The style of writing, is the main uniqueness of Englishlanguage in the printmedia in Nigeria as the Language is tailored with a particular audience in mind. Here we have the elitist newspapers which used high sounding and rich vocabularies that resonate to its group. The Guardian and This day Newspapers belong to this category. On the other hand, there are some newspapers that uses simple and grassroots Englishlanguage that are easily understood by the people without necessarily using the dictionary to appreciate its meanings. The Punch and The Nigerian Tribune are good examples of these newspapers; hence they are widely read by both the elites and the commoners. Bell (1991) pointed out that the audience is usually the most important factor in choice of language style;
The advertising industry in Nigeria is a relatively young one compared to its counterparts in the western world. It was introduced into Nigeria at a time when it was already relatively developed as a business or a professional practice in the developed countries. When it was introduced it was directed at a virtually illiterate society consisting of people who did not witness the gradual growth of advertising and were not quite aware of its objectives and anticipated responses (Agunbi, 1991). Secondly, a great percentage of its practitioners were foreigners who had little or no common cultural experiences with the Nigerian audience they were trying to communicate with. Agunbi (1991) describes the Nigerian consumer as a non-English man who speaks English, who is not brought up in a culture where virtually everyone can read and write and is not sure of a constant supply of water or electricity. He is brought up in an environment in which people shop in open markets rather than large supermarket and understands mainly the language of his ethnic group which is one of over 300 other ethnic groups. This multiplicity of languages and ethnic groups in Nigeria affect the linguistic medium in which advertisements are rendered. Many advertisements on radio and television are made in Pidgin English to cater for the different socio-economic cadres in the country. They are also rendered in English and the relevant mother tongues e.g. Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo. However, adverts in the printmedia are dominated by Englishlanguage (Odebunmi, 2006). Advertising is growing widely in Nigeria and in recent times, has been extended to the shore of politics, all in a frenzy to out-bid and outshine opponents and competitors.
Some researchers paid more attention to designing new models based on Jenkins’s (2009) framework of new media literacies. In order to contribute to the area of technology- mediated language education, Thorne (2008) demonstrated a pedagogical proposal called Bridging Activities, which combined new media literacies and advanced foreign language proficiency education. Through this proposed model, he developed students’ language awareness by using modern technologies or practices, such as messaging, chat, blogs, wikis, remixing, and multiplayer online gaming. Jocson (2015) conducted a design-based action research project to discuss pedagogical considerations in the conceptualization of new media literacies. By positioning himself as a learning partner, collecting print and digital materials, and organizing blogging, group presentations, experiential learning, and digital story, Jocson found that “creative expressions blur the lines between youth cultural production and participatory politic” and “collaboration, participation, and distributed expertise shapes how individuals see themselves in the world and interact with each other as afforded by digital technologies” (p. 31).
Following this notion, we addressed parents’ beliefs and attitude about language development and literacy support in the family. We believe literacy as enacted by the three families in this present study should challenge teachers and educators to think more broadly about family literacy especially in linguistically and culturally diverse home settings so that they can build on these diverse experiences and support a link between home and school literacy (Lynch, 2010; McNaughton, 2001). This study took place in three Chinese families of a southern city in Peninsular Malaysia. In Malaysia, Malay is the national language and the mother tongue of the majority Malay ethnic group. Other main ethnic groups within Malaysia are the Chinese, Indian, Iban and Kadazan. There are two types of public-funded elementary schools: national schools (the medium of instruction is the National language, Malay) and national-type schools (the medium of instruction is either Chinese or Tamil). In all schools, national language is a compulsory subject and English is taught as a second language. Malaysian Chinese citizens can choose to attend either Chinese or Malay medium schools in primary and secondary level. Therefore, Malaysian Chinese are generally bilinguals or trilinguals and can speak at least two languages.
Jyotirmay Jana (b. 1953). M. A. and LL. B. from Calcutta University; Ph.D. from Rabindra Bharati University. Subject of Ph.D. thesis: Images of Marginal Workers in Nineteenth- Century Britain and Colonial India: A Study in Contemporaneous Literary Culture and Journalism of East and West. Dr Jana has to his credit a large number of articles published in respectable English, Assamese and Bengali journals, newspapers and periodicals and two published books in Assamese, viz. Devasur aru Dui Jati (Devas, Asuras and Two Nations) and Rudraram Bordoloir Bangal Bangalani Natak: Mool Natak aru Alochana (Rudraram Bordoloi’s Bangal Bangalani Natak: The Main Drama with Critical Comments on It). With Dr Manju Laskar as his collaborator, he has also edited an Assamese book on women’s education, titled Sunil Akash and Sonali Diganta (The Blue Sky and the Golden Horizon). Though he retired as an Associate Professor of English, Nowgong Girls‘ College in 2013, he is still serving the college as a guest teacher in the post-graduate section of its Department of Assamese. Dr Jana has proved his mettle as a journalist also by winning the prestigious M.L. Kathbaruah Award for Rural Reporting for 2 consecutive years, 1991 and 1992.
On the basis of the foregone analysis, certain facts emerge out which can be enumerated as conclusions of the research. As the present research work is used on the English learning and teaching of senior secondary „s students using newspapers and magazines so the effective methods of teaching and learning is found by the researcher through this study. The students of this level will be able to increase their capacity towards English vocabulary, word building, cloze test, and English grammar etc. This will enable them to cop up with the competitive exams also along with their learning communicative language.
The increasing integration of language and multimodal resources (e.g. colour, layout, font, image and spatiality) has become a widespread feature in Englishlanguage learning (ELL) textbooks, and technical English books have not been an exception. This trend might lead teachers to assess the possibilities and constraints of visual and non-linguistic resources in textbooks. Teachers need to make students aware that writing is no longer the dominant representational resource and that it combines with different multimodal resources to construct knowledge. Additionally, teachers must advise today’s undergraduates to consider issues such as the saliency of some resources, the type of roles that different illustrations might play, the kind of content students might expect from headings and illustrations, the type of information images facilitate; are they used to visualise or to simplify a complex phenomenon or reasoning? Do images add new, complex information? Do different resources give the same, overlapping, or supplementing information? . Another important aspect to consider in multimodal texts relates to the aptness of representing different types of content (e.g. photos, tables, graphs). The concept of aptness [27, p.19] refers to the appropriateness of resources according to a specific purpose:
Having their own language and culture should qualify DHH people as an intercultural audience from the perspective of advertisers. As with any minority group, DHH people are likely to pay more attention to somebody from their own group than from a different group. Whittler (1989), in a study testing people’s processing of actor’s race and message claims, found “black participants responded greater likelihood of purchase when the advertisements contained black actors rather than white actors” (p. 301). Forehand and Deshpande (2001) wanted to test the visual and verbal cues that draw attention to ethnicity which they called “ethnic primes” on Caucasian and Asian audiences. They conducted two experiments. One experiment used advertisements with direct ethnic primes. For example, the text contained direct references such as “for Asian hair.” The other experiment used indirect ethnic primes like photographs of cultural icons and travel destinations. They found that Asians responded more to advertisements with both direct and indirect ethnic primes targeting Asians than Caucasians responded to
assimilation had negative effects on the Bodo society. The most immediate was the disintegration of the Bodo people into a number of social castes like Koch, Saraniya, Sonowal Kachari, Thengal Kachari etc. In the Hindu hierarchy the Koch occupied the highest position among the Bodo converts and the rest at the first stage of the conversion. When conversion greatly reduced the Bodo population, it on the contrary helped the Assamese to increase their population by adding the Bodo converts into their fold. That is evident from the fact that the Hinduised Bodo people were presented as membership of the Assamese communities in the successive census reports. This was the great disadvantage for the Bodo people particularly in the field of politics.” 2 There are also Brahma and Christianity people among the Bodos. But they did not assimilate linguistically and culturally like the Neo-Vaishnavite Bodo people. When the Brahma Dharma Movement was started by Kalicharan Brahma, the process of conversion to Neo- Vaishnavism was also going on. According to Chandan Sarmah “the emergence of Brahma movement took the Bodos farther away from Neo-Vaishnavism as it opened up an alternative route for the Bodos to enter into the fold of Hinduism. 3 ” This movement gained a new dimension and developed identity consciousness among the Bodos of that time. The formation of the Bodo Satra Sanmilani in 1919 and the formation of Tribal league in 1933 and the origin of the Bodo Sahitya Sabha in the year 1952 are landmarks in the history of the socio-cultural movement of the Bodo people. The language and literary movement launched by the Bodo Sahitya Sabha and Brahma Dharma movement created an identity consciousness and intellectual environment in which the All Bodo Students Union and Plain Tribal Council of Assam came into being in the year 1967.The present achievement of the Bodo society in the field of language, literature, education, culture, economics and politics is the result of relentless efforts of the Bodo Sahitya Sabha, All Bodo Students Union and other allied organizations. The task of bringing awareness among the Bodo community by the Bodo nationalist organisations is commendable. The present Bodo society got reborn only for the role and contribution of several dedicated, self less persons of the nationalist organizations, otherwise the Bodos would have been completely assimilated to the Assamese society.
Information, doubtless, is a sine qua non of development in any society, even in the animal kingdom, and the media outfits are best strategically placed to help ensure this through the dissemination of information in an acceptable language and in an intelligible usage. Affirming this, the Holy Scriptures say ‘…if the trumpet gives an uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself for the battle?’ (I Corinthians 14: 8). By the same token, if those who are to disseminate comprehensible development messages to the people give uncertain messages by inappropriate or complex use of language, especially when the language is not indigenous, who shall understand what is communicated and then prepare for participation in sustainable national development? Mohammed (2003: 646) puts it more succinctly thus: “since it is through the mass media that people get to know of new inventions in science and technology, then mass communicators need to package the message effectively for the ultimate users”. He goes further to say that if the Englishlanguage has to be used; it must be simplified for the average person to read, in line with Defoe’s idea of language of mass communication as cited by Ashe (1972). Hicks (1998:1) concludes the matter when he advises journalists to write for their readers using a clear form of English by avoiding jargon, slang, pomposity, academic complexity and obscurity. An acceptable language, expressed in clear and unambiguous manner, among other factors, is essential to mobilize people
Today, English has spread to the four corners of the earth. Since 1500 i.e. after the rise of Standard English, English has grown as an analytic language, once it was a synthetic language, with changes and modifications. The loss of inflections and inflected grammatical gender are the greatest changes in Modern English. Even pronunciation and spelling have been changed to some extent. The treasure of words (vocabulary) is another feature of Modern English. From time to time, English borrows words from other languages across the world and it has universal appeal in this way. Modern English is comparatively flexible and soft. It is free from dry lexicography, literal pedantry and other cumbersome adumbrations. English has become a global language today and it plays a vital role in international organizations, business, trade, education, tourism, communications, medicine, science and technology, information technology, internet and what not.
In language vitality studies, various models that demonstrate the involvement of various indicators can be used. Fishman’s (1991) Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (GIDS) (1991) is the pioneering model to account for language vitality. Its assessment encompasses language use and transmission from individual language user to that in the wider community associated with language maintenance and revitalization. The indicators of UNESCO (2003) and National Indigenous Language Survey (NILS) (McConvell, Marmion, & McNicol, 2005) were used in other studies to investigate the level of language endangerment in terms of how safe or endangered a language is. Additionally, Van Der Avoird, Broeder, and Extra (2001) and Plüddemann, Braam, Broeder, Extra, and October (2004) shed light on the linguistic experiences of the language users as shown in the vitality’s indicators. Different vitality models are forwarded in studies situated in different socio-cultural settings, leading to the conclusion no one model can fit all. Some proposed indicators may not be appropriate for a particular context and thus there is a need to tailor a model to suit the context. In this study, a model was selected and modified to suit the Malaysian context.
author's neutral intention. Nevertheless, neutral intentions are not always fully realized in mass media texts, which typically have an ideological modality corresponding to one or another system of values and socio-political views. So, the phrase "Russia's backsliding on its young democracy", used at the very beginning of the text, is a nominal structure which has a stating the fact modality, which gives the impression that the above-mentioned situation in the country is real. The basis of the phrase under consideration is the contrast of the lexical item, which has a positive connotation in the western system of values (democracy) and the lexical item containing a negative connotation (backsliding). This phrase specifies the general negative tone of the introductory part, which is supported by the use of other lexical items with negative connotations (backsliding, retrogression; to chide). It should be noted that the verb to chide implies the superiority of the agent in relation to the patient, his having a right to do so. It explains the author’s choice of this lexical item and reflects his ideological values. However, the author does not use this lexical item in the form of a predicate, which would make the statement ruder. The author uses a participial construction instead, expressing the attendant circumstances of the setback: with Mr. Bush chiding his soul-mate "Vladimir". It helps tone down the statement. The choice of the direct object (the phrase his soul-mate "Vladimir") to the participle chiding contributes to the same aim: it tones down the statement and neutralizes to some extent the seme of the patient subordination. An indirect prepositional object about the necessity for free media, rule of law, and vibrant political opposition also refers to the participle chiding. The noun necessity implies the absence of all the above-mentioned phenomena in Russia. These phenomena constitute the basis of the Western democracy, so the reportedly lack of these democratic features in Russia can create a negative image of Russia in western readers’ minds.
A misconception prevails in Pakistan Media about the emergence of these so called Taliban groups, due to which it projects its even minor incident in a negative sense, thus causing and damaging the soft image of Pakistan inside the country and abroad as well. The actual breed of the Taliban, who are now considered part of Al- Qaeda, took part in the liberation of Afghanistan from former Soviet Union and are now engaged in battle with NATO forces. After the dis-integration of the former Soviet Union, a number of Taliban crossed the border along with their families and took refuge in most volatile tribal agencies in North & South Waziristan, which are adjacent to the Pak- Afghan border. After 9/11, the US launched a campaign to track down Osama Bin Laden and his allies in Afghanistan and Pakistan. However, after five years, this useless American campaign has only brought bloodshed to Pakistan. On the other hand, Al- Qaeda had been operating successfully from across the globe and the US and its allies have badly failed to trace out Osama till May, 2011. In case of Pakistan, merely threatening president Musharraf, the Americans obtained all
A growing number of Persian companies select an English name for their nationally produced materials; they use English names to introduce their new models to add prestige and elegance to their products. This is one main factor for a rise of bilingual advertisements in Persian advertising discourse; advertisers have no other choice other than to advertise these products and so are forced to insert English words in their advertisements. The image in Figure A.4 reveals this fact as the photography studio is named "Uncut" which is an English term. This name is selected as a sign of prestige. This way of selecting English names is recognized in the products of other countries as well. As Bulawka (2006) claimed most common products bear original English names, retaining their phonological and orthographic properties. For instance, the Polish cosmetic company, Joanna, launched a new product line for body depilation called sensual. The English name, additionally enhanced by visual clues, appears to serve as an attention-getter, imparting an aura of prestige and elegance to a nationally produced product.
This paper aims to explain the personal naming development in Laos in terms of language perspective. The data was collected out of 400 first names and their nicknames of non-minoric ethnics living in Lao’s capital Vientiane. These names were divided into two groups of ages according to the name holder; 50-65 years and 10-25 years. The results have shown that in the first group same first names are used for both male and female persons, which is mostly different in the second group. Nick names are rarely found in the first group while the second group is characterized by nicknames of English language’s origin. The first group, they are usually constructions of 1-2 syllables while the second group’s first names are built out of 2-3 syllables. The language used for first names in the first group mostly is Lao while the second group is mostly using Pali-Sanskrit sources. The development of personal (first) naming in Laos had been influenced by Thailand as a Lao neighbor country and Thai language. Future studies should compare personal (first) names of different ethnicities’ members living in the same area, especially in the capital Vientiane which is focused by migration movements within Laos.
The newspapers selected for the purpose of study have strong presence in the market. Both the newspapers selected for the study have over three decades of publishing and printing expertise. The Times of Oman English daily newspaper representing the Sultanate of Oman was established in the year 1975, while Khaleej Times representing the United Arab Emirates was started in 1978.
A PowerPoint projector is an effective tool for teaching spoken English. Documentation of formal or informal speeches and debates can be played using CD-ROMS. The students in a large class, for example, can be taught the art of public speaking through slide presentations with PowerPoint projector. The use of a PowerPoint projector enables almost all the students to see the points projected in slides, and sometimes even images accompanying the texts. Afterward, the presentation, the students will be made to watch formal speech or debate on specific issues/topics per the lesson. As it will give them training in public speaking and expressing themselves in spoken English. As an activity, the large class should be divided into groups to have formal or informal speech presented by each representative or debating teams representing the groups. Doing this will expand the students’ vocabulary as well as elaborate sentence structures.