international business development study module targeted for undergraduate and graduate students in the fields of culture and creativeindustries (see the definition later in this document) in order to equip them with relevant skills set for future working life and changing labor market from an entrepreneurship perspective. The Study Module can also be used as a professional development program for other potential target groups in Europe to benefit the knowledge economy of Europe. These groups include managers and entrepreneurs and other groups of experts already working in expert positions in existing
As part of the wider context to this study, it is important to understand the various roles with which policy makers imagine the creativeindustries might play a part. With their mix of ‘knowledge rich industries’ and a high propensity towards self-employment, they are frequently cited as a means to promote regeneration within a given city or region (Oakley, 2006; Tams, 2002). They are often considered a driver for urban economic growth and it has been argued that they have “become part of the new orthodoxy by which cities seek to enhance their competitive position” (Miles and Paddison, 2005:833). A great deal of this research has been guided by Richard Florida, who in his seminal work ‘The Rise of the Creative Class’ (Florida, 2002) described a situation whereby a city with an active cultural/creative sector would attract other workers and in turn become a more attractive location for businesses to locate. Florida goes on to describe the conditions required by a city to develop and foster such creativity. Based on his own research model, he developed a ranking of (North American) cities which were more creative. The three main criteria are described as ‘The 3 T’s of Economic Development’: Technology, Talent and Tolerance (Florida, 2002:249). Interestingly, here Florida argues that in order for a city or region to take advantage of the benefits that a strong creative sector can bring, they need to be strong in these three areas. Florida’s work is of specific interest to this piece of research, in terms of his ideas and their on-going impact on public policy in the UK relating to tolerance and the need for greater diversity in terms of widening participation, as suggested in the previous section his work has been far-reaching and in its early days adopted widely with little critique.
he needs for growth of entrepreneurship in the sphere of culture were highlighted here as well as to stimulate the creation of a private impresario agency, which would create in a city a prestigious event recognized nationally and internationally. These actions have not been started so far due to a lack of political will. At the same time the document is missing a vi- sion of creating a coherent strategy for cultural policy and industries by proposition to develop ive diferent, thematic programs so the cultural ield is divided. hese programs are: (1) infra- structure development in the ields of culture,
importance of the creativeindustries in their respective economies. The British Government through the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS, 2010) has compiled these dimensions in a report entitled CreativeIndustries Economic Estimates released in December 2010, which reported that seven creativeindustries comprised 5.6% of the UK’s Gross Value Added in 2008. On employment, the total creative employment contributes 7.8% as a proportion of all employment totalling to 2,278,500 jobs in November 2010 (DCMS, 2010). Likewise in Australia, documenting the economic dimensions was undertaken by the Centre for International Economics (Canberra & Sydney) in a report entitled CreativeIndustries Economic Analysis (2009). The comprehensive Australian effort to capture and measure creativeindustries statistics based on time series and longitudinal approach is commendable. Multiple sources including the IBIS World Industry reports and ABS Census were consulted to construct the array of economics dimensions for the Australian creativeindustries. It was reported that the average contribution of the Australian creativeindustries to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) from 2004-05 to 2007-08 was about 2.8 per cent (CIE, 2009).
The creative agriculture complex integrates the three industries of modern agriculture, leisure tourism, and residential community into a forward-looking, comprehensive development model. Agriculture should build a modern charac- teristic agricultural production industry network, leisure agriculture and CSA (community support agriculture): the leisure tourism industry should create a Wenlu holiday product that conforms to the pastoral landscape, and consider the function of the scenic area, the model, space, and the integration. The con- tent of the tropical characteristic cultural life; the property industry should be built according to the village texture with several business plans, and it is neces- sary to attach management and service functions to create a new community. The creative agriculture complex will focus on agricultural landscape, agricul- tural and sideline products, farming activities, agricultural technology, and rural life. In combination with the strong demand of urban residents for healthy living and children's education, cultural creativity is combined with agricultural pro- duction, agricultural product processing, and packaging, leisure, and entertain- ment, etc., and the multiplier effect of industrial value is promoted by culture. The centralized planning, unified construction, unified management, and de- centralized management principles in the theory of seasonal purchasing of tour- ism and tourism complexes are also applicable to the creative agriculture com- plex. The construction of creative agriculture complex conforms to the market demand and leisure industry of Hainan to create a global tourism demonstrator. The construction of the creative agriculture complex not only satisfies the mar- ket demand of Taiwan’s leisure industry, but also creates a development trend of global tourism demonstration sites.
Part III considers the “sharing economy” and IP enforcement. Guadamuz examines the rise of Creative Commons and other open licences for copyrighted works and notes the difficulty in adopting such a model for registered rights. Rizk’s case study on sharing music in Egypt is a useful example of how creative businesses wishing to expand into less developed countries will need to appreciate that their existing business models such as online payment systems are unsuitable in cash economies. In Chapters 13 and 14, Cornwell and Brown outline the IP enforcement framework in the United Kingdom and the existing empirical studies of IP litigation. Cornwell demonstrates that as the data-driven economy grows, this will be a growth area for future empirical research, which is currently significantly behind studies in the United States.
The implementation of the knowledge management system in the creative industry business is very important because it will affect the achievement of sustainable competitive advantage. The implementation of the knowledge management system in the creative industry based on the results of respondents' responses is indeed still lacked. So far, the emphasis in creative economic business activities is only on the competencies of creative talent, the creative economic impact on national economic growth. Knowledge related to markets and customers is still not optimally done. So that creative talent does not totally do the work because business efforts in the creative industry in determining their position in the market have not been carried out optimally. So that creative economic products tend to lack differentiation and diversification through emphasizing the creativity of creative talent. This also causes creative talent to be unprofessional and less committed to the organization. In addition, the creative industry business in the visual communication design sector has no effort to protect the knowledge of creative talent against unexpected use from outside the business itself. So that it makes creativity and innovation as an important part of business in the creative economy to be very poorly encountered. This is because efforts to win competition in business are not important. So that efforts to continue to develop the skills and expertise of creative talent cannot be expected from a creative economy business, but from stakeholders who are concerned about the existence of creative economic businesses, both creative communities, business owners, regulators. The government as a policy maker besides being able to use creative economic products, can also direct companies in the region to use local creative economy products. So that it can develop the skills and expertise of creativie talent through providing experience to creative talent and motivating the creative industry to offer superior products. Academics can also be involved in researching phenomena that occur in creative economic business activities both micro and macro. Research related to the implementation of KMS in improving competitive advantage needs to be done by the next researcher in the sub-sector based on heritage. Culture as identity and self-image in dynamic and uncertain conditions, it is necessary to study the effect of implementing KMS in achieving competitive advantage and sustainability.
Harvey and Novicevic (2002) continue that there is evidence that supports the contention that tacit knowledge of an operating environment stimulates the use of intuition and provides the incentive for an expatriate to be a creative action-oriented decision maker. When expatriate managers are faced with complex unfamiliar decisions, but yet have tacit knowledge of how the organization works (as well as, what is the acceptable level of risk taking), they can successfully improvise in their decision-making processes. Managerial improvisation is the enactment of action as it unfolds, by drawing on available material, cognitive, affective and social resources. Improvisation has a deliberate intentional element as well as an extemporaneous unplanned dimension that are based on “acting on the moment”. Improvisation is a critical concept relative to expatriate intuitive intelligence in that it provides foresight for decision making in unexpected situations, or when the dynamics of the environment does not allow for a preplanned course of action. In these situations, the intuitive intelligence activates the expatriate manager's ability to use improvisation to develop strategies on the “run”. This ability to reflect and act simultaneously is frequently referred to as an evolved “gut knowledge” that differentiates excellent from average expatriate managers. Intuitive intelligence becomes the enabling mechanism for expatriate managers to improvise when the complexity of the environmental change is very high, and there is limited past experience for making decisions. One of the key considerations in assessing the creative intelligence of expatriates is to examine their ability to recognize patterns and/ or to be able categorize people, events, environments into classification schemes of opportunity. Patterns are also useful when attempting to integrate two systems or organizations (home and host country). By recognizing similar patterns between two entities in different environments, the expatriate manager is able to determine what aspects do not need to be relearned or modified between the foreign and the home environments. The ability to categorize problems into classification schemata learned in their domestic experience enables expatriates to pay selective attention to exceptions or problems in the hyper-competitive global marketplace that need creative solutions.
The CreativeIndustries in Townsville are currently inadequately defined in terms of the nature of the workforce, as well as the contribution of this sector to the Townsville economy. When initially considering available sources to better understand the workforce and map the economic contribution, it became apparent that readily available data sources would have to be used, given this was a preliminary study designed to identify key issues and opportunities appropriate for a large-scale and major study. While it could have been possible to search the internet for example, this would result in the omission of a number of practitioners working within this sector who do not have an online presence, in addition to the fact that many online sites for Creative practitioners and small-medium enterprises lack detail and are often out of date. A mailing list could also be sought and/or compiled to survey the CreativeIndustries employees of Townsville; however this and any desktop internet research are major tasks requiring significant resources beyond the scope of this preliminary study. The data sources that were chosen for relative reliability and accessibility were the Yellow Pages and the Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. These data sources would certainly provide some insights into Townsville’s CreativeIndustries sector, yet they represent the tip of the iceberg, with much more to tell beneath the surface. As explained above, a full story requires a major and ongoing study.
The local area study – which still awaits a geospatial analysis sufficient to do it justice – revealed or confirmed a number of key features of London’s creativeindustries. First, they were highly agglomerated, in a way that mirrored the agglomeration of the finance and business sector. London’s financial district lies in the City and, with the growth of docklands, increasingly to its East. London’s creative sector is to be found in all the boroughs surrounding the finance sector but above all, to its west, in Westminster and in a belt fanning out from Westminster towards Heathrow Airport.
As regards variations in space, if industrial structure were markedly different between one region of the UK and another, it would strictly speaking be preferable for each region to measure its creative industry employment using regional figures, and for a national figure to be arrived at by summing these parts. The method followed by DCMS is, however, to apply a single set of national coefficients. Our results suggest that the distortion this produces is small. If we had estimated London figures using ‘global’ UK coefficients, overall employment in the creativeindustries would have been about 2.5 per cent smaller. This is not large: it suggests that a future strategy for producing comparable regional data on a common
Creativeindustries policy in the UK has sought to increase the ability of small firms to capture value from IP investments by assisting them in identifying material suitable for IP protection and exploitation. For example, the Communications Act 2003 compelled broadcasters to adopt terms of trade which enabled independent programme producers to retain and exploit secondary rights in commissioned work. This reversed the previous status quo in which it was common for commissioning broadcasters to request all rights in a new production. However, it is unclear whether the policy change had the desired effect of improving appropriability of creative outputs for small firms, or whether other factors are determinant in the ability of independent producers to exploit IP rights.28 The report on Digital Opportunity led by Professor Ian Hargreaves in 2011 identified similar issues with the existing copyright framework in the UK, particularly focused on lowering licensing transaction costs, reducing the risks associated with copyright disputes and clarifying the scope of exceptions to copyright.29 As new business models and new forms of open and collective innovation are adopted by creative firms, it is necessary for researchers and policymakers to better understand the relationship between IP protection and firm
So, we can now see the problems: the CCI are now an important part of the city, but how are they to be governed, if at all? There is a strong tradition within continental Europe regarding the way in which culture and the cultural sector has been seen as something to be preserved in the public sector. A further division exists between the private sector and what is referred to as the third sector (charitable and informal activities). The CCI seem to have a presence in all these governance spaces. Continental European experience has previously framed the way in which policies for the culture and creativeindustries have been discussed; that is, by default, the state assumes responsibility. However, the dual trend of, on the one hand, the decline of the state's power and resources and reduced funding for culture, and, on the other, the rise of the for-profit aspects of CCI have created new challenges, and called forth the need to reconsider older governance responses. One of those new insights comes via the United Kingdom; although it shared the state funding model with mainland Europe, it also has a tradition of charitable and private sector involvement. This legacy has perhaps put the UK in a better position than most European nations to confront the current challenges of the intermingling of the types of activities in the different sectors. Much of the strength of the culture and creativeindustries comes from the public and private sectors as well as the intermediate sector. The formal and the informal are interwoven. In such an interconnected system, applying policy or intervening in one part rather than the whole can disrupt important interdependencies. However, each of the three sectors have a myopic focus on narrow concerns, something often referred to within government as a “silo mentality”; so, the governance challenge is to be cross-sectoral.
Some of my colleagues and students have argued that ‘set’ or traditional methodologies are constraining, however I believe that knowledge of their processes enables us to identify and trace the methodological territories as points of departure from which our innovative approaches can be develop. There are many established research methods that we can appropriate, adapt and (re)invent. So, in my view, the introduction of a diversity of ways to conceptualise and construct research methods is a central aspect of learning that underpins the development of new methodological approaches in the light of the individual’s questions, learning and representational styles. This is predicated on the belief that when the person behind the research is made visible other practitioner researchers can see how an individual’s purposes, personal theories, experience, strengths, uncertainties and commitment play a part in the methodological choices that they make. As mindful practitioners we are challenged to recognise our roles as knowledge workers by sharing our praxis. If in so doing we can build a resource kit of emerging and relevant methodologies from which researchers can select, adapt and modify, the processes of our research outcomes are more likely to serve a creative and liberating function. If they are also offered as examples of approaches that have been developed and used for other purposes, times and contexts, then we can study established methodologies from their situated value, so that lessons can be learned for our own research (Dodds and Hart 2001:168).
Whilst consistent data is not held across all the sectors, it appears that employment levels of people from ethnic minority groups is roughly in line with that of the national average. However, it needs to be remembered that many of the activities of media and creative industry employers are concentrated in major metropolitan centres, particularly London. Given that cities are also the areas with the greatest concentrations of people from ethnic minorities, it could be argued that the proportion of people from ethnic minorities should be higher than the national average and that these groups remain under-represented in the sector. A concern is that an increasing emphasis on qualifications may merely compound the problem of narrow access in that it will simply increase the trend towards a ‘pay to enter’ culture, which is seen to exist in some areas.
ative Industries are a new ‘object’ and much work has gone into making them visible (mapping, data collection, academic analyses, conceptualisa- tion). These processes create a (new) represen- tation of the CCI; it this representation that is the object of policy discourse. Clearly, there is a possibility that representation and the ‘reality’ of the CCI may not be aligned. Moreover, there is another level of complexity: In this case repre- sentations of policy objects are shaped by poli- cy norms. If policy objects do not correspond to the norm (as imagined by policy mechanisms) they are rendered invisible and ungovernable. This is the difficulty that faces researchers and those who would seek to govern the CCI. Put rather more simply: The challenge is to create a system of governance that ‘recognises’ the object of the CCI in its own terms, rather then project- ing it as a generic of other policy fields. In this paper we have discussed how the CCI are different to both cultural policy and industrial policy and, accordingly, how this presents a chal- lenge to the establishment of a new policy field. This paper has sought to elaborate this debate in the context of geography. We have stressed the need to consider governance as an institutional modality that relates more closely to the form of the CCI; moreover, that management has to be car- ried out by process, not through outputs. We ar- gued that the governance of such systems might be more readily achieved in the interstitial space of networks and in the making of networks. These processes will involve more than simply the in- sertion of a ‘linkage’ but will have the potential to re-articulate and transform both the production systems of the CCI and the governance structures. Our paper has also pointed to a range of complex organisation forms that underlie the simple out- put growth of the CCI. There is debate within both academe and policy circles as to how ‘normal’ or ‘exceptional’ the CCI are. As we have noted geographers and other social scientists have highlighted the spatial, social and economic em-
One argument is that global cities result from their strategic location at nodal points of control in the global economy; in recent years this role has been character- ized by the possibility of controlling financial flows. The dominant thesis is that creativeindustries are advanced service providers for such nodal economic powerhouses and beyond (Kratke, 2006). A slightly different argument draws instead upon a literature on industrial districts and localization highlighting a complex ecosystem of creativeindustries that embed them in place. In the classical industrial district tradition the clus- tering should be accounted for by the minimization of transactions costs (Scott, 2000). However, in contrast to traditional manufacturing, the transactions relate to knowledge and know how. This occurs in rather unique organizational setting: Grabher (2002) points to the particularity of time and task limited project-based firms generating what he terms heterarchical relations (see also ‘Managing Project-Based Organization in CreativeIndustries’ by DeFillippi and ‘Projects and Project Ecologies in CreativeIndustries’ by Vinodrai and Keddy). Additionally clusters afford labour markets based ‘job hopping’ from firm to firm, or project-to-project (Blair, 2003). The emergent envi- ronment is one of intimate, fuzzy and timely knowledge interaction between consumers and producers.
China’s cultural service trade is not large in scale but fast in development com- pared with that of the leading position of export trade of cultural creative prod- ucts in the world. The export trade volume increased from USD 0.52 billion in 2002 to USD 4.81 billion in 2012. It increased by nearly 10 times in 10 years. Trade surplus has been observed in China’s cultural products export in recent years. The export volume of the cultural creative products decreased in 2009 because of the financial crisis but stably increased in the remaining years. A small surplus always exists in the cultural creative service trade compared with the export of cultural creative products. The growth rate from the total cultural service trade ismore rapid than that of the total cultural product trade. This paper uses related data from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) database to compare the present situations of the cultural creativeindustries
The four artistic works taken as cases in point have been chosen to explore and understand how contemporary migratory movements have come to reshape the role of the creative cultural sectors, and how translation has been transformed into a collaborative instrument and privileged activity for the dissemination of cultural memory in contemporary societies. The interdisciplinary perspective, where translation dialogues with the visual and performing arts, and also with adaptation and performance studies in their application to the aesthetics of migration, stimulates mechanisms of self-mediation that sensitise citizens to the urgent topic of human migration. The contexts of the migration crisis have stimulated the proliferation of creative forms of unquestionably global translation of personal narratives as adaptations of ancient myth on screen and performances on the stage. I argue that these narratives, conceived as acts of translations, imply processes of rewriting, reinvention, reinterpretation, and relocation, which construct translation not in terms of binary oppositions, where creative freedom acts against linguistic confinement, or piracy against faithfulness, instead, as a transcreating ‘movement’ by means of which intimate experiences are re-interpreted by target audiences who bear witness to human stories in mythological terms.