We found that the yield of organic Grand rapids lettuce was more than two times higher than the conventional Grand rapids lettuce. The environmental impacts of organic Grand rapids was lower than the conventional Grand rapids in all impact categories. The Climate change of the organic Grand rapids was about half of the conventional Grand rapids. The Human toxicity, Terrestrial ecotoxicity and Freshwater ecotoxicity of organic Grand rapids were much lower because the synthetic pesticides were not applied. Water depletion for organic Grand rapids production was 42% lower than conventional Grand rapids. Fossil depletion due to organic Grand rapids were 78% lower than conventional Grand rapids. Freshwater eutrophication and Marine eutrophication of organic Grand rapids was 79% and 72%
Comparing Saudi Arabia with other Gulf Cooperation Council countries (GCC) 5 with similar socioeconomics in terms of their commitments to environmental protection, at the international level, the GCC countries ratified the UNFCCC in 1994 and 1996. Also, in 2005 Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Qatar and Oman ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The country with least cooperation with agreements is Kuwait and the UAE is the best. The GCC countries are not in the list of Annex I parties 6 , but the 2009 International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) is the first global agency— in the Middle East located in Masdar City in the UAE— to move toward a renewable future. At the regional level, the GCC countries in 1985 created the Environmental Coordination Unit to be responsible for environmental cooperation. For the environmental instruments, the GCC countries in 2009 discussed green tax but this tool is still in the preliminary stage. There are some projects in the GCC countries to support renewable energy: The King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) has been built in Saudi Arabia, Masdar City in the UAE, Energy City is being built in Qatar and wind turbines have been installed in Bahrain. However, the GCC countries have adopted new policies toward ecological modernization (Reiche, 2010). Furthermore, in 2016 all the GCC countries signed the Paris agreement with three of them entering into force: UAE in November 2016, Saudi Arabia in December 2017 then Bahrain in January 2017 (UNFCCC, 2016).
STE also reviewed MDT’s current highway project cost estimating practices to develop specific recommendations for enhancement. STE worked with the various project development sections within MDT to better understand their organizational structure, methods of operations, and how each of these areas develops its cost estimates. This was accomplished with email surveys, interviews, conference calls, and meetings. Analysis of limited MDT data revealed that for the Statewide and Urban Section Projects initial and latest revised costs varied by 181%. For MDT highway projects, the analysis of limited data revealed that final construction costs were 46% higher than anticipated at the time of programming. With great assistance from project panel, STE developed a Cost Estimation Tracking System in MS Excel to be used for future data collection on project cost overruns. The use of the newly developed tracking system will ease the difficulty of gathering the historical cost data for future analysis. Eight risk factors namely insufficient knowledge of right-of-way, environmentalmitigation requirements, unforeseen engineering complexities/constructability issues, changes in traffic control needs, increased stakeholders expectations, unforeseen events, changes in market conditions (inflation), and utilities were identified. A Monte Carlo simulation process was evaluated for project specific risk factors using the cost estimation tracking system database. The project specific risk factors can be used in lieu of unknown portion of contingency factors currently used at MDT.
important steps regard introducing productive improve- ments (i.e. balanced feed ration) that bring to environmentalmitigation strategies for most farms producing milk for PR cheese production, which is also widely recognised as a production system with an inescapable lower efficiency respect to other systems (mainly because of the production disciplinary). The attention to the feed ration for cows should bring improvements to DE and FPCM production, although an unavoidable drawback is linked intrinsically to the reduced farm dimensions. For cluster 4, instead, farms producing milk for both GP and PR are present, which means that also a group of farms for GP cheese pro- duction is inefficient and should be improved consider- ably, at least in terms of DE and FPCM as well as of all environmental impact categories. Moreover, cluster 2 and partially cluster 3 behave better than 1 and 4, but their results are also affected by the low farm dimen- sion (with a reduced number of cows and land area).
important tool in achieving sustainable development. Environmental protection and economic development must thus be dealt with in an integrated manner. EIA process is necessary in providing an anticipatory and preventive mechanism for environmental management and protection in any development. Several developing countries are still at the infancy stage of operation alization of their EIA processes. The need for capacity building for quality EIA is also eminent in these countries. Despite these small setbacks, environmental impact assessment has become an integral part of project planning one, which is continually being improved for posterity Generally, the potential positive and negative impacts as well as the environmentalmitigation measures of the irrigation project depend on: (a) nature and types of the proposed irrigation project,(b) environmental baseline condition of the project area i.e. the physical, biological and socio-cultural environment,(c)environmental health condition of the project area,(d) the technological option adopted,(e) the legal, institutional and policy framework ,and (f) the environmental condition of the downstream. Major positive and negative impacts of this project during construction and operation phases as well as possible mitigation measures are briefly included in this study. After assessing the environmental impact, the project is found to be environmentally non degradable, technically appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable.
The California High-Speed Rail Authority (Authority), in conjunction with the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), is responsible for planning, designing, building and operation of the first high- speed rail (HSR) system in the nation. California high-speed rail will connect the mega-regions of the state, contribute to economic development and a cleaner environment, create jobs and preserve agricultural and protected lands. By 2029, the system will run from San Francisco to the Los Angeles basin in under three hours at speeds capable of over 200 miles per hour. The system will eventually extend to Sacramento and San Diego, totaling 800 miles with up to 24 stations. Some of the project challenges include its size, engineering complexity and cost; the need to obtain environmental permits assuming the use of design/build contractors; and an ambitious construction schedule. The project is also an expression of the forward-thinking environmental sustainability for which California is legendary. The HSR project is one of the first times FRA has implemented Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) guidance on environmentalmitigation and monitoring. Published in January 2011, the guidance requires that federal agencies issuing National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents monitor how mitigation commitments are implemented and their effectiveness. These requirements are similar to California requirements under the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). With completion of their first joint EIR/EIS for the Merced to Fresno High-Speed Rail Project, the Authority and FRA were presented with the challenge of developing a system to manage its compliance data in a way that would ensure compliance was effectively documented and reported to permitting agencies. To address this challenge, the Authority and FRA are creating an environmental compliance system that coordinates, tracks, and reports on Authority and contractor permitting and environmental compliance activities prior to, during, and following project construction. The EnvironmentalMitigation Management and
‘Mitigation measures’ (as described in the impact assess- ment literature) are implemented to avoid, eliminate, reduce, control or compensate for negative impacts and ameliorate impacted systems . Such measures must be considered and outlined in environmental and social impact assessments (EIAs and SIAs) that are conducted prior to major activities such as resource extraction [24, 25]. Mitigation of negative environmental impacts in one system (e.g. water or soil) can influence other systems such as wellbeing of local communities and biodiver- sity in a positive or negative manner . A wide range of technological engineering solutions have been imple- mented to treat contaminated waters (e.g. constructed wetlands , reactive barriers treating groundwater , conventional wastewater treatment plants). Phy- toremediation of contaminated land is also an area of active research .
particle traverses, its range (R) and the distance (d) through the materials have been calculated and analyzed. The dose (in Gy) as a function of particle flux and energy deposited by the particle was also determined. Predictions of their possible effects on space system operations and life-span were made, particularly as values exceeded certain threshold or limit. Using GOES 11 acquired data for 3 months and from estimations and calculations and, under certain space radiation environmental conditions in the geosynchronous orbit without mitigation of any sort, the risk and safe period in orbit could be determined. For a spacecraft whose body is 20 mm thick and with Al alloy housing theoretically in this study was estimated to have a safe period of about 3 years and risk period of about 29 years (due to total ionizing dose) within which it would experience a catastrophic failure.
Author Details: Dr. Brandon P. Anthony is an Associate Professor in the Environmental Sciences and Policy Department at the Central European University (CEU) in Budapest, Hungary. Prior to joining CEU, he served as advisor to the Hungarian Nature Conservation Institute, and as a park supervisor and agricultural habitat biologist in Canada. He has conducted research in North America, Africa, and Eurasia on a diverse range of fields including nature conservation, human-wildlife conflict, protected area management, community livelihoods, and amphibian ecology. Dr. Vikash Tatayah is the Conservation Director of the Mauritian Wildlife Foundation. He has been active in conservation for over 20 years. He manages conservation programmes on Mauritius, Rodrigues and outer islands that have allowed the recovery of a long list of threatened plants and animals. He participates in fund-raising for projects and public relations initiatives, is a link with the Government of Mauritius and represents the Mauritian Wildlife Foundation on national conservation and environment consultations. He also represents the organization with several key international conservation organisations and universities. He has been a leading advocate for protection of bats. Deborah de Chazal is the Executive Director of the Mauritian Wildlife Foundation. She has been active in the organisation for over 15 years. She has overall responsibility for all operations and directly manages the education, ecotourism, fundraising, financial and administrative activities with an oversight on the conservation programmes ensuring coordination between the functions. She has been actively involved in seeking and implementing solutions to protect bats.
As postulated by Maria et al. (2016), cities in delta and coastal areas are most susceptible to flooding due to dynamic climatic conditions such as higher temperatures and rising sea level. Balica et al. (2012) and Snoussi et al. (2008) further emphasize the vulnerability of coastal areas due to rise in sea levels, although Nicholls et al. (2010) attribute part of the vulnerability of coastal and delta areas to subsidence. De Bruijn et al. (2015) illustrate that these may occur suddenly in the form of hurricane storms, high tides and flash floods. Further, the threat to low-lying coastal areas was exemplified by Hurricane Sandy (2012) which made landfall off the coast on the coast of New Jersey (Elsey –Quirk, 2012). According to De Bruijn et al. (2015), delta areas are also threatened by rivers which drain vast hinterlands upstream, and intense rainfall. This risk is equally apportioned to cities built in these coastal and delta areas. The uncertainty of the effects of climate change also necessitate that a reverse scenario be considered whereby precipitation is reduced and drought occurs. Downstream areas may experience acute water shortages making low-lying delta areas again vulnerable. In consonance with Bressers et al. (2009) the above threats underline the need for a holistic approach to flood mitigation, which is the foci of this study, and urban water management in a broader sense.
There are numerous ways to enter into the Chinese market, with the most common being a representative office, a joint venture, or a wholly foreign-owned enterprise (EU SME Centre, 2013; PwC, 2013). Each type of partnership presents its own opportunities and challenges. Representative offices are not allowed to engage in profit-making activities (EU SME, 2013), making it a bad choice for foreign mitigation banks. For joint ventures between Chinese and foreign companies, protection of intellectual property and lack of sole decision-making authority are major risks (PwC, 2013). Wholly foreign-owned companies allow for strong protection of proprietary trade secrets and exclusive management over all decisions, but a particularly strong
Cuba is maintaining a sustained trend towards refining the decision making process regarding land use and physical planning as well an environmental issue in development at policy level. The Institute of Physical Plan- ning (IPF) is the governing agency for physical planning and regulation of land use. IPF and its Provincial Di- rectorates will collaborate with other relevant institutions of the project to establish a clear delineation between areas to be protected and areas prioritized for development. The Institute will also continue conceptual strategic environmental planning for other important keys where biodiversity could be seriously damaged by tourism construction development on fragile coastal ecosystems.
Educating teachers and students to mitigate human impact on local water quality through environmental stewardship of informed choices and responsible action is necessary for the future of our local watershed (Stevenson, et al., 2013). Outdoor experiences can help students develop self-respect, feelings of trust, and self-confidence which can in-turn affect their future decisions (Palmberg & Kuru, 2000; Margadant-van Arcken, 1990). Project (FLOW) addressed local community needs for mitigation strategies and environmental literacy by working with local middle school teachers and students to improve local water quality within the Southwest Florida watershed, from their own detention ponds (Dresner & Fischer, 2013). The use of the school detention ponds to participate in authentic research, provided teachers and students with immediate access to outdoor laboratories. Kenney et al., (2003) and Mansuroglu and Sabanci (2010) found adapting schools’ immediate surroundings for experiential learning is a cost- effective way to engage students in authentic science experiences.
Interestingly, the framework shows a substantial match in reported and perceived benefits at the project and community levels. Projects were perceived to deliver a range of development, adaptation and mitigation impacts, with development being dominant, followed by adaptation in Living Lands and mitigation in J4C. In the case of Living Lands, Table 4 shows stronger reported and perceived benefits across development and adaptation. As stated by the project developer, Spekboom planting has been pursued as a way to sustain broader restoration activities towards the creation of “living landscapes”, instead of being a primary mitigation strategy. This suggests that discrepancies might occur between dimensions pursued by policy/funding and the ones achieved by projects on the ground. Living Lands’ operational focus has been reflected in the training delivered to the local community, which resulted in strong emphasis on development and adaptation impacts being reported in the interviews. In the case of J4C, focus was reported by the project developer on raising employment and mitigation. This has been reflected in the community’s perceptions, according to which, J4C’s main impacts are on job creation and mitigation. As far as both projects are concerned, the aforementioned match in reporting and perceptions shows that they have strong capacity to deliver on human and social development dimensions—i.e., through effectiveness of their activities on awareness raising, knowledge exchange, training and community building. More broadly, this highlights the variability of perceptions across stakeholders about benefits and co-benefits. Varied stakeholder types might have different levels of understanding of the linkages between dimensions leading towards triple wins. Enhancing knowledge and understanding of these links at all levels—i.e., farmer, practitioner, extensionist and policy maker—would favour the design and implementation of actions conducive to triple wins.
Technique effect comprises the effect begins to be felt when there is a change in the type of technology used in economic activity. As the per capita income of a country getting higher, the willingness to pay for better environmental quality will getting higher also. This encourages many technological innovations, replacing old technology that intensively uses energy with new technologies that are more efficient and environmentally friendly. In this phase, the quality of the environment will improve, and the high-income level will felt this.
In the case of agro-environmental measures under RDPs, it is up to Member States to largely decide the extent to which such measures will aim to achieve climate objectives. These measures as with other CAP instruments are not dedicated solely to climate goals but often include other objectives such as competitiveness, climate adaptation, enhanced biodiversity, reduced risk of soil erosion, diffuse pollution or flooding etc. Nevertheless, the design and in particular the multi-annual approach of RDPs are seen to be the most cost-effective in most Member States. This is because of its high mitigation potential combined with many other environmental and economic benefits. One of the motivations for such an approach is the possible reluctance of Member States to implement actions that are only designed for climate mitigation. At the same time the evidence base for determining the actual impact of individual measures applied at farm level remains limited. According to a study by RICARDO-AEA (2016), it is a matter of the utmost importance to find a way to use the CAP’s Common Monitoring and Evaluation Framework (CMEF) to recognize and report on mitigation effects, even in those CAP measures whose primary goal is not the mitigation of climate change.
It is important to understand that for farmers to accept soil conservation technologies, the technology has to en- hance yields (FEDERACAF ´ E and CENICAF ´ E, 1975; Hud- son, 1982; Kirby and Morgan, 1984; Bunch and Lopez, 1999; Bruscoli et al., 2001; Suarez Diaz, 2001; Johnson et al., 2003; Nygren, 2005; Vishnudas et al., 2006). It is the increase in yield that convinces the farmers of the value of soil conservation, more than disaster mitigation or preven- tion and environmental restoration. If yields have increased or costs have decreased, artificial incentives are not required. On the other hand, if yields have not increased, no artificial incentive will make the adoption of the technology sustain- able (Wilken, 1987; Rivera and Sinisterra 2006).