Along with the issue of deforestation in Brazil, in light of welfare economics, this study likes to analyze the issue of water pollution in India. A major coverage on water pollution in India is provided by Murty and Kumar (2011) in a situation where almost 70 per cent of its surface water resources and a growing percentage of its groundwater reserves are contaminated by biological, toxic, organic, and inorganic pollutants. Performance audit of water pollution is conducted in order to examine whether (i) quality of water in rivers, lakes and groundwater had been adequately assessed, (ii) risks to environment and health as a result of river, lake and ground water pollution had been recognized and evaluated, (iii) policies, legislations or programmes had been formulated to address water pollution and were effective institutions put into place for pollution prevention, treatment and restoration of polluted water in rivers, lakes and ground water, (iv) current programmes to address river, lake and ground water pollution had been planned, implemented and monitored effectively, (v) measures to address water pollution were sustainable in the long run and (vi) measures to address water pollution have had the desired impact in terms of improvement in water quality (GOI, 2012a). The latest version of the National Water Policy first approved in 2002 was released in 2012 (GOI, 2012b).
In recent years, different efforts have been made to reconcile institutional economics and evolutionary theories of innovation (Geels, 2004; Nelson, 2002; Pelikan, 2003) 7 . Consistently with these contributions, “socio-technical” systems are considered the result of dynamic processes in which three structural factors co-evolve: technologies, institutions and values (van den Bergh and Stagl, 2003). Such a theoretical integration has a relevant impact on environmentaleconomics and policy too (Smith et al., 2005): on the technological side, where “socio-technical” transitions must be managed to undertake the co-evolution of technical and environmental systems (Kemp and Rotmans, 2005); on the institutional side, where resistance to transition towards more sustainable technologies increase when suppliers of existing systems dominate public agendas (Walker, 2000); and on the environmental side, where a better management of natural resources must be “related to adjustments and adaptations that emerge within the socio-economic systems in terms of altered institutions, technologies, policies,
Amidst the perils of industrialization in the forms of environmental impacts of mining and use of energy and destruction of urban biodiversity, it became imperative for the Latin American countries to design environmental policies in accordance with the respective historicity, demography, and polity of each nation. But in resolving a tussle between eco-environmental maintenance and vigorous industrialization while trying to find a choice between eco-friendly environment or prosperous economic growth, the Indian judiciary accepted that neither the eco-environment alone nor the industrial and economic growth by itself will meet the human needs in the global competition. It is necessary for the policy makers in framing any environmentalpolicy or for legislators in enacting any environmental law to have an appropriate frame of environmental impact assessment. In this context, this study sheds light on the fusion of legal and economic elements with regard to deforestation in Brazil and water pollution in India.
Therefore, I employ an “additive” as well as a “multiplicative” form for the utility function and the corresponding damage function applied to the level of consumption rather than growth while allowing for an exponent of N = 2 and N = 3. The first immediate results are higher levels of damages for large temperature change that could represent extreme climate change. These results are along the same lines with the results of Ackerman  and Weitzman  who emphasize the importance of uncertainty regarding the shape of the damage function and the climate sensitivity parameter for the inclusion of potential catastrophes in IAMs and the justification of an immediate and stringent abatement policy. Given the current “ state of knowledge” Pindyck obtains estimates for the WTP which are generally below 3% even for τ around to 2−3 ◦ C. As he states, this is because there is limited weight in the tails of the calibrated distributions for ∆T and the growth rate impact. Instead, the specifications of the model I consider, lead to significantly higher estimations for the WTP and in some extreme cases to a value close to 1. The results are even stronger in the case of a larger excepted temperature change where even a quadratic exponential loss function applied to the level of consumption gives a higher WTP than the benchmark specification of Pindyck. Although Dell, Jones and Olken  have shown that higher temperatures reduce GDP growth rates rather than levels, the previous results cast doubts as to whether the specification of the model where temperature change affects the growth rather than the level of consumption brings robust estimates for the WTP. However, as it is hard to argue which is the “right” functional form, the discussion is aimed to point out that a seemingly arcane theoretical distinction between a “multiplicative” and an “additive” functional form can have very different implications for the optimal climate change policy.
Few studies examine these questions in the transport domain, especially amongst ac- tive travellers in urban settings. Yet they are of interest for both research and policy. Cycling is pro-environmental and health behaviour that has been actively encouraged by policy-makers at the intersection of environmental, health and urban policy. It con- fers health and well-being benefits from increased physical activity, and societal benefits through reduced traffic-related emissions and burden on public transit systems (Wood- cock et al., 2014). However, UK cyclists have a higher risk of death or serious injury, per mile, than users of motorised modes of transport except for motorcycles (DFT, 2015). If proximate to exhaust-emitting cars and lorries, they are exposed to higher levels of pollutants and tend to inhale more particulates because they breathe more heavily. Both risk-taking while cycling, and air pollution health risks take-away from the benefits of cycling and are barriers to increasing cycling take-up. Relatively little is known about the cyclist’s preferences and behaviours (Handy et al., 2014). This knowledge is critical to design more effective policy like targeted training programs and communication in- terventions. 2 Furthermore, insights on the behavioural and cross-context validity of risk
from the influential DICE framework of Nordhaus (2008). First, the ANEMI model includes an explicit energy sector which produces a composite energy good used in the production of final output. This energy intermediate good is in turn produced using a composite of two broad energy sub-composites: heat energy (i.e. fuel energy burned for transportation or industrial purposes) and electrical energy. Each of these energy types is produced using different tech- nologies for each of the major energy sources. This structure provides a useful mid-point between aggregate models (such as DICE) which abstract from de- tailed modeling of energy and more detailed bottom up models which typically abstract from key features of dynamics and optimal choice. The second inno- vation on the climate side is the inclusion of a simple production structure for fossil fuels. As a result, the path of fossil fuels evolves endogenously in the model, so that climate policy (such as carbon taxes which seek to lower de- mand for fossil fuels) and the negative impact of climate change on aggregate productivity (which tends to lower energy demand) both impact the temporal path of fossil fuel prices. In turn, the equilibrium prices of fossil fuels impact investment in capital stocks to produce energy using different types of fossil fuels.
goods. One of these tools is the enhanced Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA), which includes environmental factors measured in monetary units. These environmental factors are measured by techniques such as hedonic pricing, travel cost method and contingent valuation. Contingent valuation can either be in the form of “willingness to pay” or “willingness to accept”. Additionally, in order to monitor and assess environmental regulations, environmentaleconomics have adopted and develop the environmentalpolicy theory (van den Bergh, 2007). Other thematic fields that concern environmentaleconomics are the depletion of the resources and the concept of continuous growth and weak sustainability (van den Bergh, 2007, Beder, 2011).
A second crucial factor is that the interdependence among industries will be important in determining the environmental impact of aggregate economic activity. For example, modelling and accounting for the pattern of energy use has been a major focus of economic-environmental analyses since the OPEC oil crisis in the 1970s. Simple measures of resource extraction and pollution generation can be made for the economy as a whole, or for any one industry, but this does not help in terms of targeting and tailoring policy action to reduce environmental damage. This is because from the point of extraction of an energy resource, such as oil, there is a complex chain of input and output use by, and between, different industries within the economy. Therefore any industry’s output level, and therefore its resource requirements and pollution production, are dependent on demand in other industries in the economy. So the type of model that is required to address key problems arising from economic-environmental interaction must not only be multi-industrial but also be able to capture interdependencies and feedback effects between all producers and (intermediate and final) consumers in the economy. In this respect, the strengths of IO are its ease and transparency of implementation and its potentially very high levels of industrial disaggregation. This disaggregation allows key interactions and interdependencies to be easily traced and identified.
framework that would help to understand how incentives could be created for an inter- national agreement on curbing the greenhouse gas emissions (Dockner and Van Long, 1993; Barrett, 1994; Hoel and Schneider, 1997; Xepapadeas, 1998; Haurie, 2005). Our objective is not to figure out how the economies will adjust to the changing climate nor how incentives can be created to influence the technological change towards reducing the climate policy costs. As Smith (2007) notes, economists don’t have clear answers for these questions. Finally, this study does not add anything to the debate on the choice of discount rate for evaluating the future costs of climate change and abatement poli- cies (Lind, 1995; Manne, 1995; Azar, 1998; Pindyck, 2007). All these relevant questions should be addressed before any appropriate decision is made.
environmental standards by the developed countries may be to the advantage of the LDCs. UNCTAD (1991 b) argues that in the cases of raw agricultural materials, food products, minerals and metals, metal and wooden products, basic chemicals and chemical specialities, leather and textiles, motor vehicle engines, industrial and power equipment, and consumer durables, stringent environmental standards in the developed countries could provide significant benefits for the developing countries, (paras 39-45). In some instances simple and/or relatively inexpensive substitutions of inputs or processes are all that would be required; and such substitutions would benefit the developing country regardless of the external environmental standards considerations by being less pollution intensive and/or adding greater value. This would be the case with many raw agricultural and food products, as well as with textiles and some leather, metal and wooden products. With other products, while the costs of adjustment would be somewhat greater, most of the environmental benefits would accrue to the developing country. Such cases include food processing, and some leather, metal and wooden products. Where
The London School of Economics and Political Science Essays in Environmental and Cultural Economics Ara Jo May 2018 A thesis submitted to the London School of Economics for the degree of Doctor of Phi[.]
Although this model is somewhat restrictive, this appears to be the first attempt to link a theoretical model of an EKC with an empirical model. This is important because the underlying causes of an EKC are debated. Some EKC theorists believe citizens make “greener” consumption choices as they grow richer, while other theorists believe the EKC is a reflection of harsher environmental regulations in higher income countries. The EKC em- pirical estimates can derive underlying second order effects of consumption and effort on utility. Results may offer insight into how consumers value consumption and effort and where their income should be spent.
This paper presents, in brief, the fundamentals of optimal control theory together with some notes for differential games, which is the game theoretic analogue of the optimal control. As it is recommended by literature references the main tool of analysis in open loop information structure for environmental models is the Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle, while the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation is the tool of analysis for any closed loop informational structure. As applications of the above theoretic considerations we present some environmental economic models which are solved both as optimal control problems and as differential games as well.
The concept of populist economic has a wide range of meanings. Its definitions include the bearing of uncertainty, the carrying out of new combination of production resources, the ability of economic system to fill market deficiencies through input-completing activities, the ability to deal with disequilibrium, and the ability to make judgmental decisions about coordination of scarce resources. Hence, populist economic is often related to implementation of economicspolicy in the state, which are the link between policy and investments for economic development. By serving as a conduct for economics development, economic populist is an important policy to facilitate the increased of knowledge of society for economic development. Implementation of the policy will affect the economic system of economic growth and prosperity of a nation. Follow of economic liberalization is detrimental to most of the people of Indonesia for the door wide open to free competition so it is very unfortunate that the developed countries are relatively better equipped to compete because it is supported by financial capital and modern technology.
Figure 2 gives the results for the ESEE heterodox sub-sample. Comparison with data for the overall ESEE sample shows the dominant main journal connecting all others remains Ecological Economics (1), which was read by 85% of respondents. In comparison with the AHE and EAERE communities the role of this one journal is far more dominant in bringing together otherwise separate interests and clearly forms a unifying hub journal for the ESEE heterodox group. In that group, the 40 respondents made reference to 59 different journals, including non-economic journals. Most selected Ecological Economics (1) and then a unique pattern for the other two journals. This reveals both great diversity and distinct individual differentiation as to important source information. Secondary nodes such as Environmental Values (18), Energy Policy (38) and Ecology & Society (10) are themselves interdisciplinary and so indicate a group interest in the integration of different disciplinary bodies of knowledge. In comparison with the total ESEE sample, these heterodox ecological economists give a reduced import to the journals Science (9) and Nature (7), with the former moving from being a secondary node to no significance. Similarly, the Journal of Industrial Ecology (26), which is a secondary node for the total ESEE sample, is no longer significant in Figure 2. This implies neither the natural science nor industrial ecology perspectives are strongly related to the umbrella of heterodoxy for ecological economists, at least as far as ESEE attendees sampled here are concerned.
The first issue concerns the number of ranked journals. A larger journal list is obviously better, but there are some limits. The selection depends either on the goal of the ranking or the underlying bibliometric database which restricts the choice. The ranking issue might be to find the top 10 journals in economics or the best journals in a specific sub-category, e.g., the best journals in finance. When selecting all journals in the economics category one has to decide how to deal with interdisciplinary journals or journals from related fields. Should, e.g., statistics or sociology journals be included? For instance, the status as a ’top-10 journal’ might be lost if a journal list with many interdisciplinary journals is used.
The monitoring of the ground cover is carried out by the GTA and the Technical Center of the Clean Coal-CTCL, through an agreement signed with the Union of the Industry of Extraction of Coal of the State of Santa Catarina -SIECESC, with Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional-CSN and with the CPRM. The work is carried out through the acquisition of high resolution orbital images and / or images, with georeferencing and correction of the cartographic base. From the photos, preliminary interpretation and field validation are performed to obtain qualitative and quantitative information, according to the goals set by the GTA. While groundwater monitoring is carried out through an agreement established between the Research Company and Mineral Resources -CPRM, the Beneficial Association of the Carboniferous Industry of Santa Catarina- SATC and the Bureau of Climate Change and Environmental Quality of the Ministry of Environment - MMA. The MMA is the institution that provides the resources for the installation of the monitors wells and the acquisition of images for the monitoring of the ground cover. Currently the monitored network consists of 26 wells installed, 2 wells integrated to the network and 9 wells to be installed.