Enhancing regional innovation through research activities

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Entrepreneurship, Innovation Activities and Regional Growth

Entrepreneurship, Innovation Activities and Regional Growth

There are two reasons, which pursue companies to engage in investments that augment their R&D activities. The first objective, which companies try to achieve, is the reduction of the production cost of their current product set and the development of new products, which can contribute to the firm’s profitability. This incentive would be applied even if the firm was not in an innovation race against its rivals, and even if it was to take R&D investment decisions in isolation. That is why Grossman and Shapiro (1987) and Katz and Shapiro (1987) called this incentive ‘the stand-alone’ or ‘profit’ incentive to R&D investments. The second objective is the provision of the firm with a strategic advantage over its competitors by either increasing its market share relative to its rivals, or introducing a competitive threat to them, through the development of a better process or product, so the firm may have the opportunity to foreclose the market and reap the highest amount of benefits. Beath, Katsoulacos, and Ulph (1989) analysed this ‘competitive’ or ‘replacement threat’ incentive as the desire of the firm to be the first innovator in an industry and not to be replaced by its rivals in its current market position, and emphasised to the difference between the firm’s profits if it innovates before its competitors, and its profits if one of its competitors innovated first. 3
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THE REGIONAL RESEARCH AND INNOVATION SYSTEM

THE REGIONAL RESEARCH AND INNOVATION SYSTEM

On the side closest to research institutions, the governance is divided into two levels. On one hand, the regional governance component, aimed at coordinating the actors in the Tuscan research system. This is implemented through the Regional Conference for Research and Innovation, a permanent board structure with consultation functions, comprising representatives of the universities, research centres, science and technology parks, enterprises and trade unions. On the other hand, the governance between institutional levels component is set up to strengthen the coordination between the regional action and the national and European policies on the matter. At the national level this end is achieved through the IX Italian Regions and Autonomous Provinces Coordination Commission which is competent for research and innovation, with Tuscany holding the chairmanship. At the European level, governance has been provided by strengthening the Regione Toscana institution’s level of representation in Brussels, with the development of a receiver and transmitter antenna function to link with the Regional Conference for Research and Innovation. The antenna will help to monitor the European research and innovation scenario better and strengthen the regional research system’s active participation in the opportunities offered by the European Union.
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Enhancing Innovation Through Biologically Inspired Design

Enhancing Innovation Through Biologically Inspired Design

“design” process differs from human design, and the use of different terminology for describing similar processes in biology vs. engineering. We describe some teaching practices and activities that allow students to overcome these difficulties. The course culminates in a group project, which is a detailed conceptual design including a preliminary analysis of expected performance, value, and feasibility. A unique feature of the course is that it represents the efforts of not only biologists and engineers, but also contributions from cognitive scientists engaged in understanding human cognition and creativity. Our course strategy has been deeply influenced by findings in that field. We have studied the activity of classroom participants for the last three years, examining the processes they use, and intermediate and final design representations. Analysis of this has yielded a number of observations about the cognitive process of biologically inspired design that may provide insights regarding how to enhance BID education, as well as provide useful insight for professionals in the design field.
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Enhancing Regional Competitiveness Through the Entrepreneurship Development

Enhancing Regional Competitiveness Through the Entrepreneurship Development

Before such institution is founded or at the beginning of its operation, its members should be involved in educational programs. Workshops, group activities and class work will help members to learn new things about themselves and their community, to develop and practice new skills, and to recommit to building a better community. Certainly, such programs would be maintained on the regularly basis to keep the knowledge, skills and spirit of creating better life and helping alive. Programs should contribute to the development of a new energy and new leadership, and these starting collective efforts should result with a positive momentum and attitude shift about the future prospects of living and prospering in a community.
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Research Activities of the Desalination Research and Innovation Partnership (DRIP)

Research Activities of the Desalination Research and Innovation Partnership (DRIP)

Cost and Schedule The total estimated cost for Metropolitan's portion of the DRIP work is $14.7 million, of which $6.3 million has already been committed to complete work through the year 2002. A total of $10.9 million of outside grant funding has been received from various funding agencies and additional grants are being sought. Partners will also make significant in-kind contributions for their respective DRIP research projects. The ultimate DRIP total cost depends on future work and grants but may range from $25 to

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The Role of Innovation Activities in Tourism and Regional Growth in Europe

The Role of Innovation Activities in Tourism and Regional Growth in Europe

• demand: refers to domestic and outbound tourism: outbound tourism shall mean residents of a country traveling in another country. Innovation research explains growth and productivity gains with the help of the long waves of the business cycles. Innovation activities and the new technologies are closely related with market competitiveness and the productivity level. Innovative activity has been one of the most important components for the long-term economic growth. Economists use to consider innovations as «accidental events». As an exogenous factor, i.e. from the outside, innovations changed the direction of economic growth. This view assumed that innovations cannot be planned and produced at will. Innovation was regarded as the province of the creative entrepreneur who was prepared to take risks, and to devote much of his own time and money to the development of new business ideas. It is true, of course, that innovation and the new technologies those pioneers did play a leading role in the early development of tourism business and consequently for regional growth (Weiermair and Peters, 2002).
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Regional Innovation Effects of Applied Research Institutions

Regional Innovation Effects of Applied Research Institutions

The second key assumption of our empirical strategy concerns the mobility of graduates. To estimate the unbiased effect of UASs on regional patenting activities, we assume that UAS graduates have stable mobility and commuting behavior. 29 However, although we showed that 90 percent of employed individuals commute less than 25 kilometers to work, the remaining ten percent may commute from a non-treated area into a treated area and vice versa. In addition, graduates might still live in the catchment area in which they graduated, while commuting to a firm located in the non-treated region. Moreover, after finishing their studies, UAS graduates could move from a treated to a non-treated area and start working there. Such contamination of treatment and control groups could lead to biased results. Although such movement works against our hypothesis and thus makes our test stronger, we nevertheless provide a detailed analysis of the possible contamination effects in section VI, showing that these effects are very small and negligible.
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Research on the evaluation method of regional innovation capability

Research on the evaluation method of regional innovation capability

China will develop into an innovative country in 2020. It has become an important topic that study on evaluation method of innovation ability. But there are many human factors in most evaluation methods. This would diminish the validity of a systematic review. The unsupervised clustering algorithm, combining fuzzy C means clustering and support vector machine are used in this paper. The impact of human factors will be overcome. Through the 2013 yearbook data analysis of the experimental results, this method is achieved very good results in evaluation of regional innovation capacity.
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Enhancing Learning Outcomes Through Application Driven Activities In Marketing

Enhancing Learning Outcomes Through Application Driven Activities In Marketing

ABSTRACT This paper introduces an activity used in class to allow students to apply previously acquired information to a hands-on task. As the authors have previously shown active learning is a way to effectively facilitate and improve students’ learning outcomes. As a result to improve learning outcomes we have overtime developed a series of learning activities reinforcing marketing theories. In this paper, we provide details of a marketing communications exercise which in addition to being a vehicle for active learning also allowed students to apply the results of their previous research thereby effectively aligning all learning and assessment tasks. The activity required students to take a previously completed environmental analysis of a foreign country and using that information develop a print advertisement for an Australian branded product unavailable in that country. Details are provided on the in-class activity including guidelines for conducting the practice-orientated exercise and information on the assessment tasks leading up to this activity. The paper provides academics with an example of how to apply concepts to real life examples in the classroom and give students hands on experience and further shows how learning can be scaffolded through assessment. We found that students actively engaged in the experience and improved their learning outcomes through application of their previous research and the concepts discussed in class.
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Innovation races: An experimental study on strategic research activities

Innovation races: An experimental study on strategic research activities

Abstract In an experimental setting, firms in a duopoly market engage in a patent tournament and compete for profit-enhancing product advancements. The firms generate income by matching exogenously defined demand preferences with an appropriately composed product portfolio of their own. Demand preferences are initially unknown and first need to be revealed by an investigation of the possible product variations. The better firms approximate demand preferences, the higher their profits. In the ensuing innovation race, firms interact through information spillovers resulting from the imperfect appropriability of research successes. In the random period of the experiment, the continuity of the search process is disturbed by an exogenous shock that affects both the supply and demand side and again spurs research competition. Firms may henceforth explore an enlarged product space in attempting to match the equally modified demand preferences. In our analysis, we explore the behavioural regularities of agents who are engaged in innovation activities. As a key element we test to what extend relative economic performance exercises a stimulating effect on the implementation of innovation and imitation strategies.
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Economic growth, innovation and collaborative research and development activities

Economic growth, innovation and collaborative research and development activities

6. Social welfare effects 6.1. Positive social welfare effects Innovating firms, by forming R&D alliances and by spending jointly on R&D may enhance the possibility of improving the quality of their product and increase social welfare, relative to the non-cooperative case. Society is benefited by cooperative R&D alliances, because on the one hand, by undertaking joint investments, associated risks and costs are shared among the participants, so each firm’s R&D incentives increase. On the other hand, the technological progress is stimulated by the sharing of information, knowledge, and expertise among the collaborators, making them able to exploit their capabilities better, combining them with complementary assets possessed by other firms. Furthermore, in order to acquire a competitive advantage, firms devote their efforts in the use of new technologies and the supply of new products, which increases the post-innovation competition in the market level, leading to lower prices, higher product quality, and larger variety, increasing the consumer surplus and enhancing the social welfare, a process beginning from the cooperation activities formation.
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Research results in the field of information support for innovation activities

Research results in the field of information support for innovation activities

Such a need can be fulfi lled by purchase of new machinery. This is innovation of a production process. In other cases, companies maybe do not even perceive changes executed in relation to product innovations as process innovations. When a company, e.g. as a result of a new product supply, modifi es activities of its sales department, in reality it is a process innovation invoked by the initial product innovation. In some cases, even product innovation of a lower intensity invokes subsequent process innovation of a higher intensity. Theodor (2008) singles out the beginning of the Ford car factory, as an example. Even though its fi rst mass- produced car, the Model T, meant an important product innovation, production organization through standardization, fl ow production, and Taylor principles of scientifi c management brought a lot of much more fundamental innovations. The Model T was designed in such a way that it prompted a need to completely innovate the process of its production. Without such process innovations, Henry Ford would not be able to achieve his plans for production of a standardized cheap car in large series.
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Research & Innovation Activities Impact Assessment: The Data4Impact System

Research & Innovation Activities Impact Assessment: The Data4Impact System

Various D4I text analytics workflows process datasets and their metadata, extract valuable insights and estimate intermediate results and metrics, culminating in a set of robust indicators that the users can interact with through our dashboard, the D4I Monitor (available at monitor.data4impact.eu). Therefore, our approach, which can be generalized to different contexts, is multidimensional (technology, tools, indicators, dashboard) and the resulting system can provide an innovative solution for public administrators in their policy-making needs related to RDI funding allocation.

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Idea Management: Enhancing External Innovation Capabilities within Front-End Activities

Idea Management: Enhancing External Innovation Capabilities within Front-End Activities

incremental innovation over radical due to fears over high risk. This is understandable however for businesses to grow, this fear needs to be overcome through using systematic processes to try and mitigate risks as much as possible. Types of search strategy were identified as exploration and exploitation, which depends on the phase of innovation an organisation is in. External groups are sources of valuable information and innovation ideas, and so dynamic capabilities are essential to the success of an externally searching firm. Since search processes involve the identification of a need, and selection involves processes for actions and resources, more firms innovate in their processes rather than products. Neglecting the importance of defining a need is something which organisations need to mitigate and has emerged through various sections of this research. Another critical factor for external searches is absorptive capacity, since organisations need to make use and learn from external innovation. This learning combined with boundary spanning are all important to the success of search and select strategies.
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Regional dispersion of cooperation activities as success factor of innovation oriented SME

Regional dispersion of cooperation activities as success factor of innovation oriented SME

In this aspect an enterprise which creates its innovation through in-house development should have sufficient absorptive capacity as a critical factor for a successful cooperation performance. In-house development might affect innovation outcomes positively by enabling firms to absorb and develop knowledge and skills related to the innovation in greater depth than might be possible though outsourcing. Due to this it provides a higher potential for capabilities, which can be extended or redirected into new products and processes. Moreover, firms with in-house development fully exploit their capabilities within the organization, because an integration of existing with new technology and capabilities is easier and crucial in order for firms to fully leverage their potential (Weigelt 2005). "Substantial in-house capacity is needed to recognize, evaluate, negotiate, and finally adapt the technology potentially available from others"
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Linking The Creative Process To Innovation Through Software-Enabled Activities

Linking The Creative Process To Innovation Through Software-Enabled Activities

The mega-creativity framework’s goal is to suggest improvements for web-based services, personal computer software tools, and calls for integrating creativity support tools. Improvements include reducing the distraction caused by poorly-designed user interfaces. This allows the users’ attention to be devoted to the task.”Some creativity tools already exist, but could be enhanced to ensure smooth integration across novel tools or word processors, presentation graphics, email, databases, spreadsheets, and web browsers. In an effective design, available functions would be in agreement with problem-solving strategies, leaving the users to concentrate on creativity (Ben Shneiderman, 2002a). Linking the software-enabled process for organizational creativity to an innovative outcome is an extension of this research.
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Enhancing sustainability practice through ICT enabled innovation knowledge management

Enhancing sustainability practice through ICT enabled innovation knowledge management

Khalfan et. al., (2003) note that despite the interest and the effort put into knowledge management by many leading companies, the discipline is still in its infancy. Davenport and Prusak (2000, p. 173) argue that KM is substantially a human interaction exercise with information and communication technologies (ICT) as providing a supportive and facilitative role and suggest the ratio of one-third technology two-thirds people-related issues as being a useful guideline. Following the argument of Maqsood et. al., (2007), it is important to note that KM allows organisations to devise mechanisms that could bring them closer to knowledge communities generating new knowledge and producing innovations. This interaction can allow a flow of knowledge between internal and external knowledge communities so that instead of an organization responding reactively to knowledge- push it can pull that knowledge into itself, adapt it and effectively use it. However, as noted by them whilst KM research has significantly grown since its inception in the 1990s, researchers and the academic community struggle to explicate a realistic KM philosophy that can be readily put into practice and successfully implemented.
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Creating Collaborative Advantages Through Coordination of Regional Development Activities

Creating Collaborative Advantages Through Coordination of Regional Development Activities

accession process will initiate considerable new development processes and cause institutional changes in countries like Croatia, where the introduction of new governance and management approaches will be necessary. It was also necessary to research, which theoretical moves have happened in the field of regional development theory and in which directions the newer approaches and findings go. Regional economic theory is more focused on the content of what should be coordinated and within the research field of economics the most relevant finding is that the central economic question of development – namely economic growth – is only one part of the development problematic. Further, since every economic activity is taking place in a certain space, it also has certainly significant positive and negative impact on that particular environment. Also, it is recognized that undeveloped or less developed areas in which economic activity is weak, do not have the adequate environment for attracting investments into their economy. Based on these findings, it can be stated that for the conceptualization of regional development policy the understanding of development in a broader sense, not only economic, is needed. Here, the understanding of the concept of sustainable development as well as the expanded understanding of socio-economic cohesion with territorial cohesion has provided the greatest insights.
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The impact of West-German universities on regional innovation activities: A social network analysis

The impact of West-German universities on regional innovation activities: A social network analysis

8 yet disclosed after 18 months. Nevertheless, this last time period still illustrates a good trend or prospect for all distinct analyses. Coming now to the results, it is obvious that the university networks continuously increase over time. From the fifth to the sixth period, their network collaborations even rise by around 100%. Of course, the absolute number of networks of the enterprises is obviously much higher. But, their number of networks just doubled from the first to the sixth period, whereas the university networks even increase tenfold. The development of the networks of the research institutes and private persons is quite unsteady and not as eye‐catching as the other two network developments. Private persons could at least increase their patent collaborations over time, whereas the research institutes do not even make it to increase their networks from the first to the last, respectively sixth, period. In all, university interactions seam to become a much more important weight. But with whom do the universities mainly collaborate with? The next table gives now the answer of this question.
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Research on Self Organization Ability of Regional Innovation System in China

Research on Self Organization Ability of Regional Innovation System in China

4.3. Path Analysis On the whole, according to the content of self-organization theory, the self-organization process is divided into four parts: degree of openness, non-equilibrium degree, fluctuation degree and non-linear degree. It can be tar- geted to different areas to take different ability to enhance Path, such as B  C and D  C mode: direct promotion method, that is, to enhance the region’s ability in innovation, at the same time, taking the weak part of the region as a starting point to improve the innovation of the region’s short board; for A  B  C and A  D  C mode, the incremental route is adopted by maximizing the advantages of the region first and making up for the disadvantages, through the transition of the B or D region, and finally towards the C region.
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