3. The main reason, why do not start business, chosen by both: female entrepreneurs and female employees is fear to fail. The research showed that twice as many female entrepreneurs than employees' are important family support - twice as many female entrepreneurs as an important reason why do not start business indicated family disapproval. Meanwhile, much more female employees than entrepreneurs are difficult to find a niche for their business. The most important reason for do not start business – afraid to fail evenly distributed in terms of both: entrepreneurs and employees. It has been calculated whether there is a connection between the selected statement (do not start a business because women are afraid to fail) and whether the woman is an employee or an entrepreneur. It was found that there is no statistical connection. Research showed that both: female entrepreneurs and employees are mainly driven by internal factors to start a business: desire to apply creative skills to their own business, take on more risk in business.
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This paper quantifies the distributional and redistributional impacts of the current new German taxreform and the “Karlsruhe proposal” as a prominent discussed alternative. Again the microsimulation instrument – here our microsimulation model MICSIM with its distributional program subpackage - proved to be a particularly suitable instrument for distributional analyses based on a representative sample. A demanding micro data base is needed. For the first time in Germany we were able to use an outstanding data base for our microsimulation analyses: a 3 million sub sample of the Income Tax Statistic in its current 1995 micro level version. This data base is outstanding for two reasons: firstly with regard to the high degree of details for all the tax items, and secondly, with regard to covering the total income (tax) population with its self-employed in particular. Thus the groups of self- employed, (liberal) professions, entrepreneurs and the emplo yees could be analysed with the help of a qualified database. Further socioeconomic groups we consider are gender and the family type. Though the discussion of the single taxreform alternatives have shown the differences in the taxation structure, only the microsimulation analysis could reveal the resulting actual effects for the population and their subgroups.
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rience in entrepreneurial practice. In other words, it reflects the individual’s love and dedication to entrepreneurial activities . The entrepreneurial passion involved in this paper refers to the perception of the entrepreneurial team members’ passion for entrepreneurs, that is, the entrepreneurial passion of en- trepreneurs is evaluated from the perspective of employees. Based on the Emo- tional Contagion Theory, Breugst (2012) analyzed the impact of entrepreneurial passion on employees, and found that the entrepreneurial enthusiasm perceived by employees comes from the common goal and value sharing by managers. Some studies have found entrepreneurial passion is the positive emotion gener- ated by individual entrepreneurial behavior (such as using more innovative ideas to cope with various challenges) , and there are also some studies explored how this positive emotion acts on the cognition of other stakeholders (such as entrepreneurial team members) . Based on the Grounded Theory Method, Yitshaki and Kropp (2016) investigated the life stories of 45 high-tech entrepre- neurial teams and found that the entrepreneurial enthusiasm perceived by em- ployees and the information sharing by managers is an iterative cyclical process, and information sharing and passion are interacting and increasing constantly .
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After having discussed the distributional picture for the employees and self-employed we are now going into more details: we analyze the distribution of professions and their subgroups. Professions are of interest in particular for several reasons: they are satisfying important goods like health or justice and they are an important factor of the service industry in general. In addition to the substantial reasons: although from the beginning of the 50s in Germany the absolute amount of self-employed has decreased, the number of professions and the relative importance of professions within the group of self-employed has even increased all over the last decades. This is reflecting the growing importance of the service industry in general and a growing important contribution of the professions. For a further discussion of the size, structure and general importance of the professions in the society e.g. see Merz, Rauberger and Rönnau (1994) and the literature cited there.
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Before the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA), federal law prohibited—and still does prohibit—corporations and unions from using general treasury funds to make direct contributions to candidates or independent expenditures that expressly advocate the election or defeat of a candidate, through any form of media, in connection with certain qualified federal elections.…BCRA §203 amended §441b to prohibit any “electioneering communication” as well. An electioneering communication is defined as “any broadcast, cable, or satellite communication” that “refers to a clearly identified candidate for Federal office” and is made within 30 days of a primary or 60 days of a general election. §434(f)(3)(A). The Federal Election Commission’s (FEC) regulations further define an electioneering communication as a communication that is “publicly distributed.” 11 CFR §100.29(a)(2) (2009). “In the case of a candidate for nomination for President…publicly distributed means” that the communication “[c]an be received by 50,000 or more persons in a State where a primary election…is being held within 30 days.” 11 CFR §100.29(b)(3)(ii). Corporations and unions are barred from using their general treasury funds for express advocacy or electioneering communications. They may establish, however, a “separate segregated fund” (known as a political action committee, or PAC) for these purposes. 2 U.S.C. §441b(b)(2). The moneys received by the segregated fund are limited to donations from stockholders and employees of the corporation or, in the case of unions, members of the union. Ibid.
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- Gross monthly wage (measured as current log gross monthly wage in paid employment). It is often argued that entrepreneurs face capital constraints when trying to acquire necessary financial resources during the start-up process (see for example Parker and van Praag, 2006; Backes-Gellner and Werner, 2007). Information is often asymmetric, and banks often fail to perfectly distinguish the quality of the entrepreneur's loan application. Reasons include the lack of a track record for new nascent ventures and prohibitive costs of acquiring reliable in- formation about them. One way for new entrepreneurs to overcome credit rationing, though, is to save enough assets in paid employment and self-finance their new venture (Parker, 2004). On the other hand, some employees may earn too little to permit them to build up enough savings to enter self-employment. Thus, we expect that employees with higher rela- tive wages to be the ones more likely to have saved the capital needed to self-finance their new venture.
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The way of measuring success before the survey started was to have a look at turnover, profit and the growth of these two dimensions. However, due to the limited number of full applicable and complete financial data, success will be measured by calculating the profit margin (Davidsson, 2006). Many success measures have been reviewed but the type of the sample group is cancelling out many success measures. The financial data has to be self-reported (because most of the entrepreneurs in the sample do not report financial information publicly) and preferably complete. Next to that, the respondent will quit the survey when it takes too many efforts. Novice entrepreneurs do not have much history which makes measuring growth more difficult but not impossible. The most entrepreneurs are able to report the number of employees, turnover and profit. Most of the entrepreneurs do have an idea of the average growth over the past years. Other more complicated measures like assets, ratios, performance compared to others and future forecasts are in the most cases not available. If these measures are available, it is highly challenging to collect data which represents the diversity of this sample group. Many entrepreneurs do not have much time for surveys and are not willing to report all the ins and outs of their company. Gladly many entrepreneurs took time to fill in the survey and partially including financial information. This made it possible to investigate performance of different styles by making use of the profit margin.
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Indeed, the target market was one of the key factors determining the mix of employees and what was expected of them. For one respondent serving Scottish clients, it was the migrant employees who were required to adapt to the host country culture, to better meet customer needs, as opposed to a preference for migrants because they could more easily relate to the migrant entrepreneur. This may indicate that if migrant entrepreneurs can break out of serving ethnic and migrant enclaves, then greater employment for Scottish born workers is rendered more probable and feasible. More profoundly, one entrepreneur based in the Highlands observed that providing jobs to both natives
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In the descriptive analysis of household wealth, we use these six occupational categories for the whole sample of British households. In the regression analyses, however, entrepreneurial households are defined as those where the HRP is either self-employed or is an owner-manager of a business with fewer than 500 employees (i.e. is an entrepreneur as defined above). This is primarily because there is an analytical need to observe entrepreneurial households as a binary variable. Further, in the regression analysis, we consider a sub-sample of households with working- age HRPs that are either employees or entrepreneurs. Conventionally, working-age includes individuals aged between 16 - 64 years (16 – 59 years for women); however, since data on family background was only sought from respondents that were at least 25 years old, we consider 25 years as the lower threshold for working- age HRPs. A further subsample of working working-age HRPs also eliminates households whose HRPs are either inactive or unemployed. This is partly because data on certain factors are only collected from working respondents. Being primarily age-related, a working-age sub-population is rather straightforward. However, there may be selection bias issues with the working sub-sample should there be unobserved factors associated with both household wealth and not working. The wealth of the highly heterogeneous group of economically inactive may be especially problematic in this regard.
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Those operating permanent wholly informal business ventures who are formal employees (e.g., plumbers, electricians, builders, IT workers, caterers) did so mainly in order to make enough money to survive because their formal wages were insufficient to buy the basics required to get-by. They tended to use tools, contacts and so forth from their formal employment to operate their informal enterprise. For example, a woman sold off-cuts of meat, which were being thrown away in the factory in which she worked, to a local butcher and in doing so, earned more than her formal wage. These, therefore, are often ‘ parasitic ’ ventures. None operating these parasitic enterprises considered it feasible to register these businesses or operate formally because it would signal their activity to their existing employer and they saw it as an illegitimate activity. Consequently, formalisation was not seen as a viable option.
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Over the past decade or so, a burgeoning literature has emerged which reveals that many entrepreneurs operate in the informal economy not only in the emerging economies of the global South (Bhatt, 2006; Bhowmik, 2007; Charmes, 1998; Cross, 2000; Cross and Morales, 2007; Das, 2003; Gurtoo and Williams, 2009; Unni and Rani, 2003) but also in the advanced economies of the global North (Llanes and Barbour, 2007; Schneider and Williams, 2013; Small Business Council, 2004; Venkatesh, 2006; Webb et al., 2009; Williams, 2006, 2009a,b,c, 2010). Until now, a widely-held belief has been that these entrepreneurs operating in the informal sector are marginalized populations engaged in such endeavour out of necessity as a survival practice and last resort in the absence of alternatives (Castells and Portes, 1989; Gallin, 2001; Lagos, 1995; Maldonado, 1995). This, however, has been an a priori assumption rather than an empirical finding. As Bhowmik (2007: 96) puts it, for such marginalized populations, informal sector entrepreneurship ‘is the only means for survival’. The aim of this paper is to evaluate critically whether it is indeed the case that entrepreneurs operating in the informal sector in the global South are necessity-driven entrepreneurs. To evaluate this, empirical evidence will be reported from a survey of informal entrepreneurs operating small businesses with less than five employees in the main Brazilian urban areas. The result will be to advance understanding of the lived practices of entrepreneurship in the contemporary world, especially in relation to informal sector entrepreneurs in the global South.
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In Croatia, it has been recognized that the establishment of SMEs has restructured industry and offered new job opportunities for those who were laid off by large enterprises (Cuckovic & Bartlett, 2007). However, Cuckovik and Bartlett (2007) recognized a decrease in new firm formation at a low annual gross rate of 2.1 per cent in the years between 1999 and 2004. During this time, Croatia faced high levels of unemployment, and decreased economic competitiveness. This was supported in the Annual Report on Croatian Competitiveness that showed a significant decline in the business competitiveness of the Croatian enterprise sector from 52 nd place in 2003 to 72 nd place in 2004 among 104 countries (National Competitive Council, 2005). Cuckovik and Bartlett (2007) highlighted the main obstacles entrepreneurs faced when establishing a business in Croatia, and one of the major barriers was the role of the Croatian government. The findings of the research were based on focus group interviews with Croatian entrepreneurs who were not impressed with the effectiveness of government policy implementation. Further, they claimed that the regulatory framework restricted
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The propounded model focus on the entire success of the entrepreneurs. how they can get success and become successful than others . and it defines are converted in to the right direction. And entrepreneurs person always use their character + chance = get success. Their ability and efforts can be a great than perceived outcomes . as a result , it is felt that the model propounded here is of a more integrative nature than existing model .in integrates perception.( e.g. Garthner 1985, Bird 19S88 , Herron& Sapienza 1992) with theoretical portion from other disciplines . ( Parter & Lawler ,1968 , Adams 1965) and it integrates various stages of entrepreneurship to present a more complete understood of the entire process .
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Around the globe, Entrepreneurs plays an important role in the Economic development especially developing countries needs more attention towards the development of entrepreneurship, to trigger the entrepreneurial activities in India, A government of India plays an important role by proposing the conceptual framework of Entrepreneurship. Apart from initiatives of state and the central government there is a need for extra vibrant to trigger entrepreneurship, but the entrepreneurship differs in all the segments, like location, income, Education, community. In all the segments entrepreneurs play a vital role in stimulating a related business to support a new venture to a prosperous society. The successful entrepreneurs change the lifestyle of the society by innovating a unique flourished new goods and services to the greatest possible extent to the society, cascading the lifestyle of the people entrepreneur's innovations may create a wealth improvement to the society, in the context of the globalization and industrialization there is a need to analyze a successful and unsuccessful of the entrepreneurs, thus the theoretical research study has been proposed.
Just like Ruth and her relatives, many of the “entrepreneurs” I encoun- tered also earned their living from their real estate investments. They also become residents, blurring the lines between their private and professional lives. The narrative of Ruth’s family is interesting because it allows us to see the combinations of family and individual elements, traditional and “mod- ern,” personal and professional. On the one hand, the predominance of terms such as entrepreneur and enterprise focuses on the increase in value of work and productivity related to the “capitalist spirit” so well described and ana- lyzed by Max Weber (Weber, 1905). But this capitalist spirit, with all its ten- dencies to universalization and individualization of subjects, acquires specif- ic characteristics in different situations. (Dumont, 1985; Simmel, 1971).
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Heuristics entail golden rules or rules of thumb (Cossette, 2014). Professionals typically use heuristics on a daily basis to simplify their decisions, tasks and obligations (Brannon and Carson, 2003). Entrepreneurs are no exception. On the contrary, given that they are generalists and deal with the business as a whole, they are expected to employ an even broader range of heuristics (Alvarez and Busenitz, 2001). Uncertainty is a characteristic of entrepreneurship, which is why entrepreneurs frequently use heuristics to make quick decisions (Wright et al., 2000). Heuristics are strategies (Artinger et al., 2015) that enable the entrepreneur to make a focused decision, based on previous experience (Bingham et al., 2007), instead of becoming overwhelmed by factual-based logic (Alvarez and Busenitz, 2001). Heuristics provide an entrepreneur with a competitive advantage through the creation of new insights (Hackman and Wageman, 1995) and the ability to manage risk effectively (Lyytinen et al., 1998).
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has grown from 5 to 15. The leading financial institution using agents is Equity Bank with 12.500 licensed agents in 2014. 85% of its customers never visit the bank branches but transact only through agents. In Kenya, agency banking and mobile money accounts for almost half of financial inclusion; together with Uganda, this is the largest contribution of this segment across 12 African countries surveyed between 2009 and 2013 (EPRC 2013). Pandey (2015) reviews status and scope of female entrepreneurs across sectors and government schemes in India. She observes that the role of female owned enterprises was culturally ' traced out as an extension of their kitchen activities mainly to 3Ps, viz., Pickles, Powder and Pappad [...] With growing awareness about business and spread of education among women over the period, women have started shifting from 3Ps to engross to 3 modern Es, viz., Engineering, Electronics and Energy' (Pandey 2015:4276). For example, women entrepreneurs are manufacturing solar cookers in Gujarat and small foundries in Maharashtra. Pandey finds that female entrepreneurs in India are constrained mainly by lack of investment credit, but also by lack of business planning and accounting knowledge. The two factors re- enforce each other in a virtuous cycle because lack of business records gives financial institutions a reason (or pretext) to refuse credit. Pandey (2015) recommends among others that business trainings for women be subsidized substantially. Bulte et al (2014) and Berge et al (2011) study impact of training interventions with customers of microfinance institutions. Bulte et al (2014) draw their sample from groups that are members of cooperatives in Rwanda.
establish and smooth management of women lead MSMEs by the government of India. There have been a number of steps taken in this way by the government in the recent and as a result, the number of enterprises, own by women, has been gradually developing. Almost 10 percent of the MSMEs in India are owned by female entrepreneurs. Special incentives and subsidy have been afford to the women - owned MSMEs by the government of India, yet there is a vast gap presented between the male and female entrepreneurs is to be cover. Obstacles are faced at all phase of setting up business by this grouping of entrepreneurs. Hence, the intention of this paper is to talk about the need of women entrepreneurs, recognize the challenges faced by these women entrepreneurs by review a variety of literatures and give some idea for overcoming these obstacles.
Gohill, Mike in his article, “Transformation of Indian Small and Business sector”, evaluated the problems faced by Indian small business sector in this transformation era, and viewed that less than 5 percent of the small businesses are successful remaining continue to function with various problems, prominent among them is lack of managerial experience of entrepreneurs.
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factor. Therefore, the table on the individual life business against how much effort to make pleasant even though they would never allow them to fulfill their tasks in a comfortable manner. In this case, the picture that emerges is creating job stress (Baltaş, 2002: 14). On behalf of the abolition of work stress in the work environment in recent years, businesses have been pushing to eliminate the job stress on employees by organizing various events. Here the primary aim of the requirements of business people who have a critical fundamental factor in their survival is the priority level of development and be brought to a positive mental attitude and behavior care. However, the level was shown by the effort whatever the matter in the working environment, as in every area of life, stress is an inevitable considering the presence of the human factor (Kılıç – Sakallı, 2013: 210).