This regional profile highlights key population, health, and environment indicators and important development challenges for the Calabarzon Region (Region 4-A). It is designed to help educators, policymakers, and community leaders identify key threats to sustainable development and explore pos- sible approaches to addressing them. This profile is part of a series covering select regions of the Philip- pines, and is intended as a companion publication to the Population Reference Bureau’s 2006 data sheet, Making the Link in the Philippines: Popula- tion, Health, and the Environment. 1
The article outlines the results of adjoint hygienic assessment devoted to priority environmental health risk factors and health state of population in Moscow. We have shown that some conditions under which negative health risk factors can exert hazardous influence on populationhealth still exist on the megacity territory. Such trends are confirmed by air pollu- tants content exceeding hygienic standards (up to 6.6 daily average maximum permissible concentrations); a substantial growth of centralized water supply sources (up to 65.87%) with water quality in them not conforming to hygienic standards; high quantity of soil samples also not conforming to hygienic standards (more than 50% as per a number of sanitary- chemical and microbiological parameters in some administrative districts). At the same time we have noticed a trend show- ing reduction in number of drinking water samples not conforming to the standards (from 4.36% to 2.45%) which were taken from distribution network of centralized household water supply. We have determined that primary morbidity parameters are also characterized with positive trends as they tend to decrease; still we have seen some separate morbidity categories and nosologies to exceed average country levels (from 4.1% up to 68.3%). Such morbidity categories include “Respiratory or- gans diseases”, “Skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases”, “Neoplasms” etc. We have received about 50 valid and biological- ly well-grounded mathematic models which helped us to accomplish cause-and-effect relations analysis in the system “hu- man environment quality (danger factor) – populationhealth (morbidity, mortality). The analysis has shown that negative environmental factors exert their influence on population mortality and morbidity causing up to 29.2% additional morbid cases and up to 0.056% additional deaths per year. Air and soil quality which does not conform to hygienic standards makes the greatest contribution into probable occurrence of additional morbid cases; as for mortality, the main probable reason for additional deaths is air quality not conforming to hygienic standards. Risk factors are phenol, benzpyrene, nitrogen diox- ide, suspended substances, ammonia, chlorine and its compounds, sulfur dioxide etc., contained in air, as well as cadmium, microbiological agents, and radioactive substances which can be found in soil.
5.17 Infant mortality consists of neonatal and post-neonatal mortality, the latter showing the larger social class gradient. Many deaths in the neonatal period are related to prematurity and poor foetal growth in pregnancy, and in the post-neonatal period sudden infant death syndrome is a significant cause. Cigarette smoking contributes to both neonatal and post-neonatal deaths and also shows a relationship to social class and deprivation. The family and social environment: poverty, lack of social support, parental mental health problems, parental drug and alcohol problems, all increase the risk of ill-health directly or indirectly. The quality of health care available is particularly important in preventing some deaths due to problems during labour and delivery, and also influences the outcome for babies born prematurely, and for those suffering from acute life-threatening illness.
Environmental degradation can not be addressed solely through population policy. It is easy to blame population growth. Population growth seem easier to address than problems associated with institutions, land tenure system (private versus public ownership of resources), technologies. Answer: just enact family planning programs. But in reality, slower population growth will not resolve the complex set of problems related to environmental change. Policy must address a range of issues.
certain about the barriers to addressing EH issues in nursing practice, the nurses in the present study were slightly more certain about these barriers than were nurses in the Wisconsin study (see Table 2). The two items with the highest means (meaning they were perceived as great barriers tied at M = 3.45, SD = 1.09) were “Little or no time to consider environmental health concerns in my clinical practice” and “Few or no re- source people with expertise related to environmental health”. The latter item had the highest mean in the Van Dongen study. The item with the lowest mean (least likely to be a barrier) was “Addressing environmental health concerns is not seen as a part of my nursing role” (M = 2.96, SD = 1.19). This differs from the Van Dongen study, in which the item with the lowest mean was “Personal lack of knowledge about how the environment can affect human health and what to do about it”. However, similar to the Van Dongen study, it should be noted that there was merely a slight difference the means of the highest and lowest rated items; regardless, nurses seem uncertain about which items constitute barriers.
The size and growth of population is a very vital factor to determine the feasibility of economic development of a country. While a growing population is advantageous to the under populated developing country but the same growing population acts as a serious drag on economic development of an over populated developing country. Rate of growth of population in the over- populated country still remains high despite their poor rate of economic growth. Assam being a state of Indian union is also subjected to high rate of population growth as that of the other states in the North-East India. Out of total population of North-East India of 449.78 lakhs, the population of Assam stood highest at 311.69 lakhs as compared to the other states, followed by Tripura at 36.71 lakh.
Do we contain our needs and think about wastage of resources and management of resources with efficient upgraded modern technology. The answer is if we look at the aspiration of everybody to conquer s Mars and Moon and a mass wealth .do they think for living simple healthy life of safety in clean environment, pure climate and atmosphere. On the other side, are we fallows environmental laws, conventions and guide lines or all these remain in books, papers and up to discussion or seminar only. If we are really sincere about sustainability, health, safety, environment and climate then we have to go beyond it, means contain our needs and desire, educate masses specially poor and down trodden, contract the expansion and growth of population, but practically in real term we think for material growth, prosperity, comforts, enjoyment and quench our greed’s of amassing wealth, rather living simple life. Which is against the principle of sustainability, that is why we see and experience earthquake, tsunami, flood, eruption of volcanoes because we keep on disturbing the balance of earth, when earth balance its credit with debit then we think for sustainability but soon we forget and keep on disbalancing again, earth repeat the same process again but how long . This equation of balance and disbalance will continue.
In 1994 in Helsinki, Ministers of Health and the Environment of the European Member States of the WHO, as well as members of the EC, agreed seven broad priority areas where action was required to reduce the impact of environmental degradation on health. These ranged from contaminated food and water to ambient and indoor pollution, urban health, and death and injuries from accidents. The ensuing Helsinki Declaration on Action for Environment and Health in Europe recommended that the ESF should work with the WHO and EC to identify future research needs in these areas. ESF programme of consultation In line with the recommendations of the Helsinki Declaration, the ESF launched a Task Force embarking on a programme of scientific consultation, in close liaison with the WHO and EC. Over 150 scientists from some 20 European countries and a wide range of disciplines, from neuro-biologists and toxicologists to epidemiologists and social scientists, collaborated through a series of workshops and field studies to pinpoint areas where further research is required to support the Declaration’s goals. At a multidisciplinary ESF update meeting in June 1998, 40 leading scientists examined more than 80 detailed recommendations for further research and drew up a shortlist of the 24 research issues presented in this document. Selection criteria
The Public Health and Environment Director is a strong and visionary leader who is responsible for leadership, management and administration of the Public Health and Environment programs. This position actively engages in all segments of the community to focus on the protection and promotion of the health and well-being of all residents and the environment of Elbert County. Director assesses public health needs by planning, organizing, directing, and reviewing the public health services
As a common adaptation, population increase sits between changes in the exploitation of resources, and an increase in social complexity (for many, not only thematically, but also causally). Both changes in resource exploitation and the rise of social complexity have been discussed in detail elsewhere (Price and Brown 1985; Zvelebil 1986; Rowley-Conwy 1983; 1984; 1986; Rowley-Conwy and Zvelebil 1989; Mithen 1990). The former is typified by the notion of a diversification of the resource base (to include a range of avian and aquatic resources (Binford 1968: 317), including inland fish (LeGall 1996), as well as an increased range of plant foods (Zvelebil 1994). However, with rising sea-levels submerging what might exist of previous evidence for marine exploitation, the precise timing of such a diversification is difficult to define. Likewise, evidence for more specialised exploitation may also be affected by a lack of previous evidence. The evidence for rising social complexity, in the form of large-scale, apparently permanent settlement and cemeteries (see for examp le O’Shea and Zvelebil 1984; Larsson 1989) is however clear-cut, although extremely localised (particularly in certain coastal areas). Within the apparent changes taking place, population increase clearly plays a important role, particularly since there appears to be unambiguous evidence for gradually increasing populations in both inland and coastal groups.
Aside from the problems of using large game densities from modern woodland environments (or the Scottish Highlands) in the above cases, a more fundamental problem is that studies of the ecological determinants of historic hunter- gatherer populations suggest that it is the bottleneck of the resources at the poorest season (rather than overall yields of any resource) which determine population numbers (as discussed in chapter three). This relationship was also noted by Jochim (1976: 134) and Mellars (1975: 54). Thus measures of the carrying capacity (such as those of Clark and Smith above) which do not take the seasonality of the environment into consideration will greatly overestimate the real population in an ethnographic situation. Casteel (1972: 27-35) showed that estimates of carrying capacity on the basis of year-round resource yields were 20-25 times the actual ethnographic figures for many New World groups. He demonstrated that for the Chipewyan, fish, the main ‘poor season’ resource, could be used to calculate maximum population. Baumhoff's (1963) study of historical Californian populations also showed that in the Lower Klamath province, fish yields were the best predictor of population numbers. Jochim proposed that fish (as the ‘lean season’ resource in his subsistence model) would be the main determinant of population numbers in Mesolithic south-west Germany. He suggested that the upper limit for population would be 0.13 persons per km 2 (Jochim 1976:
The effect of flint availability in the past on present finds densities can be illustrated by recent regional surveys of lithic scatters. One example of a fieldwalking survey carried out in an area which had no local flint sources was that in the Tyne-Solway valley in the north-east of England, conducted by Tolan-Smith (1996). An example of a survey carried out in a similar environment where flint sources are local could be a survey in Hampshire carried out by Shennan (1985: 50). It is very difficult to compare data from fieldwalking projects, since recovery rates depend on many different factors (such as the depth of finds, type of ploughing experience of collectors). Comparisons may not be accurate, however the contrasts between the two surveys are nonetheless remarkable. In the former, collected finds densities are about 0.97 items per 1000m 2 (Tolan-Smith 1996: 9), in the later on the other hand, finds densities reached an average of 79.5 artefacts per 1000m 2 (Shennan 1985: 50). Though incidental to the main discussion here, this lack of local sources in this north-east region may be one factor effecting the relatively paucity of sites in these areas (clear from figure 2.3), and at least making it very difficult to separate potential differences in past population densities from biasing factors.
The Early to Late Mesolithic transition in northern England has consistently been noted as a remarkably marked change (Buckley 1924; Jacobi 1976; Myers 1986; 1987; Woodman 1989), with distinct and rapid changes in raw material use, tool types and reduction strategies occurring simultaneously. Interestingly however, the transition in the south of England is much less marked (Jacobi 1976), with Horsham industries potential transitional types. This marked contrast doesn’t appear to be a result of only a limited sample of sites at each side of the transition, as the contrast is particularly marked where the densest records of Mesolithic sites are found (such as in the Pennines). In one area (Marsden moor, discussed in chapter two), where well over 100 assemblages have been recovered from only 3km 2 , the Early and Late assemblages here are not only completely different, but even stratigraphically quite distinct (Buckley unpublished; 1925; Spikins 1995b; Spikins, Ayestaran and Conneller 1995). If ideas were being spread, we might expect changes to be gradual, and intermediate industries to be found. However, even where excavated sites include assemblages from both periods (because sites have been re-occupied at a later date), ‘Early’ raw materials are only used to make ‘Early’ tools and vice versa (the rare exceptions appearing to be cases of cores exhausted in the Early Mesolithic being re-used in the Late to make the much smaller microliths that characterised this period, Myers 1986 and pers. comm.). Of course there are no guarantees that groups didn’t adopt new techniques and raw material sources very rapidly, or that transitional industries do not remain to be discovered. However movements of population, in line with shifts in environmental zones, might account for the presence of Early Mesolithic industries in Scotland (Myers 1986; Woodman 1989; Finlayson and Edwards 1997), especially at Morton and Lussa Wood (Bonsall 1988) which appear to be later than the same types of industries in northern England
According to Theorem ., Theorem ., and Theorem ., the upper and lower bounds for the number of newborns and for the total population are functions of σ . Solving equa- tion () to obtain σ can be demanding and impractical. From the ecological point of view, it is often more important to know the trend that the population is following (i.e., whether it faces extinction or explosion) than the exact numbers of individuals at a cer- tain point in time. This trade-oﬀ between precision and simplicity allows us to introduce time-independent best and worst case scenarios and to deﬁne σ as the best and the worst constant intrinsic growth rate. To this end, we set
The dependency ratio of old to young has changed in the opposite direction. A lower dependency ratio indicates a higher ratio of workers per capita and thereby a greater supply of labour to the economy. It also implies fewer people to feed and potentially more savings being accumulated for productive investment in the economy. Population changes are not simply a function of economic change. It is often regarded as the static backdrop against which economic, social, political and environmental forces are played out. Regional Australia Institute (RAI) explained that the dependency ratio plays an important and complex relationship with economic growth in both cause and effect directions (RAI 2015b). Economic growth is also often associated with the use of natural resources. Jones (1997) recognised that each increase in population places additional strain on natural resources. Along with the population changes, there are numerous socio-economic variables that impact the lifestyles of the population. Australia’s GDP has grown by more than 3% per annum in each of the last three decades. It is therefore assumed that this rate of growth will continue into the future. The high correlation between energy consumption and real GDP contributes to high per capita GHG emissions.
The zooplankton play an important role in marine and freshwater food webs, the high sensitivity of zooplankton assemblages to physical and chemical variations can be manifested as changes in abundance and community structure (Porri et al., 2007). Studies by several authors have revealed that zooplankton differs both in quality and quantity from place to place and from time to time (Kumari and Goswami, 1993). Zooplankton depends on phytoplankton for food and naturally some relationship is to be expected between them and their respective distribution. The zooplankton density tended to increase gradually with the increase of the phytoplankton density. The organism inhabit the estuary can be expected to react and adapt to physical and chemical changes of the environment in Hoogly estuary (Kundu et al., 1987). The ambient chemical condition and physical changes in the water are known to be responsible for the temporal distribution of zooplankton (Madupratap and Haridas, 1975). FAO (2006) had earlier reported that distribution of zooplankton vary from place to place and year to year due to the dyanamic nature of aquatic systems.
Conserving this undeveloped land will require the invol- vement of various landowners , including both private owners (62% of land) and national and provincial govern- ment (38%). The local government departments responsi- ble for approving developments have already accepted the GPS data from this research and included then within new zoning schemes. While this will not automatically prevent further erosion of natural habitats, it will trigger baboon- specific Environmental Management Plans and initiate assessments of the possible impacts of such development on the affected troop(s), with input from interested and affected parties. However, because most undeveloped land is owned by private parties, it is vital that the responsibility of landscape conservation is not left entirely to environ- mental authorities. Rather, a great deal of effort should be placed on encouraging and or providing incentives for pri- vate landowners to participate in the conservation process. This can be achieved using a variety of methods including one or a mix of voluntary, property-based, price-based or regulatory mechanisms [51,52]. Ultimately, however, the effectiveness and sustainability of any landscape conserva- tion strategy relies on the a combination of ‘ top-down rigour ’ and ‘ bottom-up participation ’ , where partner- ships between management authorities, non-governmental organisations and private parties will ensure that land development plans are not only ecologically sustainable, but socially sustainable [54-56]. In line with this, a baboon liaison group was established in the Cape Peninsula in 2010 to serve as an intermediary between baboon manage- ment authorities, researchers and local communities. In providing a platform for communication, the establish- ment of this liaison group will improve the chances of the local baboon population being sustainable on the long- term.