Environmental Accounts

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Environmental accounts for the Republic of Ireland: 1990 2005

Environmental accounts for the Republic of Ireland: 1990 2005

Economic and social welfare do not stop outside the market. The importance of what the ‗market‘ accounts do not measure justifies why we should spend resources in collecting data and constructing non-market accounts. As The Economist (2005) puts it ―If governments invest seriously in green data acquisition and co-ordination, they will no longer be flying blind‖. ―And [although this may not be the case in Ireland] by advocating data-based, analytically rigorous policies rather than pious appeals to ―save the planet,‖ the green movement could overcome the scepticism of the ordinary voter‖. High quality data are the starting point for economic modelling and evidence-based policy analysis and design. How else are our policy makers supposed to take informed, evidence-based, sound decisions? The environmental accounts constructed by Lyons, Mayor and Tol, and similar efforts in this direction will help them do that.
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Towards regional environmental accounts for Ireland

Towards regional environmental accounts for Ireland

Abstract: Existing environmental accounts for the Republic of Ireland are at the national level. This is fine for continental and global environmental problems, but information at a finer spatial scale is needed for local environmental problems. Furthermore, the impact of environmental policy may differ across space. We therefore construct regional estimates of the environmental pressures posed by Irish households and the environmental problems faced by them. The basic unit of analysis is the electoral district, and the prime data source is the CSO‘s Small Area Statistics, a product of the Census. We use the results of classifying regressions of the Household Budget Survey to impute domestic energy use. We use engineering relations to impute transport fuel use, and secondary data on household behaviour to impute waste arisings. We use EPA data on drinking water use and quality by county. The results show marked regional differences. Electricity use and waste arisings are higher in the East and in the cities and towns. Transport fuel use is highest in the commuter belts around the cities and towns. Other energy is relatively uniform. There is no clear pattern in estimated drinking water use, which may be due to data quality. Drinking water quality is poor across much of the country, but different counties suffer from different problems. The regional estimates are constructed using data in the public domain. However, various government agencies hold data that would allow for the construction of more detailed, more accurate, and more extensive regional environmental accounts.
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Towards Regional Environmental Accounts for Ireland  ESRI WP293  April 2009

Towards Regional Environmental Accounts for Ireland ESRI WP293 April 2009

Abstract: Existing environmental accounts for the Republic of Ireland are at the national level. This is fine for continental and global environmental problems, but information at a finer spatial scale is needed for local environmental problems. Furthermore, the impact of environmental policy may differ across space. We therefore construct regional estimates of the environmental pressures posed by Irish households and the environmental problems faced by them. The basic unit of analysis is the electoral district, and the prime data source is the CSO’s Small Area Statistics, a product of the Census. We use the results of classifying regressions of the Household Budget Survey to impute domestic energy use. We use engineering relations to impute transport fuel use, and secondary data on household behaviour to impute waste arisings. We use EPA data on drinking water use and quality per county. The results show marked regional differences. Electricity use and waste arisings are higher in the East and in the cities and towns. Transport fuel use is highest in the commuter belts around the cities and towns. Other energy is relatively uniform. There is no clear pattern in estimated drinking water use, which may be due to data quality. Drinking water quality is poor across much of the country, but different counties suffer from different problems. The regional estimates are constructed using data in the public domain. However, various government agencies hold data that would allow for the construction of more detailed, more accurate, and more extensive regional environmental accounts.
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ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTS: TIME SERIES + ECO TAXES

ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTS: TIME SERIES + ECO TAXES

Availing of this database represents an entirely different approach from that employed in the construction of the initial Pilot Environmental Accounts (CSO 1999), which related to 1994 and were assembled before the EPA’s database had become sufficiently developed. In the pilot study a variety of means had been explored, and the experimental nature was emphasised with the reminder that the results were heavily dependent on the assumptions made. For example, in estimating diffuse losses of P from agriculture, forestry and erosion to water, a figure had been used that was the difference between (1) the measured P input from rivers into the sea and (2) P discharges at point sources (from industry mainly). The resulting figure for total P discharged to water consisted of a large range of between 7,580 and 9,690 tonnes. This compares with the more recent estimate of 8,911 tonnes, which falls within the range and indicates a reasonable degree of consistency between the two methods. For BOD, totals are comparable although the components differ. For N the recent estimate of losses to water from agriculture are considerably lower owing to the fact that the use of fertilisers in arable farming are omitted from the picture by the EPA in this dataset at present. Another benefit to be derived from use of the EPA’s database on discharges is the level of sectoral detail given, which is based on the EPA’s own coding system, listed in Appendix 2.1.
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THE ESRI ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTS  ESRI Research Bulletin 2010/1/4

THE ESRI ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTS ESRI Research Bulletin 2010/1/4

T he national accounting framework, including such key concepts as Gross National Product, is a vital input to economic decision making. However, the standard national accounting framework does not take account of the pressure or damage to the environment caused by the economic activity. Thus, similar levels of GNP might involve quite different environmental damage, with implications for both current and future welfare and economic activity. Environmental accounts are now constructed in many countries to take account of these concerns, building on initial research by Nordhaus et al. (1972) and agreed international standards (United Nations et al., 2003). Environmental accounts build on the well-established and coherent national accounting framework, but add to this what are termed “satellite accounts” dealing with environmental issues, in a way which allows for them to be integrated and measured in a more comprehensive framework. This provides an increasingly sound basis for decision making on the environment.
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The Additional Precision Provided by Regional Specific Data : The Identification of Fuel-Use and Pollution Generation Coefficients in the Jersey Economy

The Additional Precision Provided by Regional Specific Data : The Identification of Fuel-Use and Pollution Generation Coefficients in the Jersey Economy

The main motivation for investing resources in constructing a set of Jersey-specific base-year environmental accounts and pollution coefficients was that important differences are known to exist with respect to the technology used in certain activities in Jersey relative to the UK. For example, all electricity produced in Jersey is generated using oil-powered technology while in the UK a combination of gas-, hydro-, nuclear- and oil- powered techniques is used to generate the total electricity requirement. Waste disposal is another example: in the UK there will be emissions from landfill, while in Jersey all waste is disposed of by incineration or composting. Thirdly, the composition of technologies used for commercial and domestic heating activities in Jersey is known to be different to that found in the UK. With no infrastructure for natural gas to be piped to Jersey it is necessary to import and bottle a combination of propane or butane. As a result, gas-heating systems are expensive relative to other forms of heating and a larger proportion of households and businesses therefore rely on oil-powered heating systems than is the case in the UK.
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Accounts of nature and the nature of accounts : Critical reflections on environmental accounting and propositions for ecologically informed accounting

Accounts of nature and the nature of accounts : Critical reflections on environmental accounting and propositions for ecologically informed accounting

As Dey and Gibbon (2014, p. 109-111) illustrate, early alternative perspectives to organisational accounts came (e.g. Medawar, 1976), and continue to come, in the form of external and counter-accounts sometimes from activist campaigning, sometimes from investigative journalism, and sometimes from motivated academics[17]. Such accounts might vary from systematic attempts at performance reports to ad hoc partisan projects from NGOS and activists. Such accounts seek to expose invisibility, contradictions and inconsistencies, raise questions about integrity and legitimacy, and often hope to motivate political and policy action. Greenpeace New Zealand (1996), for example, released Pulp fiction: the environmental impact of the Tasman Pulp and Paper mill on the Tarawera River as a counter to Tasman Pulp and Paper’s 1996 first corporate environmental report to illustrate the ongoing pollution (with dioxins and organochlorines) of the Tarawera River – a sacred body of water for local indigenous Māori[18]. Christian Aid’s Behind the Mask (2004) targeted Shell in Nigeria, British American Tobacco in Kenya, and Coca Cola in India, highlighting polluted drinking water, loss of ground water for drinking and cropping, loss of food sources, chemical contamination and human poisoning, economic dependency and
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Unemployment accounts

Unemployment accounts

Unemployment Accounts (UA) are mandatory individual saving accounts that can be used by governments as an alternative to the Unemployment Insurance (UI) system. I study a two tier UA-UI system where the unemployed withdraw from their unemployment account until it is exhausted and then receive unemployment bene…ts. The hybrid policy provides insurance to workers more e¢ciently than a traditional UI because it provides government bene…ts selectively. Using a structural model calibrated to the US economy, I …nd that relative to a two tier UI system the hybrid policy leads to a welfare gain of 0.9%.
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Financial Inclusion and Actual Use of Financial Services by the Poor in India

Financial Inclusion and Actual Use of Financial Services by the Poor in India

specific set of targets to provide for financial accounts to every household by August 2015. This ambitious target set the tone as well as highlighted the importance of attaining it within a specified timeframe. Taking the ambition further, in his maiden Independence Day speech, the Prime Minister announced the Pradhan Mantri Jan–Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) with an objective of opening no-frills bank accounts. The PMJDY was launched immediately after this announcement on August 28, 2014. On the inauguration day itself, 1.5 crore bank accounts were opened. By March 31, 2015, the figure multiplied to 14.71 crore in India. This must be recognised as a remarkable achievement. However among them about 8.52 crores (58%) are with zero balance.
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Departmental Accounts

Departmental Accounts

Messrs D, B and R carried on a business of Drapers and Tailors in Delhi; D was incharge of Department “A” dealing in cloth, B of department “B” for selling garments and R of Department “C” the tailoring section. It had been agreed that each of the three partners would receive 75% of the profits disclosed by the accounts of the department of which he was incharge and the balance of the combined profits would be shared in the proportion: D 1/2, B 1/4, and R 1/4. The following is the Trading and Profit and Loss Account of the firm for the six months ended March 31, 2013.

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Company Accounts

Company Accounts

– Either from the cash or other consideration from the issue of shares or transfers made into the stated capital account from the income surplus (capitalization issue). • Share Deals A[r]

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Impact of Modarba Contract on Current Accounts and Saving Accounts in Pakistan

Impact of Modarba Contract on Current Accounts and Saving Accounts in Pakistan

Modarba financing is investigated by the famous researcher to relate it with commercial financing. The core essence of the subject matter is Islamic financing and commercial financing. This exploration consists of two independent variables which are current accounts and saving accounts and a dependent variable modarba contract. The 25 banks and companies that are involve modarba financing are considered as a source of data evidence from the state bank that involve in commercial financing and Islamic financing .The unit root test, regression analysis and cointigration is applied for data analysis which indicate the relationship of Modarba contract which is dependent variable and current accounts and saving accounts which depicted by taken as the independent variables in the model for measurement.
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Forensic Accounting: Hidden balance of payments of the Philippines

Forensic Accounting: Hidden balance of payments of the Philippines

There are three sets of adjustments for the BOP. The first set concerns CA – trade misinvoicing, for instance. Studies document that both import overinvoicing and export underinvoicing are typical avenues for unrecorded flows of foreign exchange (see, e.g., Bhagwati 1974). Other forms such as import underinvoicing and export overinvoicing also occur (see, e.g., Boyce 1993; Beja 2006). Import underinvoicing is typically done to evade customs duties and trade regulations. Export overinvoicing occurs when there are incentives based on the export performance of industries (such as income rebates on export revenues that can lead to invoice padding). Both are treated as unrecorded flows of foreign exchange; in any of these cases, the trade balance, and hence the current accounts, are inaccurate.
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Regional accounts methods: household accounts  1996

Regional accounts methods: household accounts. 1996

For transactions in the secondary distribution of income account, the main statistical sources may be: - social benefits: regional statistics of social security institutions and private [r]

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Agricultural Accounts: Agricultural and forestry accounts Unit values [Economic Accounts]  1976

Agricultural Accounts: Agricultural and forestry accounts Unit values [Economic Accounts] 1976

Bois d'œuvre et d'industrie résineux Bois longs résineux Bois de trituration résineux Bois d'œuvre et d'industrie feuillus Bois longs feuillus Bois de trituration feuillus Bois de chauff[r]

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Is UK agriculture sustainable? Environmentally adjusted economic accounts for UK agriculture

Is UK agriculture sustainable? Environmentally adjusted economic accounts for UK agriculture

Agri-environmental schemes are voluntary, and consist of contracts between farmers and the government. These contracts purchase changes in production practices and thereby induce private provision of public goods, and reduce negative externalities (Bonnieux et al 1998). In contrast, the Forestry Commission as the caretaker of public forest land, is required to provide public goods, the provision of which is funded by its commercial plantations. The estate includes approximately 175,000 ha within National Parks, National Scenic Areas and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty. There are not many schemes into which private forestry can enter, only perhaps ESAs or SSSIs. However, the take up is not known. This highlights a problem with the data below. The figures for ESAs and SSSIs may, or may not be overestimates, because information is not available as to the percentage of land area for both schemes that is not on agricultural or forestry land. A second problem is that some land may be entered into more than one scheme.
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The Reach of Politics via Twitter—Can That Be Real?

The Reach of Politics via Twitter—Can That Be Real?

In Table 4, twenty percent of the followers of these messages are fake followers. The percentage of inactive followers is 44%. In writing about the followers of “stars” authors have fre- quently come close to characterizing the inactive followers as also not real; accounts that were opened and then the persons never returned. But that seems a somewhat less likely interpre- tation in this case. We know that many people use Twitter as a source of very fast news (Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, 2012). Since these 200 messages are largely from sources of the news media it does not seem unexpected that 44% of the followers are inactive. This interpretation is also consistent with the report of the CEO of Twitter. Dick Costolo announced that 40% of the people with Twitter accounts do not tweet, but use Twitter to follow others (Long, 2012). And 36% of the followers are good; they follow, are followed and post messages to Twitter. The raw numbers are taken from a sample. Comparing the size of this sample with the report about number of messages from Twitter this looks like roughly a one-third sample (Boynton, 2012c). In this sample the 500 million that are inactive or good is a very big communication stream. It is not the number of people receiving a message, but it is a meas- ure of the flow of communication that evening. Messages were going out at a very high volume to followers of the high profile user accounts.
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A soil diffusion–reaction model for surface COS flux: COSSM v1

A soil diffusion–reaction model for surface COS flux: COSSM v1

Abstract. Soil exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS) is the second largest COS flux in terrestrial ecosystems. A novel application of COS is the separation of gross primary pro- ductivity (GPP) from concomitant respiration. This method requires that soil COS exchange is relatively small and can be well quantified. Existing models for soil COS flux have incorporated empirical temperature and moisture functions derived from laboratory experiments but not explicitly re- solved diffusion in the soil column. We developed a mech- anistic diffusion–reaction model for soil COS exchange that accounts for COS uptake and production, relates source–sink terms to environmental variables, and has an option to enable surface litter layers. We evaluated the model with field data from a wheat field (Southern Great Plains (SGP), OK, USA) and an oak woodland (Stunt Ranch Reserve, CA, USA). The model was able to reproduce all observed features of soil COS exchange such as diurnal variations and sink–source transitions. We found that soil COS uptake is strongly diffu- sion controlled and limited by low COS concentrations in the soil if there is COS uptake in the litter layer. The model pro- vides novel insights into the balance between soil COS up- take and production: a higher COS production capacity was required despite lower COS emissions during the growing season compared to the post-senescence period at SGP, and unchanged COS uptake capacity despite the dominant role of COS emissions after senescence. Once there is a database of soil COS parameters for key biomes, we expect the model will also be useful to simulate soil COS exchange at regional to global scales.
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The adoption of the European System of Accounts 1995 framework in the national accounts of Malta

The adoption of the European System of Accounts 1995 framework in the national accounts of Malta

and gross operating surplus and mixed income are much larger than seemed to be the case under the old compilation. On average, compensation of employees during 1999-2002 came to Lm775.8 million under the ESA 1995 framework, which is Lm72 million, or 10.2%, more than the amount reported under the old methodology. Although data on total full-time equivalent employment have not yet been published by the NSO, this suggests that the average wage in Malta is significantly higher than previously thought. Similarly, the gross operating surplus and mixed income component was, on average, Lm81.8 million, or 12.5%, higher than the corresponding component in the SNA 1953 national accounts. The expenditure-side computation of GDP compiled according to the new framework also shows some major differences. The ESA 1995 data indicate that exports and imports together constitute 172.5% of nominal GDP, down from 189.6% under the old methodology. The degree of openness of the Maltese economy, although still one of the highest in the world, is therefore
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Syngress   MCSE Exam 70 294  Planning, Implementing and Main pdf

Syngress MCSE Exam 70 294 Planning, Implementing and Main pdf

keeping with the tree analogy, because they are at the end of the hierarchical “branch” and don’t contain any other objects). Objects are divided into classes, and each object class includes a set of attributes, which are properties that hold data on characteristics and config- urations. Just as people are defined by their characteristics (for example, eye and hair color, height, weight), attributes define an object. A printer object might have attributes that include the make, model, and configuration information related to that device, whereas a user object would include attributes such as username, password, and other data that defines the user. As we’ll see in Chapter 2, these various objects populate the directory, and are used to manage such things as user, computer, and group accounts.
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