This paper explains the design and development of a courseware called Personalized Learning Environment for Nutrition (PLENut). The aim of this approach is to enhance the learning of Nutrition topic. It was reported that Nutrition was a facts topic which difficult to understand and affected students‘learning outcomes. Due to new possibilities, perspectives, insights and challenges, the concept of PLEs seems to be an interesting but not a very well developed or elaborated concept for introducing an innovative approach within technology-enhanced learning and especially within the field of higher education (Che Ku Nuraini et al, 2014).
A more recent study involving pictorial methods to assess food preference has also produced favorable results. Jaramillo and colleagues (2006) developed a computerized tool to assess fruit, vegetable, and fruit juice preferences of African American and Hispanic preschool children. Outcomes of the study exhibited strong internal reliability and good predictive validity of the measure. In short, authors observed significantly higher mean FV consumption among children who reported more positive FV preferences. However, the Jaramillo et al. (2006) assessment tool does not report preliminary cognitive assessment of utilized photographs to ensure the studied sample perceived the photographs as intended (Jaramillo et al., 2006). Second, extreme measures (e.g. provision of test photographs to kitchen staff for food preparation) were undertaken to ensure the food presented in the photographs and in the mealtime environment were identical. These preliminary preparations may not be realistic for nutrition educators seeking a practical food preference evaluation method. Therefore, we sought to add to the limited body of literature surrounding the use of pictorial methods by describing a preliminary investigation into the
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Results: The Market Guide was of limited use to Sudanese women. Their response to this resource revealed the struggles of women acculturating during their first year in Calgary, Canada. We discovered the basic social process, “Navigating through a strange and complex environment: learning ways to feed your family.” Language, transportation, and an unfamiliar marketplace challenged women and prevented them from exercising their customary role of “knowing” which foods were “safe and good” for their families. The nutrition resource fell short of informing food choices and purchases, and we discovered that “learning to feed your family” is a relational process where trusted persons, family, and friends help navigate dietary acculturation.
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CompanionAble  is a four-year EU-funded project - started in 2008 - that aims to develop an assistive smart home environment within the home of elderly people, to support both the cognitive stimulation and therapy management of the care-recipient. This is mediated by a robotic companion working collaboratively with a smart home environment. Main CompanionAble developments include: realisation of an intelligent day-time-management (drug intake, appointments); content generation for cognitive stimulation and training and coherent delivery through multiple channels; Videoconference between user and professionals/relatives/friends, fully integrated in the robot and smart home’s user interfaces; On-line recognition of significant distress signals/utterances/calls and sound source localization; Visual detection of person’s poses and analysis of emotions; Multimodal and natural dialogue module (speech input/output, touch display, gestures).
The federal government has actively promoted child nutrition in American schools for nearly 60 years. On June 4, 1946, Harry S. Truman, 33 rd President of the U.S., signed the National School Lunch Act (NSLA) into law. The NSLA (Public Law 79-396) was enacted to address the problem of malnutrition among American youth during the era of World War II. Military leaders, the Selective Service and members of Congress were dismayed at how poorly nourished and physically weak many of the young military recruits were when they presented for military service. According to General Lewis Hershey, Director of the Selective Service, over 150,000 young men were rejected for military service and another 150,000 died during the war as a result of their malnourished, weakened state (Gunderson, 1971). The NSLA was implemented as an act of homeland security because malnourished youth weakened the collective strength of the nation and made the U. S. vulnerable to the acts of other nations.
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Purslane is an excellent source of ALA, with seed levels among the highest found in the plant kingdom (Simopoulus 1992, Almazan et al. 1998). Purslane grows widely as a weed throughout the world (Appendix 4). Compelling evidence for its adaptation is the pervasiveness of Purslane as a problem weed in multiple horticultural crops (Webster 2006, Southern Weed Society), and in this, several advantageous physiological mechanisms are evident. Purslane reproduces indeterminately, so it continually generates seeds. Furthermore, though drought is one of the biggest problems encountered in agriculture, field observations indicate that Purslane continues to grow and reproduce efficiently even under drought conditions that adversely impact most vegetable and crop species (Virginia Tech Weed ID Guide). An important physiological property of Purslane, and one that underscores its uniqueness, is that Purslane can shift between C4 and CAM metabolism depending on the environment. The shift depends on nutrient and water availability, making it highly adaptable to a range of environmental conditions (Koch et al. 1980, Mazen 2006).
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Fiscal incentives are effective and should be used by governments. This market based approach helps bring the price of foods closer to their true societal cost, including direct and indirect costs on health (and potentially the environment). Disincentives should be paired with incentives to reduce financial regressivity, maximise health benefits, and help reduce industry opposition
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[8,11-16,18-20]. Considering the importance of access to an adequate quality and quantity of food among disad- vantaged populations who may be more at risk for nutrition-related health problems [33,57-59], few studies have focused on the extent of food resource vulnerabil- ity among the growing Mexican-origin population [16,49,60-63]. Of these, only one examined the extent and correlates of increasing levels of severity of food insecurity among the rapidly growing Mexican-origin population along the Texas border with Mexico . Although there are slight differences between the Radi- mer/Cornell measure of food insecurity and the Current Population Survey, the emerging picture of food insecur- ity among hard-to-reach Mexican-origin families sug- gests greater prevalence of adult and child food insecurity than the previously reported national, regio- nal, and local rates among Hispanic adults and children [16,23,26,49,60-64]. This study extends our understand- ing of levels of food insecurity: household, adult, and child . This is the first study, to our knowledge, that examines the relationship between nine components of household and community characteristics to levels of food security status among colonia residents. These components include demographic characteristics, health characteristics, access and mobility, food cost, federal and community food and nutrition assistance programs, perceived quality of the food environment, food security, eating behaviors, and alternative food sources.
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With respect to the food system Figure 1 shows what a healthy food system might look like with the concerns of nutrition, food safety and environment (sustainable food supply) being the pillars on which the system is built (WHO, 2002). In reality the systems are much more complex and can include issues such as concentration of power in a small number of companies, cultural dominance of food with appropriation of cuisines from one area as marketing devices and the McDonaldization of cuisine (Ritzer, 2000).
International commitment to address malnutrition has in- creased, partly because of global food insecurity concerns, academic consensus on effective actions, and the inclusion of nutritional indicators in the Millennium Development Goals . In 2010, the European Commission called for projects to help establish research priorities, strengthen commitment, and identify resource needs, synergies, and coordinated research efforts on a European and global level to tackle malnutrition. The SUNRAY (Sustainable Nutrition Research for Africa in the Years to come) project was selected for funding. SUNRAY took a consultative approach to define priorities for research themes and actions to create an enabling research environment from the perspective of stakeholders in nutrition in SSA. SUNRAY had no a priori focus and considered malnutrition in all its forms and both preventive and curative aspects.
Much has changed about the way we think about un- dernutrition reduction during the last decade. We now understand that effective action must address determi- nants at the immediate, underlying and basic levels. The Lancet Maternal and Child Nutrition Series (2013) calls for a balanced approach to investing in and scaling up interventions that are nutrition specific, nutrition sensitive and create an enabling environment for undernutrition reduction . Financial resources are a key part of this investment, but so too are investments in human re- sources. Many such investments will be made with public funds, but many will be made through private investment. The funds that are paid to cover fees for university courses in nutrition represent a major investment, some public some private. How aligned are the priorities of these courses with the public health nutrition (PHN) priorities of the countries of South Asia?
Each intervention used different components. Beck 2010  implemented nutrition (chocolate plus home- made supplements, gratin diet for people with swallow- ing difficulties), exercise (individualised sessions twice weekly), and twice weekly oral hygiene for 11 weeks in an RCT, finding increased weight, BMI and protein intake with no change to energy intake, mortality, cognitive or functional status. Keller 2003  used an enhanced menu and dietetic time, increased nutritional awareness and communication (CCT) for 9 months and increased participant weight and dietetic time, without altering hospital stay duration, infections or mortality. Simmons 2001  (CCT) prompted US nursing home residents to drink and exercise, and offered them assist- ance with getting to the toilet and/or checked for incon- tinence every 2 h for 8 h/day for the first 16 weeks, rising to 10 h/day for the next 16 weeks, plus increased drinks choice for the final 7 weeks. They found no ef- fects on serum osmolality, BUN:creatinine ratio or food and fluid intake at or between meals. Boffelli 2004  (BA) implemented an 18 month nutritional program for malnourished people with dementia that included modification of dietary composition, quality and consistency (modified on preference, swallowing ability, dental status), increased feeding time and assistance, enhanced dining environment and ONS prescribed for low intake, finding improved albumin but unchanged weight or BMI.
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In an interregional cross-sectional study NESCAV (Nutrition, Environment and Cardiovascular Health), we used a modified semi-quantitative FFQ to assess dietary habits of the Greater region’s population (Luxembourg, Wallonia in Belgium and Lorraine in France) and to ex- plore the relationship between diet and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) . This FFQ was first developed by a Canadian group to assess dietary habits among Quebecois, and was previously validated in this population . In order to achieve the objectives of the NESCAV study, this FFQ was modified and the list of food items was extended. Therefore, new validation studies are necessary . For this purpose, 2 approaches have been applied to investi- gate the relative validity of the modified FFQ: first, by comparing FFQ data with data from 3-day dietary records (DR), and second, by comparing FFQ data against nutri- tional biomarkers.
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The estimates of common litter environment ef- fect (nongenetic components of uterine nutrition, uterus capacity, nutrition during the suckling pe- riod, and partly nonadditive genetic effects such as dominance – Kaufmann et al., 2000) on fur coat traits were highest for HL, CP and TS (in TS the estimate of litter variation (0.187) was higher than direct heritability (0.151) – original data). In an earlier part of the study (Wierzbicki, 2004) when the portion of litter variation was estimated by a single-trait animal model, the highest estimates were also derived for CP, HL and TS.
An example of poor decision making regarding enteral nutrition use in dementia is documented in the Parliamentary and Health Service Omudusman report (2011). This case report challenges the beliefs of healthcare professionals regarding the use of enteral nutrition in patients with dementia. The case concerns Mr W who was admitted to hospital with a chest infection, dementia and depression, and who was treated with intravenous fluids and antibiotics. On completion of the treatment Mr W remained frail, neither eating nor drinking, but was discharged to a care home. Three days later Mr W was readmitted to hospital with severe dehydration and pneumonia, where the decision was made to insert a PEG tube for treatment and nutrition. Following the completion of treatment Mr W’s condition improved and he was able to enjoy life in the care home, such as playing his favourite game of dominos. An element of the decision to discharge Mr W to a care home, was the belief by healthcare professionals he was as well as could be expected. The difficulty for healthcare professionals working in an acute environment is understanding the level of
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approaches that will be used to meet the objectives; (c) anticipate potential confounding variables; (d) stay true to your original experimental design; (e) understand how statistical and computational methods should be applied to meet the objectives; (f) repeat the study design in different populations but with the same analytical and statistical approaches and also perform in silico and/or mechanistic validations; (g) describe methods in sufficient detail that others can apply them; (h) make raw and processed data available in public repositories like Gene Expression Omnibus (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/), Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ gap), or Sequence Read Archive (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/sra). To this common sense, we add the need for (1) a system nutrition approach to understand the complexity of gene–environment interactions, (2) N-of-1 study designs to determine individual responses, (3) community-based participatory research to translate results for improving personal and public health, and (4) standardized study storage including metadata capture, e.g., as intended with the nutritional phenotype database (dbNP).
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are necessary for an adult human. For this reason, the optimal vitamin intake is achieved only with a mixed and varied diet. Vitamins are relatively unstable compounds in food and can be destroyed to varying degrees by the influence of light, heating and oxygen. Vitamin deficiency can be caused by unilateral nutrition, vitamin degradation due to inappropriate food preparation or very low nutrient content (that is, a quantity of vitamins per unit of energy) in slimming diets. Also, intestinal lesions (chronic diarrhoea) or conditions of increased need (fever, anxiety, alcohol and smoking) can lead to a state of vitamin deficiency. There is no exact definition of the need for vitamins. Everyone agrees widely that the lack of deficiency symptoms is not sufficient to meet the needs, but the objective of optimal health is inexact because there are no unequivocal criteria for this issue. For this reason, the recommended values are defined by the need and by standard deviations from the mean value of one population group, so that 97.5% of the people meet their need with that value. Most of the time, however, these values are the minimum values that are sufficient to avoid characteristic exhaustion symptoms. A higher security value is also given (BAESSLER et al., 1992, GEISS & HAMM, 2008).
patients after a total knee replacement. This study re- vealed that rehabilitation treatments offered either at home or in a hospital setting are equally effective. There have been no studies indicating that a home visit program improves patient satisfaction after a total knee replacement. Home visit programs might be clas- sified as an external component based on the results of the study. It was found that for the pain score, the TKR-H is significantly better than TKR. The knee and function scores of TKR-H were significantly better than for TKR. The ROM and time to independent gait aid for TKR-H was found to be significantly better than for TKR. The patient satisfaction for TKR at 82% is the same as found in previous studies. The patient satisfaction for TKR-H was found to be 94% which is significantly higher than for TKR. Our mean WOMAC score is higher than the first 3 months. The mean WOMAC score was found to be the same for patients who did TKR at 1 year. Unique to this study is its rationale for home visits with activities related to PROMs. From home visits, we identified the patient’ s problems such as a poor environment, misunderstand- ing about the exercises, a lack of confidence in walking without a gait aid, misunderstanding about how to use Table 2 Data was shown pain score, ROM, gait aid independent, WOMAC, knee score, and function score respectively
Energy intake, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, vitamin C, calcium, iron and zinc at baseline and at the end of the intervention had a positive and statistically significant difference between their means at p ≤ 0-05. Only vitamin A intake had no significant difference between its mean at baseline and after intervention indicating that there were major positive changes in intakes of these nutrients except vitamin A. There is a difference between the two findings however since for the Malawian study (Hjertholm, et al 2007) all the nutrients did not meet RDA while in this study only five out of eleven nutrients failed to meet the RDA after intervention. Mean energy intake (2096 kcal) was slightly lower than energy intake for this study (2158 Kcal). These study findings underscore the important benefit which nutrition policies directed towards food based approaches can produce even in situations where resources are scarce. Although food security may not be ensured, it can still be practical to promote an optimal diet based on local foods to ensure adequate foetal growth.
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instability, civil strife and conflicts in shaping the observed malnutrition patterns cannot be overlooked (Haris, 2014; Unit, 2016). Furthermore, exposure to Western lifestyle may result in changes in dietary behaviours for economically empowered urban women (Doku & Neupane, 2015). Moreover, in urban environments, over-nutrition may be a result of built environments that are characterized by narrow congested roads, lack of sidewalks and recreational parks, pollution, and high crime rates, each of which discourages a physical active lifestyle (Misra & Khurana, 2008; Nugent, 2008; Scott et al., 2012). However, findings in Ghana and Zimbabwe reported unexpected associations with regards to the urban-rural divide. In Zimbabwe, urban underweightness could be a reflection of the increasing poverty and high-income inequalities among urban residents (ZIMSTAT, 2013; Manjengwa et al., 2016). However, in Ghana, consistent economic growth and increased public healthcare spending (Saleh, 2012) may protect urban women from over-nutrition as they have access to better health care services that make them more conscious of their health status compared to their rural counterparts.
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