concluded that the seasonal variation of physico chemical parameters to be governed by rainfall and the quality of water generally refers to the
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The magmatic and volatile evolution of gabbros hosting the Marathon PGE-Cu deposit: evolution of a conduit system

The magmatic and volatile evolution of gabbros hosting the Marathon PGE-Cu deposit: evolution of a conduit system

Sulfide minerals in the Geordie Lake gabbro consist of predominantly disseminated chalcopyrite and bornite that are generally associated with secondary hydrous minerals (Fig. 3.6a & b). Minor pyrite, pyrrhotite, pentlandite and digenite are also present (Fig. 3.6c). Chalcopyrite most often contains bornite exsolution flames and is commonly associated with magnetite. This assemblage is commonly replaced by a later-stage assemblage of chalcopyrite and magnetite (Fig. 3.6d), which is invariably intergrown with hydrous silicate minerals (actinolite, sericite, chlorite, biotite). Most late-stage chalcopyrite also contains bornite exsolution lamellae. Where pyrrhotite is present, it is also replaced by late-stage chalcopyrite and magnetite. Monomineralic grains of bornite and polycrystalline aggregates of bornite and chalcopyrite are also present. In the aggregates, bornite grains have smooth, rounded, equilibrium boundaries with chalcopyrite. Where the gabbro has been overprinted by albite, bornite grains contain chalcopyrite exsolution lamellae (Fig. 6e) in which the lamellae occur in three crystallographic orientations. In some samples, chalcopyrite is replaced by sphalerite (Fig. 3.6f). Chalcopyrite and bornite also occur in veins that mainly comprise magnetite (Fig. 3.7a & b) as well as in veins dominated by actinolite and/or chlorite (Fig. 3.7c, d, & f). The syenite that is bounded the GLG, and which postdates the gabbro, contains minor mineralization, which comprises predominantly chalcopyrite that has been largely replaced by either magnetite or sphalerite (Fig. 3.6f). Bornite is also present, both as monomineralic grains and as exsolution flames within chalcopyrite, but is not as abundant as in the gabbro. In a given sample, pyrite occurs as both euhedral and anhedral crystals. 3.4.2 Sulfur Isotopes
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