The learning of European languages in Japan dates back to 1608 and the beginning of trade with the Netherlands, when an elite group of Japanese scholars began to study the Dutch language, albeit with minimal contact. In 1853, Japan was opened to international trade after pushes from American groups, and English became the predominant foreign language of study. In 1868, the modernisation of Japan through the Meiji restoration saw many English- speaking foreigners travel to Japan to work, and the learning of the Englishlanguage increased in popularity in private language schools. After World War II, Englishlanguage influence intensified with the American occupation, and the implementation of American- centred economic policies. As Japan’s economy developed, the Japanese education system was influenced by kokusaika or internationalisation policies. Educational policies attached to these reforms aimed to bolster English communication skills, and Englishlanguageeducation became a priority in high school and university education.
Section 4, which sort of wraps up the discussions around innovation and change by discussing implementations for the actual teaching practice. This section starts with Chapter 14 by Tomlinson (2013) in which he discusses ‘innovation in materials development.’ With his broad, expert viewpoint in materials development, Tomlinson argues that many ESL course books, such as those produced commercially, have not undergone a significant change in the past 30 years and still focus on PPP (Presentation-Practice-Production) activities. However, there are also teaching and learning materials designed around the world that have incorporated innovation, such as emphasis on collaborative materials in Japan, discovery-driven materials in Oman, extensive reading materials in Lebanon and Japan, new technology supported materials in India and Sri Lanka, task-driven materials in Belgium, task-free activities in the UK, text-driven materials in Ethiopia and Namibia, and process drama materials in South Korea.
Since learning is social, at its best, it develops from inter- action with others, as perceptions are shared, information is exchanged, and problems are solved. This course focuses on pairing or grouping students to perform specific tasks or roles for inter/intra-professional communication. The course will facilitate the improvement of critical thinking and discourse concerning dental topics, including dentist- patient and inter/intra-professional interaction through so- cial interaction between their peers. The course aims to improve student’s social behavior outcomes and demon- strable evidence of self-confidence in social interaction. The type of interaction in a second-language class usually depends on the teachers and most teachers would use a mix of activities to develop fluency and accuracy. In fluency-oriented activities, students should be able to speak without much interruption, encouraging them to use as much of their language knowledge as they can. In accuracy-oriented activities, students should be able to focus on the correct usage of grammar or vocabulary, although relaxed communications should be considered more important than correct grammar. Therefore, teachers should prepare a syllabus that would allot more time on peer-interaction activities and special seminars on profes- sional growth such as speaking and presenting skills. Add- itionally, the school should be able to create a culture of dual language usage within the university not just among students but also among teachers in other departments.
the stated beliefs of teachers about language learning do not reflect their practices with different constraints; they are consistent with deeper, more general beliefs about learning  therefore, program implementation is not always in balance with the designed program . Some of the studies on teaching English in Japan, China, Bangladesh, Korea, Taiwan, Turkey, Chile, Malaysia, Libya, Philippines declare that teacher’s belief is one of the most significant reason why the program implementation fail most of the time. They argue that the teachers are generally indifferent and resist the reforms because they start the implementation of the new program without any idea and contribution or participation but with materials and the textbooks distributed by the Ministry of National Education (MONE) to teach as prescribed since the program change policies are generally top down processes [38,39]. Therefore the implementations mostly affected by the beliefs of the teachers. Even if the policy underlined to develop communicative skills, teachers have more traditional practices and they do not use communicative and student-centered approaches with an expected level [40,41,42,43,44,45,46]. Also, there is a strong tension between new Englishlanguage teaching course books with communicative language teaching activities and established grammar-translation teaching practices . A study in Malaysia points out although the teachers are urged to adopt communicative approaches; the main pedagogy of the teachers was rote, recitation, instruction and exposition that limited opportunities for students to participate in dialogue and discussion . Teachers only focus on reading, grammar and vocabulary and teaching based on their experience [38,39,40,41,42,43]. Also there is lack of necessary professional support and instructional materials to affect and improve the beliefs of the teachers [44,46,47,48,49,50,51
The purpose of this study is to describe Text-to-Speech (TTS) Technology: its history, mechanism, systems, and structures. This study explains how to produce artificially digital, synthesized English TTS speech sounds on personal laptop/desktop computers; further, it addresses the validity of TTS speech sounds for Japanese learners. Users can produce English speech sounds by using the downloaded TTS system on their personal computers. There are numerous English audio materials for English as a foreign language (EFL) education in Japan. However, almost all Englishlanguage audio learning materials used in Japanese schools are developed by commercial publishing companies. As Japanese teachers of English (JTEs), we sometimes feel that such audio materials do not fit our students’ English abilities. The result of five studies using English TTS sounds for Japanese EFL learners proved that none of the participants noticed that the sounds were artificially digital, synthesized sounds produced by personal computers. This finding implies that using TTS is one way for Englishlanguage teachers—not only in Japan, but also in other EFL countries—to produce English audio materials that fit their students’ Englishlanguage abilities.
entrepreneurial factors were important and essential to run the non-formal Englisheducation industry. A study conducted by Ireland et al. (2003) describes strategic entrepreneurship as one way to gain competitive advantages, which are supported by creativity and innovation. Company innovation is realized with the ability of its managers to manage resources, which is supported by entrepreneurial leadership, entrepreneurial culture, and entrepreneurial mindset. These three variables are the essence of entrepreneurship. This Ireland study (2003) is a conceptual study, not a result of an empirical study. Therefore, there is an opportunity to conduct empirical research in the non-formal Englisheducation industry. To get sustainable competitive advantages, innovation testing is required based on entrepreneurial leadership, culture and thinking. There have been 79 studies on leadership, culture, entrepreneurial mindset, innovation, and competitive advantage from the standpoint of strategic management and entrepreneurial study. Most of them are conceptual studies. There are no empirical studies that have examined the effect of all these variables in one study. Some existing research only tested 2 variables. However, there is still a lack of research on that particular study and the results, which are related to the application and determination of strategic entrepreneurial dimensions, are also ambiguous. Furthermore, none of them has been implemented in the non-formal Englisheducation industry. Therefore, it is theoretically and practically relevant to conduct research on entrepreneurial leadership, culture and thinking towards innovation to gain competitive advantages.
After the independence of Bangladesh in 1971, the then Head of the State Sheikh Mujibur Rahman adopted the policy of ‘one state one language’ , although several minor ethnic groups were inhabiting in this land (Rahman, 2010). The constitution of the People ’ s Republic of Bangladesh, adopted in 1972, accepted Bangla as the state language through article 3. This policy was widely hailed politically although it was a similar act that once Pakistanis committed against Bengalis by trying to impose Urdu as the state language of Pakistan (East and West). However, the state attempt to expand the use of Bengali came at its expense. The adopted constitutional act narrowed the use of English in the official, social, and educational spectrums of Bangladesh and elevated the na- tional language Bangla to a disproportionately higher level, which was to be used, prac- tical or not, in all public domains which resulted in a severe lack in English proficiency among the people in general (Hamid & Baldauf, 2014). Observing the conflict between English and Bangla languages in the state policy of post-independence Bangladesh, Hamid (2011) observed that the promotion of one was believed to be the demotion of the other. However, it is to be mentioned that, although teaching in Bengali was linked to the consolidation of national identity (Hoque, 2008, p. 1) in Bangladesh, a significant knowledge of English never lost its relevance because of its gatekeeping power to global education, career opportunity, and international exchanges.
Although millions of students are now reading extensively throughout Asia, ER is still unknown and unpracticed in many areas. Some teachers and students have not even reached the Introduction Stage. Part of the reason is that teachers have not heard of ER, or do not know how to implement it, or they may not have the resources, class time or even materials to do ER. Other teachers may not do ER because it does not fit with what they feel is appropriate for the EFL classroom (e.g. Faisal & Schmitt, 2009). There are tens of thousands of teachers throughout Asia who might resist ER because they believe a teacher's role is to stand at the front of class and teach, then test, and then teach some more using a course book. Because of these reasons, there are millions of students lacking access to books such as graded readers that they can read easily in order to develop their natural reading ability in English.
The knowledge base in the case of language assessment makes reference to the body of theoretical and practical knowledge that language teachers including EFL teachers require in relation to aspects such as the purpose of assessment, the appropriateness of the assessment tools being used, the testing conditions, the interpretation and implications of results, etc. In following an outline proposed by Brindley (2001), Inbar- Lourie (2008) emphasized aspects such as “the reasoning or rationale for assessment (the ‘why’), the description of the trait to be assessed (the ‘what’), and the assessment process (the ‘how’)” (p. 390) as the assessment knowledge dimensions language teachers require. Other authors (Popham, 2009; Schafer, 1993; Stiggins, 1999) have also attempted to define what constitutes the knowledge base of assessment for teachers across various areas including EFL education. Stiggins (1999) suggested a list of seven content requirements or competences aimed to provide a comprehensive foundation in assessment practices. These included (a) connecting assessments to clear purposes, (b) clarifying achievement expectations, (c) applying proper assessment methods, (d) developing quality assessment exercises and scoring criteria and sampling appropriately, (e) avoiding bias in assessment, (f) communicating effectively about student achievement, and (g) using assessment as an instructional intervention. Training within these seven competencies will undoubtedly bring significant benefits not only to our EFL teachers, in the sense that they will have a clearer picture of what students may know (declarative knowledge) and what they can do (procedural knowledge), but also to their EFL students in the sense that they may be provided with more reliable assessment instruments, practices, and conditions. Thus, even though the seven competencies are originally formulated within an ELL context, they all can be smoothly transferred to other settings such as that of EFL instruction in Colombia.
This paper is part of a doctoral research project titled “Ideology and Worldview in Textbooks: A Study of Cultural Aspects in ELT in Pakistan”. It deals with the Critical Discourse Analysis of Englishlanguage textbooks published by Punjab Textbook Board and Oxford University Press (henceforth PTB and OUP) being taught at the secondary level in three different schools in the city of Multan in Pakistan. The former are taught in the state-run Urdu-medium schools and some of the private non-elite English-medium schools while the latter are taught in the elitist English medium schools. This paper critically analyzes the discourse of these textbooks to explore certain themes/messages related to the Pakistani and Western cultures. The findings suggest that in contrast to the OUP textbooks, the PTB textbooks only represent the indigenous culture, which could be linked to the difference in the worldviews of the products of these schools. The elite-school students unlike their state-run and non-elite school counterparts gain an easy access to domains of power via English and the Western culture. The Englishlanguage and the Western culture distance the elite class from the other classes and bring it closer to the centre (West) which, in return, economically and politically helps it dominate and rule the lower and middle classes. The findings of this research will help the policy makers, textbook authors and ELT practitioners to
In Australia, my first special thanks; gratitude and dedication are due to my supervisor Dr. Jill Sanguinetti who has been my main source of inspiration in writing my thesis and fulfilling the candidature requirements. I would not have made such achievement without her continued support and advice. Her broad knowledge of the field of adult education has given me some insights into how to synthesize, refine and complete the study. My thanks also go to her partner Dr. David Legge with whom I was fortunate to discuss my work and who gave me fruitful feedback on different occasions. I also wish to thank the staff of the School of Education at Victoria University who have offered me every support and assistance. The cohort of local and international research students, especially Ludmilla, Denise, Flossie, Suharjo and Siva whose friendship, help and support throughout the journey have been deeply appreciated. I have enjoyed being part of such a lively and enthusiastic group. It has been a lifetime learning experience that I will always think about and remember.
For this paper, National Curriculum for EnglishLanguage (Government of Pakistan, 2006) was reviewed because this language contains rich information on life-skills and careers development and till date national curriculum influences all the textbook boards of Pakistan equally. Moreover, English curriculum provides adequate vocabulary, space and opportunities to cover career education and life-skills when compared to other school subjects. It is also noteworthy that teachers in of government schools in Pakistan mainly implement curriculum through textbooks. Considering the pertinent importance of curriculum, it crucial to review content and nature of career education covered in textbooks. Therefore, English textbooks of two varied grade levels (i.e., textbooks of Grade V and Grade X) were selected for the review. Textbooks of these two grades were selected because they serve as important transitional educational levels as they are linked to the transition to the secondary level and college level respectively.
By the end of 1825, 6,000 African Americans had left the United States to settle in the free black Republic of Haiti. After arriving on the island, 200 immigrants formed an enclave in what is now SamanÃ¡, Dominican Republic. The Americans in SamanÃ¡ continued to speak English, remained Protestant (in a country of devout Catholics), and retained American cultural practices for over 150 years. Relying on historical archaeological methods, this dissertation explores the processes of community formation, maintenance, and dissolution, while paying particular attention to intersections of race and nation. Fieldwork took place in the Spring and Summer of 2010 and involved local archival research, oral history interviews, and an aboveground survey of the cemetery in SamanÃ¡. Oral histories stemming from linguistic research conducted in the 1980s were also incorporated into this study. Analyses show that the geopolitical isolation of the SamanÃ¡ Peninsula, in addition to the immigrants' status as a large minority within a small but diverse population, allowed for the relatively unhindered formation of the American community. The immigrants and their descendants defined themselves in relation to the broader Samanesa population through their use of English, emphasis on a formal, English-languageeducation for their children, their honesty and Protestant work ethic, and their devotion to God and their Methodist churches. Yet the 1930s, which saw the rise and adverse impact of the Trujillo regime, brought a series of changes to the town which led to the Americans' diminished social status and eventual loss of community cohesion. Finally, the American enclave in SamanÃ¡ is placed into a broader context; the impact on the community of the various racialized national projects with which it has contended is examined. In addition, the Americans in SamanÃ¡ are then looked at as a case study in processes of
As an ESOL social studies teacher, I incorporated children’s books into my curriculum to give students the ability to take ownership of their learning. I Hate English by Ellen Levine (1995) is an eye opening children’s book about an ESOL student’s new experience in a class- room in the United States. Throughout the story, Mimi, the main character, discusses her trials and tribulations of entering an American school. Mimi has recently moved from China and is unhappy about having to learn English. No English by Jacqueline Jules (2007) portrays a similar situation of a child moving from Argentina. Both books, when looked at with a critical lens, dis- play the need for resilient ESOL teachers in American school systems. The books portray the student attitudes; often students do not want to learn English when they arrive in American schools. Many students are worried that by learning English they may loose their home language (Filmore, 1991). These initial student reactions often sting the spirits and perceptions of teachers. Thousands of immigrants enter the United States each year and have cultural characteristics that are highly volatile with the dominant culture in most American schools (Banks, 1997). ESOL teachers and researchers are often looking for new ways to encourage social studies learning (Cruz & Thornton, 2008).
Efforts were in fact made by Chinese national translators and editors as well as foreigners ‘to save China through literature’, by giving readers this supposed access to freedom, democracy, science, and the universal ‘rights of man’. The Bible, then later excerpted canonical English Literature, was being used in American and British missionary school readers from 1843, even though the numbers were only ever relatively small in such a vast and populous country: (1921 – 13, 637 missionary schools, 358, 518 students; 1926 – 15,000 such schools with 600, 000 students.) Notably, and non- traditionally, increasing numbers of young women were in missionary schools by the early 20th century. By the end of the 19th century all teaching was through the medium of English in missionary schools. English speaking teachers promoted the celebration of western festivals and other cultural symbols, dominated by U.S. personnel (e.g. Pearl Buck and family).
dominant status quo became questioned not only by the sizeable population of francophone Canadians but also by other groups marginalized by the history of British rule (Haque, 2012). The early mandate of the Commission was to “inquire into and report upon the existing state of bilingualism and biculturalism in Canada and to recommend what steps should be taken to develop the Canadian Confederation on the basis of an equal partnership between the two founding races [i.e. the English and the French]” (cited in Jedwab & Landry, 2011, p. 1). Although problematic – especially due to the lack of recognition of First Nations and their claim to being “founding peoples” of Canada – the Commission’s recommendations that Canada should become officially bilingual and develop official-languageeducation were adopted into policy through the 1969 Official Languages Act (which made English and French the official languages of Canada), and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Constitution Act, 1982, s. 33). Together, these policies served to re-brand Canada, making “the pursuit of equality between the English and French peoples part of the country’s raison d’être” (Jedwab & Landry, 2011, p. 1).
The desire to communicate and converse in a second language is often hampered by students’ lack of confidence, low motivation, passivity, unwillingness to take risks and/or over-reliance on contrived teacher-directed activities. This aim of this project, therefore, is to design a learning system that addresses these difficulties and thus helps Englishlanguage learners improve fluency.
Bu çalışma, Yabancı Dil Olarak İngilizce (English as a Foreign Language: EFL) ve Dil ve İçeriğin Bütünleşik Olduğu Öğrenim (Content Language Integrated Learning: CLIL) kapsamında, pedagojik müdahalenin zamanlaması alanında Madrid'de (İspanya) aynı okul ortamında elde edilen ana sonuçları ortaya koymaktadır. Bu araştırmanın temelini EFL ve CLIL İlköğretim öğretmenlerinin çevrimiçi ve çevrimdışı düzeltme tercihleri oluşturmaktadır (Pawlak, 2014). Kayda değer veriler toplamak amacıyla, öğretmenlerin sözlü iletişimde hata düzeltme zamanlamalarını incelemek, yani EFL ve CLIL öğretmenlerinin düzeltmelerini anında, gecikmeli veya ertelenmiş olarak yapıp yapmadıklarını listelemek için sınıf gözlemi yapılmıştır. İçerik ve dil entegrasyonu ile ilgili olarak, güncel yayınlar (Coyle, 2010; Wewer, 2017), CLIL uygulamalarının EFL eğitiminden farklı alternatif öğretim yöntemlerini yansıtması (yani dil formlarına odaklanması) gerektiğini vurgulamaktadır. Beklenenin aksine, sonuçlar EFL ve CLIL öğretmenleri arasında pedagojik müdahale zamanlamasında önemli bir fark olmadığının altını çizmektedir: EFL ve CLIL dersleri esnasında yapılan sözlü hataların neredeyse tamamına anında müdahale edilmiştir. Sonuçlar ışığında, lisan fonksiyonlarına odaklanmayla ilgili bazı önerilerde bulunulmuş, diğer bir deyişle dil öğretmenleriyle birlikte iletişimsel yeterlilik ve işbirlikçi çalışmalar geliştirebilme olanakları üzerinde durulmuştur.