The four data processing classes cover the entire environ- mental range from air-conditioned server and storage environ- ments of classes 1 and 2 to the lesser controlled environments such as class 3 for workstations, PCs, and portables or class 4 for point-of-sales equipment with virtually no environmental control. For each class the allowable dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, maximum dew point, maximum elevation, and maximum rate of change are specified for product oper- ating conditions. For higher altitudes, a derating algorithm is provided that accounts for diminished cooling. In addition to the allowable ranges, the recommended range for dry-bulb and relative humidity is provided for classes 1 and 2 based on the reliability aspects of the electronic hardware. Non-operating specifications of dry-bulb, relative humidity, and maximum dew point are also included.
As shown in the figure 3 the IT fan power can increase dramatically as it starts ramping up in speed to counter the increased inlet ambient temperature. The graph shows a typical power increase that results in the near constant component temperature. In this case the fan power increased from 11 watts at ~23 o C inlet to over 60 watts at 35 o C inlet. The inefficiency in the power supply results in an even larger system power increase. The total room power (facilities + IT) may actually go up at warmer temperatures. IT manufacturers should be consulted when considering system ambient temperatures approaching the upper recommended ASHRAE temperature specification. See reference  for a technical evaluation of the effect of increased environmental
Methodology: A CSM was designed and applied prior to sample collection in order to screen for heavy metals and other chemicals of concern (COCs) from three different high-risk points. The CSM showed a credible source-pathway-receptor chain at three high-risk points. Risk assessment associated with the heavy metals was significantly reduced based on the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) – EnvironmentalGuidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry In Nigeria (EGASPIN) values after 28 days of bioremediation study.
Treatment of dairy processing waters should be undertaken in accordance with EPA Victoria Publication 570, EnvironmentalGuidelines for the Dairy Processing Industry. The process water should be subject to the same water quality guidelines that apply to municipal sewage reuse schemes (refer to Table 1). Exceptions to this rule are helminth treatment control measures, and restraints regarding restriction of pigs from grazing on land irrigated with dairy effluent. However, some constraints may be imposed on reuse of reclaimed water from dairy processing within the industry itself and therefore DFSV and the Chief Veterinary Officer should be consulted.
For this paper, we estimated the volume of Chinese public financing in Latin America and the Caribbean and looked at the composition and characteristics of those loans. We then compared those estimates with LAC lending by the World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, and Export-Import Bank of the United States. We found that China has committed approximately $75 billion in loans to Latin American countries since 2005. China’s loan com- mitments of $37 billion in 2010 were more than those of the World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, and the US Ex-Im Bank combined for that year. We also exam- ined the extent to which Chinese loans to Latin America are more favorable, impose policy conditionalities, and have less stringent environmentalguidelines than the loans of their Western counterparts. Contrary to the suggestions of other observers, we find that the terms of Chinese loans to Latin America can be more stringent than those of Western loans, that Chinese banks impose no policy conditionali- ties (but do impose conditions of another nature) and, to the surprise of many, we show that Chinese finance does operate under a set of environmentalguidelines, although those guidelines are not yet on par with the guidelines of Western lenders.
There are studies showing positive correlation between environmental performance and financial performance (Hamilton, 1995; Hart, 1995; Blacconiere and Pattern, 1993). Thus, it is imperative for the banking institutions in the present context to consider environmental performance in deciding whether to invest in companies or advise clients to do so. The formation of different rules for environmental management like resource conservation, clean water act, clean air act, toxic substance control act are also viewed as potentially significant contributor to the recent increase in environmental liability for banking institutions. Adoption of these principles will offer significant benefits to banking institutions, to consumers and also the stakeholders. Credit risks are also associated with lending on the security of real estate whose value has diminished owing to environmental problems (additional loss in the event of default). Further, risk of loan default by debtors due to environmental liabilities because of fines and legal liabilities and due to reduced priority of repayment under bankruptcy. In few cases, banks have been held responsible for actions occurring in which they held a secured interest (Schmidheiny and Zorraquin, 1996 and Ellis, Millians and Bodeau, 1992).
The COMNAP Guidelines suggest many avenues for the publication of environmental monitoring reports, though it must be noted that publication is not compulsory. Operational, environmental and peer-reviewed scientific journals are suggested as publication options but none of the suggested options are stated as the preferred or recommended method of reporting, meaning those seeking data much search through many avenues with no guarantee of finding it freely. The websites of individual national programmes would also be a logical place to report on environmental monitoring, although the issue of the reports not being together in the same location would remain. One solution would be to have a regular journal that was dedicated to Antarctic environmental impacting monitoring programmes. Submitting monitoring data as Information Papers to the ATCM meetings is another sensible suggestion because there could easily be a section on the ATCM website dedicated to national programmes’ annual reports on their environmental impact monitoring. The same could be said for recommending publication on the COMNAP website as COMNAP is already a central body of programme managers. The Committee of Environmental Protection’s (CEP) State of the Environment reporting system is in much the same situation and could also easily serve as an information hub for monitoring
The sustainability report related to each company and each year of the eight oil and gas companies operating in Qatar was examined against our checklist. Moreover, we used the GRI check of the Sustainability disclosure database on the GRI website 1 . The aim behind examining these reports is to detect the presence, absence and not applicable information related to environmental management accounting disclosures included in the framework checklist and its progression. The disclosures then were studied and given a score of one, zero or n/a reliant on whether the listed information in the reports were present, absent or not applicable. Thus, a reliable and well-designed form was established to obtain different meaningful quantitative measures. Furthermore, on this report, we are onlyfocusingonenvironmentalmanagementaccountingindicatorsandwedidn’t go through the general reporting or management approach or governance.
description must include the corresponding impact on biological systems. General terms such as “loss of biodiversity” or “death of animals” are not acceptable without relating them to a specific environmental impact shown below. In the list below, the activities that were accepted as correlating are indicated in parentheses after each impact.
Effluent guidelines are described in Table 5. Emissions guidelines are described in Table 6. Effluent guidelines are applicable for direct discharges of treated effluents to surface waters for general use. Site-specific discharge levels may be established based on the availability and conditions in the use of publicly operated sewage collection and treatment systems or, if discharged directly to surface waters, on the receiving water use classification as described in the General EHS Guideline. Guideline values for process emissions and effluents in this sector are indicative of good international industry practice as reflected in standards of countries with recognized regulatory frameworks. These levels should be achieved, without dilution, at least 95 percent of the time that the plant or unit is operating, to be calculated as a proportion of annual operating hours. Deviation from these levels due to specific local project conditions should be justified in the environmental assessment.
Recent revisions to the federal NPDES regulations (55 FR 47990; November 16, 1990) require that permit applications be submitted and NPDES permits be issued for storm water discharges associated with industrial activity (see the Bureau of Water Quality Management’s “Notice of Intent Requirements for Coverage Under the General Permit for Discharges of Storm Water From Industrial Activities” for definition of industries covered). In accordance with the Department’s regulations at 25 Pa. §§92.81 - 92.83, the Department of Environmental Protection has developed and issued a general NPDES permit that sets forth the requirements and conditions to control storm water discharges from industrial activities. Special Permit Condition for the Development and Implementation of a PPC Plan
The other contribution to environmental degradation is the disposal of fish solid waste, mainly trimmings and fish frames from fish filleting, scales, discarded rotten fish and fish packaging materials. The solid wastes may also contain strong smells especially in dried and smoked fish. The problem of smells could apart from general nuisance and discomfort, also bring about flies, which can be a vector of human disease and potential fish contaminants. Solid waste and poorly maintained sanitation facilities are also possible breeding grounds for flies and cockroaches, which can contribute to the spread of faecal matter in the environment. Inadequate methods of handling, hygiene, sanitation and distribution may provide ideal conditions for pathogens to proliferate and reach infective levels (Wekell et al., 1994). Fish wastes disposal and management is therefore very necessary to reduce environmental pollution and reduce incidences of possible diseases from cross contamination of fish.
Additional engineering controls may be required for (i) containment and treatment of volatile organics stripped from various unit operations in the wastewater treatment system, (ii)advanced metals removal using membrane filtration or other physical/chemical treatment technologies, (iii) removal of recalcitrant organics and non biodegradable COD using activated carbon or advanced chemical oxidation, (iii) reduction in effluent toxicity using appropriate technology (such as reverse osmosis, ion exchange, activated carbon, etc.), and (iv) containment and neutralization of nuisance odors. Management of industrial wastewater and examples of treatment approaches are discussed in the General EHS Guidelines. Through use of these technologies and good practice techniques for wastewater management, facilities should meet the Guideline Values for wastewater discharge as indicated in the relevant table of Section 2 of this industry sector document.
Most of the countries across the world are commenced to realize the threats of sustainable environment and they have started working together with the intention of minimizing the harmful impact on the environment. Green purchasing behavior is one type of environmentally conscious behavior. Moreover, consumers’ interest in environmental awareness in recent years has increased their willingness to green purchasing. ‘Green consumption’ means generally environmentally responsible consumption where consumers consider the environmental impact of purchasing, using, and disposing of various products, or using various green services .
b. Provisions in the National Environmental Act – According to section 23 A of the National Environmental Act, No.47 of 1980, companies which carry out the prescribed business activities should obtain an Environmental Protection License and submit Environmental Impact Assessment Report. But there is no prescribed mandatory requirement for public disclosure of this information.
19. Stone S, Fuller C, Savage J, et al. (2012). Evaluation of the national clean your hands cam- paign to reduce Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and Clostridium difficile infection in hospitals in England and Wales by improved hand hygiene: four year, prospective, ecologi- cal, interrupted time series study. British Medical Journal. 2012;344:e3005–e3005. 20. Lovedaya HP, Wilsona JA, Pratta RJ, et al. National Evidence-Based Guidelines for Prevent-