Trends in EnvironmentalAnalyticalChemistry is devoted to publishing concise and critical overviews of the rapid changes and development in the field of environmentalanalyticalchemistry. The acquisition of good quality chemical data in environmental systems and the sound interpretation of this data is the basis for enhancing our understanding of the environment. TrEAC provides timely coverage of the novel and innovative use of analytical methods for the investigation of environmentally relevant substances and problems. Topics of interest include critical updates on the improvements in environmentalanalyticalchemistry, achievements and challenges of modern techniques and possible future developments in the specific fields, such as sampling methodology, techniques for remote measurements, analytical instrumentation, miniaturization and automation, determination of trace atmospheric constituents of anthropogenic and natural origin, detection and identification of organic pollutants in water, soil and biota, determination and speciation of heavy metals and radionuclides in the environment, environmental references materials; method validation and chemometrics in environmental analysis.
The ISEAC 35 is organized by the International Association of EnvironmentalAnalyticalChemistry (IAEAC), in cooperation with the Committee on AnalyticalChemistry of the Polish Academy of Science (PAS), and the Chemical Faculty of Gdańsk University of Technology (GUT). This joint venture aims at bringing together a broad range of scientists who develop and apply analytical techniques to investigate the impact of man’s activities on different environmental compartments. Developments in this field of research will be illustrated through lectures, posters and workshops, and will cover both the fundamental and practical aspects of environmental analyses and monitoring, together with novel applications of protocols. The Symposium program will include a number of invited lectures treating frontier topics of environmentalanalyticalchemistry, such as:
Abstract: With an experimental setup of near-infrared process analyticalchemistry, a competitive adsorption process of orthoxylene and aniline vapor onto silica gel has been revealed in the paper. The mixture vapor of orthoxylene and aniline has been introduced into a quartz adsorption bed, which was filled with adsorbent of silica gel and monitored continuously by a near-infrared spectrometer. Based on near-infrared spectra recorded during the adsorption process and chemometrics methodologies, the competitive adsorption process has been studied completely as well as clearly: 1) at about 62 minutes the adsorption achieved its equilibrium or stable state with aniline concentration of 0.22 g/g, and without any orthoxylene; 2) othoxylene was adsorbed first, but then rapidly replaced by aniline; 3) the adsorption of aniline resulted from the hydrogen bonds between aniline’s amino groups and silica gel’s silanol groups while that of orthoxylene was due to physical adsorption; 4) aniline was adsorbed vertically on the silica gel but orthoxylene laid evenly; 5) some surface of silica gel was more active for adsorption than others.
Engineering chemistry developed since 1940s, it turn into be evident that unit procedures alone were inadequate in creating chemical structures. While the dominance of unit procedures in courses of chemical engineering transport phenomena began to encounter more noteworthy focus since 1960s (Cohen, 1996). Transmit phenomena allow an analytical investigation into chemical engineering (Perkins, 2003), while process system engineering concentrated on its manufactured components, for example: control system and procedure design. Perkins (2003) reported that the developments in engineering substances were commonly induced by the petrochemical manufacture, specially after and before World War II.
In 1991, the Hon’ble Supreme Court in Bhopal Gas Leak case  expanded the scope for judicial action in environmental matters by interpreting the right to life under Article 21 to include healthy and pollution free environment as a fundamental right. In 1996, in the Forest case , the Hon’ble Supreme Court reinterpreted the Forest Conservation Act, 1980 to extend its application to forests as per dictionary meaning. Hon’ble Court in this case evolved the concept of continuing mandamus to pass a series of orders for forest conservation. Court also set up monitoring mechanisms such as Central Empowered Committee under its own supervision and created the Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority with the mandate to decide the utilisation of funds for compensatory afforestation collected by the States over the years, which had been lying unutilised.
Wastewater is the liquid end-product, or by-product, of municipal, agricultural, and industrial activity. As such, the chemical composition of wastewater naturally reflects the origin from which it came. In fact, the chemistry of wastewater reflects to a very high degree the chemistry of life. Just as wastewater chemistry reflects chemistry of human activities in life, so too, does wastewater microbiology reflect the microbiology of human activities in life. It is perhaps the microbiology of wastewater that presents the greatest concern to humanity from a public health standpoint.
It is important to distinguish between emissions and the load to an environmental compartment where the actual exposure occurs. The load to air, water and soil is the result not only of direct emissions but also of transport, degradation and distribution processes in the environment. A schematic overview of the processes governing the environmental fate of chemicals is given in Figure 2.
The scientific thinking methods is formed and applied in the ways and means of the scientific understanding activity and the human brain with the aid of the information and symbols on the perceptual materials processed. The scientific methods are the realization of the bridge from knowledge into abilities, and the formula is: knowledge-method-ability. The methods of scientific thinking are the key in the process of human practice, if the tool is mastered, it will greatly improve our abilities to solve various problems. To improve one's cultural quality, the first is to master the necessary basic knowledge and basic theory, the second is to master the scientific thinking methods. According to the survey, a person can only be obtained his knowledge required about 10% during the study at school, and the remaining 90% of the knowledge need to get through the learning in the future works. The students of mastering the scientific methods will be able to quickly obtain scientific knowledge, to better profoundly understand the laws of science, to comprehend the reasons the emergence and the development, to know the scientific process . If a person did not learn how to learn in school, did not grasp the scientific thinking methods, it is difficult for him to have great progress and creative work in the future. In order to make the students learn to study and train the scientific thinking methods, the teachers must be good at using the holistic viewpoint and system methods, and carefully design the scheme of training the students' scientific thinking methods. The teachers need to continuously exploration, enrich and perfect how to carry out the training of the scientific thinking and the scientific literacy for the students in the basic chemistry classroom teaching . How to arouse the students' interest and their creative thinking is an important issue in the instructional design of inorganic and analyticalchemistry.
Traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) is a versatile sample-preparation technique, prescribed in many standard analytical methods. Despite its widespread use, it is considered to be time-consuming, tedious and multistage operation, where problems of emulsion formation obstruct automation. More importantly though, the use of large amounts of toxic organic solvents influences trace analysis, poses a health hazard to laboratory personnel and results in the production of hazardous laboratory waste, thus adding extra operational costs for waste treatment [6-10].
The problem of a chemistry teacher ecological competence development is considered in the work. The importance of environment protection problem and the upbringing of student careful attitude towards nature is substantiated. All processes occurring in the environment must be studied not only from the point of view of chemistry, but also from physical, biological and anthropogenic aspects. Such training contributes to a deeper understanding of the processes occurring in the environment, their influence on a man's body. In this regard, within the framework of this study, they studied scientific literature, normative documents and practical experiments concerning the composition and the quality of spring water at Nizhny Kuzmes' village of the Kukmorsky district in the Republic of Tatarstan were performed to determine its suitability as a source of drinking water for population.
Most environmental forensic work is carried out using only a few analytical techniques. An extensive database of pyrogenic and petrogenic ‘chemical ﬁn- gerprints’ has been constructed by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and META Environmental, Inc. using gas chromatography coupled with a ﬂame ionization detector (GC/FID) or with a mass spectrometer (GC/ MS). To be successful, chemical ﬁngerprinting requires the identiﬁcation of speciﬁc compounds or patterns of compounds that provide distinguishing or discriminat- ing information. Further, the information must be reproducible and consistent with basic principles of chemistry. Analysis of the database provides indicator chemical parameters, which are indicative of a speciﬁc waste or source of waste. These parameters may in- clude speciﬁc compound ratios, the presence/absence of D. L. Saber Æ T. Sirivedhin ( &)
A closer inspection of our fields shows that both requirements are fulfilled for environmentalchemistry and ecotoxicology. Obviously, there have been extraor- dinary improvements of analytical methods, but also a multitude of environmental factors that govern the environmental fate of chemicals, the many impacts of anthropogenic chemicals on environmental and human health, and the emission sources of many types of chemi- cals released to the environment are increasingly better understood, mechanistically characterized, and assem- bled as the elements of a big picture. However, as scien- tists in these fields, we have to point out the productivity of our research more explicitly. These discussions need to reach the decision makers in academic institutions.
In recent years, there has been extensive study of the factors which control whether a particular organo-clay hybrid can be synthesized as an intercalated or exfoliated structure. Since clay nanocomposites can produce dramatic improvements in a variety of properties, it is important to understand the factors which affect the delamination of the clay. These factors include the exchange capacity of the clay, the polarity of the reaction medium and the chemical nature of the interlayer cations (e.g. onium ions). The correct selection of modified clay is essential to ensure effective penetration of the polymer or its monomer into the interlayer spacing of the clay which results in the desired exfoliated or intercalated product. Indeed, further development of the compatibiliser chemistry is undoubtedly a key to the expansion of this nanocomposite technology beyond the systems where success has been achieved to date [156,157]. Despite their relatively large molecular weights, electronically conducting polymers can play the role of intercalated guest molecules inserted within the Van der Waals gaps of layered inorganic phases resulting in a special class of intercalative nanocomposites is shown in Fig. 4 termed as “organic-in-inorganic nanocomposites”. At least in principle, in these cases the structure of the inorganic host dominates the structure of the hybrid and the polymers adapt to it. The insertion of conducting polymers in layered inorganic host materials and other structurally organized environments is a topic of considerable interest.
writing a review article, students will write a grant proposal using the guidelines of the Science and Innovation Studentship Award (SISA), a WA government funded student internship. Previous chemistry students have been successful in applying for these funds. Two other units, SCC3201 AnalyticalChemistry and SCC3202 EnvironmentalChemistry and Analysis focus on strong industry application in several laboratory activities. Although these activities are not currently linked to particular authentic industries this could easily be achieved so that students more clearly see the relevance of the learning. For example, in another of the course coordinator’s units, SCC3201, students spend several weeks in the laboratory developing an effective method to analyse for amino acids (Boyce & Singh, 2008). Next year, this method development work could have an additional outcome – using the methods developed to analyse amino acids in locally brewed beers for the brewing industry.
Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are written descriptions of pro- cedures of methods being followed. The importance of SOPs cannot be understated when it comes to methods being transferred to other operators or laboratories. Strict adherence to the SOPs reduces bias and improves precision. This is particularly true in sample preparation, which tends to consist of repetitive processes that can be carried out by more than one procedure. For example, extraction e‰ciency depends on solvent composi- tion, extraction time, temperature, and even the rate of agitation. All these parameters need to be controlled to reduce variability in measurement. Changing the extraction time will change the extraction e‰ciency, which will increase the relative standard deviation (lower precision). The SOP speciﬁes these parameters. They can come in the form of published standard methods obtained from the literature, or they may be developed in-house. Major sources of SOPs are protocols obtained from organizations, such as the American Society for Testing and Materials and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
The trial sites must be located according to the guide in Table 5 of 860.1500. For most studies, the selection of the test site is not a critical problem so long as the site is located in a major production region for the crop under consideration. Since the RAC to be analyzed is intended to represent commercial production, the site from which the RAC will be harvested must also be representative. However, there are important considerations that do need to be taken into account in selecting the actual location of the trial. The ability of the PI to manage the study is probably the most important consideration. Having ready access and the ability to control access to the site will provide maximum convenience for the PI conducting a field residue trial. Being able to maintain environmental conditions at the site during the testing period will ensure that drought, wind, or flooding will not negatively impact a trial (e.g., irri- gation, windbreaks, and drainage are important site selection considerations). Being able to ship samples directly from the test sites or to move samples from the test site to freezers will help ensure that sample integrity is maintained after harvest. The ability to control pests during the production season will help ensure that high-quality samples are harvested in a timely manner for the trial. Although PI-owned research farms are the easiest way to meet these requirements, remote sites can also be used as long as appropriate accommodations to the unique needs of the site relative to these study critical issues are addressed.
19.2 The overall programme for calibration in the chemical laboratory shall be designed to ensure that all measurements that have a significant effect on test or calibration results are traceable to a measurement standard, preferably a national or international measurement standard such as a reference material. Where appropriate and where feasible, certified reference materials should be used. Where formally designated measurement standards are not available, a material with suitable properties and stability should be selected or prepared by the laboratory and used as a laboratory measurement standard. The required properties of this material should be characterised by repeat testing, preferably by more than one laboratory and using a variety of validated methods (see ISO Guide 35: Ref C6). 19.3 Analytical tests may be sub-divided into general classes depending on the type of
The results also showed that 56% of the total variance in the performance of students in chemistry was attributed to the influence of the resource material used in teaching the concept of cations and anions. This might be due to the fact that using local materials from the environment as resource in teaching, provide concrete basis for conceptual thinking and thus facilitates better and proper understanding of chemistry concepts. Also, using local materials from the environment as a resource for teaching enhances students’ interest and attitude towards the subjects due to the nature of activities in the class. The above findings appeared consistent with those of Nworgu (2003) and Alonge (2003) that resource materials from the environment were effective in enhancing achievement.