This might be considered as a ‘return on investment’ in relation to a neo-liberal market or a more transparent exposé of the cultural capital traditionally accrued via a university education and which bestows forms of distinction. So, while pedagogues like the present authors are invested in supporting student ambitions they are also eager to develop the critique of the creative sector and indeed a wider world in which advantage is gained as a result of family, class and related networks (O’Brien et al., 2016). For Naudin (2013), it is through reflective practice that students begin to develop such a critique and begin to question the challenges of cultural work, specifically in terms of the demands of freelancing and micro-entrepreneurship and the landscape in which these are enacted. Daniel Ashton (2013) sees much value in the role of the teacher-practitioner of the kind teaching across post ’92 Universities, who can engage students through a first-hand knowledge and experiences with industry. Instead of focusing on a simple transfer of knowledge from experienced practitioner to student, Ashton finds that by engaging with students, there is a possibility for teacher-practitioners to reflect on and examine their own creative
Hence, in summary, museums are transforming from being an archiving and historic centre to more of an entertainment audience responsive mainstream centres. Thus, one could say that museums are expected to be more profit centres that generate income through being a role player in the tourism industry. The transition from 2.0 to 3.0 is driven by innovation streams, such as digital content production and connectivity, where the audience are becoming producers of the content that are becoming shareable. The production of the content of value help to integrate with the welfare sustainability, social cohesion, social entrepreneurship and the creation of a resilient local identity (Buheji 2018). Therefore, 3.0 museums are supposed to transform the idea from the receptive audience to gradually create a value of social cohesion.
authored articles and book chapters in a range of subjects in Economics and Competition Law. Päivi Rytsä is the managing director of Logomo. Logomo is a centre for culture, the arts and creativeeconomy. Concerts, conferences, seminars, congresses, exhibitions and cinema performances are arranged at Logomo, in addition to private events such as weddings. The building also houses 9,000 square metres of office space. Logomo Byrå has approximately 250 people working in 60 enterprises every day, while 200 people in 25 companies work at Logomo Konttori. Timo Ketonen is an entrepreneur, independent advisor and investor with a passion for helping start-ups and other growth companies. He has particular focus on the design of a viable business model, best customer experience and Go2Market strategy. He is actively involved as an advisor and investor in a number of Finnish start-ups. I'm also an experienced Board member in several
technical skills in formulating financial reports is necessary. This study acquired results of the literacy rate of sharia finance on creativeeconomy SMEs in which there are 20 SMEs (37%) which categorized as well literate, there are 23 SMEs (42.6%) which categorized as sufficient literate, and then, there are six people who categorized as less literate with 11.1% rate, and five people who categorized as illiterate with 9.3% rate. Substantiated by the survey results conducted by OJK in 2016, Yogyakarta Special Region has the third highest rate of financial literacy in Indonesia or amounted to 38.55%. The t- test analysis in Table 2 shows the variables of gender, age, education, and the length of business toward the literacy rate of sharia finance of creative industry owners in Yogyakarta Special Region. This condition can be seen from the sig t value in which each variable owns sig t value which smaller than 0.05. On the variable of gender, the significance t value is 0.040 which means that gender is having significant impact toward financial literacy. The variable of education has 0.016 of t-significance value which means that education has positive and significant impact toward dependent variable. The length of business which has 0.036 significance value also means that the length of business has significant impact
Both visions of resilience suggest differing logics and modes of problem solving. Mode A seeks to deny the external; preservation is based on the ability to preserve an impermeable boundary. More- over, in its isolationism, it seeks to insulate itself from context: time, space, and socio-economic-cultural settings. There is a search for the one right solution that will apply in all cases, at all times. Mode B offers a dualistic opposite. We will argue that open in- terpretations of resilience are more compatible with a thriving culture; moreover, that they are more applicable to the cultural economy. This raises two important points. First, that resilience is relative, from one organisation, group or individual to another; it is an expression of power and control, and one group is forcing the other to bear costs and risks at their expense. Second, that it is contextual; in different market conditions, under divergent macro governance arrangements, the power balance shifts and a different calculation must be made.
This thesis explores brand as a dimension of the Caribbean’s creativeeconomy. It is therefore essential to first lay the groundwork and introduce this economy and the industries that form it. The creativeeconomy “is an emerging concept dealing with the interface between creativity, culture, economics and technology in a contemporary world dominated by images, sounds, texts and symbols” (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 2013). A young field, compared with other academic disciplines, it evolved out of discourse around arts, creative industries and creative cities (Landry and Bianchini, 1995; DCMS, 1998) and gained wider popularity following the publication of John Howkins’ seminal text The CreativeEconomy: How people make money from ideas (2001). It has since continued to be at the centre of numerous debates regarding structure, governance, geography, economic systems, political economies, policy frameworks, labour and socio-cultural discourse (Caves, 2000; Flew and Cunningham, 2010; Florida, 2012; Hesmondhalgh, 2009; O’Connor, 2010; Pratt, 2012, Throsby, 2001). In fact, to date even the term ‘creativeeconomy’ still proves problematic for some academics, however given the limited aims of this thesis it will be used as it the term favoured by Caribbean industry stakeholders, policy makers and academics alike.
This cultural ecology project has emerged from the Pervasive Media Studio where REACT is based, from the Sandbox method developed by iShed, and from research into creative networks and their values carried out by Watershed in conjunction with the Digital Cultures Research Centre (UWE Bristol) and Bill Sharpe (International Futures Forum) (see Sharpe 2010 and Bachmann, Dovey Monaco and Sharpe 2012). This research suggested that innovation functions best when understood as a network effect of a group of people, often in different professions and with diverse skills, being provided with time and space to develop and test new of ideas to address social, creative and technological challenges. These methods were designed to have the effect of constantly strengthening the local creative ecosystem; small creative players aggregated together in co-located spaces, times and social media constitute networks of creativity and innovation. These networks are driven by sharing ideas and resources, and by the new forms of interdisciplinarity brought into being by digital technologies.
entrepreneurship and strategy in emerging economies. The papers are notable in that their authors develop them in a wide variety of ways. For example, the papers all draw from different theoretical perspectives, including institutional theory, the knowledge based view (KBV), strategic planning theory, the transactive memory system perspective, and signaling theory. The papers also adopt a wide range of empirical approaches, generating rich data sets, including historical case study narrative (Jain), cross-sectional face-to-face interviews with CEO/founders (Yamakawa et al.), mail surveys of multiple key founding members (Zheng and Mai), content analysis of IPO prospectuses (Moore et al.), and longitudinal large-scale surveys of nascent entrepreneurs (Chinese PSED) (Zhang et al.). Finally, the researchers also adopt very different analytical techniques such as theory building from cases, OLS
A key cultural corollary of the exhibition lies in the ‘shock’ advertising techniques beloved of certain practitioners of second-wave advertising. Focusing on more closely defined niche- markets, ‘second-wave’ advertising marked its difference from previous advertising techniques by not so much dwelling on a product’s unique selling point in adverts as marketing it through association with lifestyle aesthetics and cinematic or innovative visual effects. The clothing company Benetton became the arch example of a company using these shock techniques: shifting its advertising strategy in 1991 from one of multi-sweatered multiculturalism, its creative director and photographer Oliviero Toscani began to use a campaign based around controversial photographs, including images of a nun kissing a priest, a new-born baby covered in blood, a man who had been shot, black and white hands in handcuffs, and, perhaps most notoriously, an image of a man dying from AIDS.
Entrepreneurs in the small and medium size industrial units play a key role for the success & development of competitiveness in this sector. Though basic entrepreneurial acumen is innate, this can be developed and sharpened through training. Attributes such as business knowledge, practical knowledge, analytical ability, communication skills, and organizational skills are to be acquired for an entrepreneurial success. The need for Entrepreneurs arises as there is necessity of constantly reallocating resources to adjust with market forces. SMEs development creates competitive spirits and drive to excel. Small entrepreneurship is the nursery for development entrepreneurial acumen to lead in larger and complex corporate sector.
Entrepreneurship has long been viewed through standard indicators such as self- employment rate, business ownership rate, and business density ratio, that focused purely on the individual or firm; but there are also implied positive relationships between entrepreneurship and economic development (Acs and Szerb, 2011; Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index, 2013). Entrepreneurship is also considered an important aspect of many economies worldwide since it is a means for economic advancement for many people and also as an alternative to unemployment (Bogan and Darity (2008)). Through various undertakings, entrepreneurs create value in addition to employment opportunities in their communities. Many new entrepreneurs utilize the formal or informal investment methods to raise start-up capital. Additional non-traditional forms of funding can be explored such as crowd funding which Gaule and Piacentini (2012) suggest may be beneficial particularly for female entrepreneurs both as startup and as growth capital. While it is not an understatement that entrepreneurship is the heart of the global economy, many owners are trapped in systems that have very complicated policies toward supporting and encouraging innovation. Arzeni (2013) argues that economic diversity and the inclusion of small businesses in many industries can be more resilient to the uncertainty or unpredictability of the global economy.
Government’s role is considered as pivotal factor to nurture and develop an economy. The role can be diverse and multidisciplinary in nature of action. In presence of many roles the three types of roles which must be played in order to advance an entrepreneurial ecosystem. First one regarding regulations and taxes, if played appropriately it can play a significant part to foster entrepreneurship. It includes tax incentives in which government can facilitate entrepreneurs by giving tax reliefs and duty free packages. Afterwards the perseverance of entrepreneurial business can be enabled through protection of patents, copyrights, intellectual property rights and entrepreneur protectionism. Furthermore, the enactment of entrepreneurship-friendly fiscal policies which can even encourage inclusion of foreign entrepreneurs in the country’s business ecosystem. For instance, if favorable interest rates are regularized and entrepreneurship-friendly fiscal measures are introduced, resultantly, investors and entrepreneurs can also be attracted in (Cohen, 2006).
Besides, in order to foster entrepreneurship, the government established the very first Ministry for the Co-ordination of Public Corporations (KPPA) in 1974, which was responsible for entrepreneur development programs. In 1976, KPPA was transformed and named Ministry of Public Enterprise (KPA), and later, was known as Ministry of Entrepreneur and Co-operative Development (MeCD) in 2004. In January 2005, the National Institute of Entrepreneurship (INSKEN) was established in support of the MeCD implementation strategy to create Bumiputera Commerce and Industrial Community. However, on 22 nd May 2006, the Malaysian Prime Minister, Yang Amat Berhomat Dato’ Sri Najib bin Tun Abdul Razak, officially launched the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). In 2009, the MeCD was dismissed, and INSKEN was replaced by MITI. As for the latest update in 2014, INSKEN has been removed from MITI, and now it is listed in Unit Peneraju Agenda Bumiputra (TERAJU).
In the mod ern ization of the economy, attract ion of innovativ e ideas into the sphere of small business and p rivate ent rep reneu rship in the country, p rov iding modern busin ess equip ment and equip ment, p roduct ion o f compet itive, compet it ive and expo rt-o riented p roducts, is a requirement. The use o f modern forms of market ing , in cluding the introduction of new techno log ies and technolog ies, p lays an impo rtant role in th e rapid growth and develop ment of private entrepreneurship and small businesses.
Entrepreneurship education encompasses a wide range of information and many different styles of study  both entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship research fields are based on entrepreneurial behaviour and entrepreneurship activities, i.e. activities that involve discovery or creation. In a view , intrapreneurship is restorative, this could be argued, children are observed to be very imaginative and can easily come up with new ideas due to their inquisitive nature. Pinchot  characterisesintrapreneurs as goal oriented and self-motivated but unlike entrepreneurs, he says they are also motivated by organisational reward and recognition. In the authors view, intrapreneurs should be self-selected and pursue their own ideas. From this view, observation suggests that children tolerate risk, failure and mistakes when pursuing their own ideas. To motivate such practice, children within the same vicinity can be encouraged to come together, tell stories and practice any community based craft. Children can identify and pursue opportunities in communities with which they are familiar with. The problem involves in this is that, parents see such endeavour as cumbersome, they do not have the time and patience, but it is another way of instilling creativity in children. Children are in many cases self- confident when pursuing things of their interest. It is that self-confidence and interest that parents and the community need to encourage. According to the study  creative people are to be honest, this honesty is seen as pain in the neck of parents and the community as they disrupt established order by asking questions and experimenting with new ways of doing things. Pinchot also talks of “patient money” that is the willingness to invest funds in intrapreneurial ventures without expecting an immediate return. As parents, we often observe that when children pursue a hobby of their interest, they do so with no thought of expecting a reward. This suggests that as children cultivate the habit of being committed to what they are interested in doing, if encouraged, they grow up to be committed in their work as well. It is only by being committed to work that creativity can be ensured, this is one of characteristic of a good entrepreneur.  John  recogniseintrapreneurs as results oriented, ambitious, rational, competitive and questioning individuals who dislike bureaucracy. We experience these characteristics in the behaviour of creative children every day.
When the pre-service teachers’ individual entrepreneurship perceptions were examined in relation to their having taken a course/seminar on entrepreneurship, the perceptions of the pre-service teachers having taken such a course/seminar were found to be higher than those of the pre-service teachers not having taken such a course/seminar in the “planning”, “locus of control”, “self-confidence”, “communication” sub-dimension and the whole scale. No significant difference on the other hand was found in the “motivation” and “self-discipline” sub-dimensions. Incik and Uzun (2017) conducted a study on the students of education faculty and pedagogical formation program and they found a significant difference between the individual entrepreneurship mean scores of the students having taken a course/seminar on entrepreneurship and the students not having taken a course/seminar on entrepreneurship in favour of the students having taken a course/seminar. Arpaci (2015) found that the pre-service teachers’ entrepreneurship consciousness and awareness developed through the applications having been conducted within the context of the entrepreneurship course. In a study done by Deveci and Cepni (2017), it was determined that the entrepreneurship education modules had positive effects on the pre-service teachers’ perceptions of “entrepreneurship”, “characteristics of an entrepreneur” and self-efficacy perception of transferring their understanding of the concept of entrepreneurship into practice. Morselli (2017) determined that the master’s students enrolled in the Education Faculty of a Finnish university and taking a course on entrepreneurship developed more entrepreneurial attitudes. These findings reported in the literature concur with the findings of the current study. The fact that the pre-service teachers
High-tech SMEs need to undergo a number of fierce competitions, if they want to develop into a mature large science and technology enterprises. In the growth process of high-tech SMEs, it’s important to making synchronously continuous improvement of the economic scale and innovation strength, and forming innovative culture, and then forming strong international competitiveness. That is to say, a country can get a certain area after the international industry competition or not, depends on whether it has large high-tech enterprises with strong international competitiveness, which are often related with the good economic development environment suitable for the early development of the high-tech SMEs in the beginning. In promoting “mass entrepreneurship and innovation”, domestic high-tech SMEs continue to emerge, but with lower survival rate and shorter life cycle. Data from the domestic high-tech SMEs survey shows that 8% of such enterprises will be closed in the next five years, 19% survive for 6-10 years, only more than 13% for more than ten years, the other be merged or converted business scope.  Therefore,
If the band, though, rejects the concept of customers, what is it that they receive in return for all their hard (expensive) work? What is the motivation and the “reward” for marginal counter-cultural creativeentrepreneurship? Here, there was a very high degree of consistency across the case study organizations, with repeated use of the Greek verb “γουσταρω” (goustaro). Crowd sourcing a strong translation for this resulted in a variety of suggestions, all of which taken together give some sense of the word, for which a direct English translation is not available. Proposed translations (with thanks to my Facebook community) include “I’m into it”, “I dig it”, “I fancy it”, and “I feel it”. Essentially, participants engage in their creative and cultural pursuits because of the emotional satisfaction and “buzz” it gives them. Slut’s Nikos told me this is why he got into skating, and why he and his brother started their shop: “There wasn’t a vision. We didn’t exactly know what we were doing. We were into skating, like lots of people. We were kind of engaged with it”. Nikos derides wider notions of a skate culture, or “board generation”, arguing that skaters “do it because they feel it, like when someone plays the guitar, or cooks”. Slut’s instagram and facebook pages contain, as well as product images, a wide selection of videos and photos of the Slut team, their friends and customers, engaging in – feeling – a range of extreme sports. STC’s Kyriakos explains that Sake recruited him by suggesting “why don’t you come and do the piercings at the parlour, and I’ll teach you tattoo, so that we can both get into it together” 1 ..The goustaro feeling is also presented as a motivation for new projects, and
On one hand Schumpeter (1942) asserts that competition is unfavourable to innovation performance, while entrepreneurial activity is favourable to innovation performance. However, one might assume that an increase in entrepreneurial activity would also result in increased levels of competition as more entrepreneurs enter or expand into an industry. This creates an issue for further research into the reformation of the Russian economy, as both entrepreneurial activity and competition were permitted – if entrepreneurship has a positive influence on innovation; and competition is a negative influence, then how can one assess the impact of Russian economic reform on innovation performance?