and loud neighbours and that from other urban sources due to lack of theoretical reason. On the other hand, insufficient evidence is the main reason for national noise regulation to put more attention towards airport, construction, traffic and work-related exposure to noise (Hammer et al., 2014; Nelson et al., 2005). Instead of surveillance under environment health authorities, enforcement of neighbour noise law, where they exist, normally falls within the purview of local nuisance laws. The enforcement is also mostly left to local governments with varying degree of effectiveness as well as the prioritization. (Hammer et al., 2014). Nevertheless, there are good theoretical reasons to claim that neighbour noise could be an additional effect to health through channels which are not captured in studies of traffic and airports. There are three ways that distinguish loud neighbours from street noise that it is less predictable and often occur with higher informational content, even if the decibel level is similar or even lower (Niemann et al., 2006).
Noise is defined as undesirable sound that is unwanted to be produced. A high frequency of sound can be harmful and it is also sometimes called as noise regardless of its other characteristics (Liu and Robert, 1999) Noise can also be distinct as a signal of spurious seismic that not associated with reflection that comes from the ground. In spite of that, in the study of Scales and Snieder, (1998) identify that the noise as a signal that is uninterested. From past studies, it has proved that noise is a type of sound or acoustic that produced by the environment or instrument that is unwanted and need to be desperately removed as it can bring hazard to health and social. A research from Brüel and Kjær (2000, 2001), shows that there are many actions to encounters the environmentalnoise problem has been issued is most of countries such as building new developments to residential, measuring the compliance from noise sources (industrial plants, airplane and airports, traffics, etc) and deliberate with complaint from residents.
Moreover, exposure is considered to interact with vulnerability, producing a “ triple jeopardy ” of low socioeconomic position, polluted environment and impaired health. This means that groups with a lower socioeconomic position that already experience a compromised health status due to material deprivation and psychosocial stress, also receive the highest exposure; and this exposure then exerts larger eﬀects on their health than it does on the average population (Laurent, Bard, Filleul, & Segala, 2007; O ’ Neill et al., 2003; Pearce, Richardson, Mitchell, & Shortt, 2010; Walker, 2012). Vice versa, well-oﬀ popula- tions, regardless of their residential exposure to noise or air pollution, are likely to perceive less annoyance or health e ﬀ ects than their neighbors, because they can a ﬀ ord to protect themselves by equipping their dwelling with sound prooﬁng or air puriﬁcation and are often not at home during the day (Havard, Reich, Bean, & Chaix, 2011). More- over, for noise speci ﬁ cally, subgroups in socially lower positions may tend to complain less about environmentalnoise due to habitation to chronic residential noise exposure or adoption of coping strategies, leaving problematic situations underexposed (Kohlhuber, Mielck, Weiland, & Bolte, 2006; Riedel, Scheiner, Müller, & Köckler, 2014). In this way, air pollution and noise may aggravate social health inequal- ities, forming an additional argument in discussions on fairness of en- vironmental impact distribution and underlining the importance of empirical studies.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requires that environmental documents address noise impact around airports using an impact threshold of Day Night Average Sound Level (DNL) 65dBa. The problem of noise around airports is that it has a history almost as long as that of aviation itself. As the number of planes increased, so did the noise, and so did the number of complaints . Public pressure led to the introduction of many different types of constraints at an increasing number of airports in an effort to keep both annoyance and complaints to a minimum. Noisepollution surrounding the IKIA airport is a growing concern in Tehran. This includes regions such as those near this airport where development is occurring. The FAA has identified the effects of noisepollution on populations in areas surrounding airports as an issue that needs consideration. Studies
Many studies have shown that such sounds may have considerable impact on animals. However, sound is not a problem in itself. A majority of species use, hear and emit sounds (e.g. Romer and Bailey 1990 ). Sounds are often used to communicate between partners or conspe- cifics, or to detect prey or predators. The problem arises when sounds turn into “noise”, i.e. a disturbance or even a form of pollution. In this case, man-made sounds can mask and inhibit animal sounds and/or animal audition and it has been shown to affect communication , use of space  or reproduction . This problem affects many biological groups such as birds , amphibians , reptiles , fish , mammals [34, 35] and inver- tebrates . It spans several types of ecosystems includ- ing terrestrial , aquatic  and coastal ecosystems . Many types of sounds produced by human activities would seem to be a form of noisepollution affecting bio- diversity, including traffic , ships , aircraft  and industrial activities . Noisepollution can also act in synergy with other disturbances, for example light pollu- tion .
Noise is a prominent feature of the environmentalpollution including noise from transport, industry and neighbours. Exposure to transport noise disturbs sleep. Noise results in complex task performance, affects social behaviour and causes annoyance. Studies of occupational and environmentalnoise exposure suggest an association with hypertension, whereas community studies show only weak relationships between noise and cardiovascular disease. Aircraft and road traffic noise exposure are associated with psychological symptoms but not with clinically defined psychiatric disorder. In both industrial studies and community studies, noise exposure is related to raised catecholamine secretion. In children, chronic aircraft noise exposure impairs reading comprehension and long-term memory and may be associated with raised blood pressure. Further research is needed examining coping strategies and the possible health consequences of adaptation to noise.
emphasize inter alia, need for empowering the police. Each of age groups feels that a combination model could work better for a public cause. Male and female groups do not seem to differ regarding alternative methods of controlling the noise-level. Predominantly, male as well as female respondents advocate public education. Empowering the police is rated as a tool for control of noise by smaller proportion of people in total sample. Thus, change in public attitude by programmes of government/NGO and civil measures (fines etc.) could help us reduce or prevent the noisepollution ab initio.
exceeds the noise standard at compliance point set either by regulation, an environmental authorization or an approval. Mounting scientific evidences suggests potential hysical harms are created by the following major sources such as: Aircraft noise; Traffic noise; Noise from portable loud speakers; Construction noise; and Industrial noise. Excessive noise exposure on a regular basis will develop many indirect and direct health problems that will affect everyone (infants, children and adult) resulting various medical conditions. More damaging ones are: annoyance, sleep deprivation leading to insomnia; pregnancy and birth related problems; diovascular diseases; and eventually it will cause mortality. Rampant use of Hydraulic horns on a daily basis at Dhaka city is leading Dhaka dwellers towards permanent deafness particularly the children, an unacceptable consequence therefore urgent measures are needed to ban hydraulic horns altogether. Strategies that will reduce noise generation effectively to maintain healthy living will include: Raising Community Awareness; Noise Inclusion in Academic ponsored Incentives; Sustainability Improvement and Of course Strict Enforcement of Smoke Regulation. In Sydney and in the western countries awareness is raising and overall noise trend is slowly declining but the accelerated traffic world are the biggest causes of concern. It is reported that in Europe alone there are more than 50,000 deaths are taking place. European countries are increasingly adapting complete modal shift from private transport to public transport aimed to bring dual benefits - in one hand it will reduce acoustic contamination and on the other hand it will improve the environment by reducing air pollution. But in Dhaka the noise level is getting worse with the increasing number of Vehicles, Buses he street 24 hours a day with increasing use of hydraulic horns in addition with increasing sound levels in every sector as country is going through economic boom. It is reported by UN that Bangladesh is on track to enter top 30 economies by 2030. While regulation and hefty fines is the best weapon to curb noise problem and there are many good regulations are in place but they still have limitations and loopholes which needs to be rectified including strict enforcement of the gulations. In addition community engagement through consultation and participation, encouragement and incentives and accompanied by effective structural changes are required to effectively reduce noise level to a healthy level amid development activities. In Bangladesh lack of education and ignorance is the main enemy. Introduction of traffic rules and the impact of noise on human health should be a mandatory part of schools and college education. ers will definitely bring positive results.
25. Sobotova L, Jurkovicova J, Stefanikova Z, Sevcikova L, Aghova L. The acoustic environment and health risks in hospitals. Central european journal of public health. 2007;15:S20. 26.Otenio MH, Cremer E, Claro EMT. Noise level in a 222 bed
Energy Consumption remains one of the most fundamental issues facing human society .Hydraulic fracturing for the extraction of natural gas is a controversial technique in the Marcellus Shale Regions of the United States and elsewhere. It is controversial because it involves the usage of millions of gallons of water that is laced with hundreds of chemical contaminants, most of which are secret ingredients that are considered proprietary by cor- porations and governments that are required to protect the public. The lack of transparency in the use and dis- posal of these materials has led to community and environmental activism and to revelations of environmental and health abuses and catastrophes. This includes contaminated wells, aquifers, and illness amongst wildlife, li- vestock, and humans (Hydraulic Fracturing for Natural Gas) .
Noise is derived from the Latin word “nausea” implying ‘unwanted sound’ or ‘sound that is loud, unpleasant or unexpected’ (Mangalekar et al., 2012). Noise in large cities is considered by the World Health Organization to be the third most hazardous type of pollution, right after air and water pollution (Khilman, 2004).The noise originates from human activities, especially the urbanization and the development of transport and industry. Therefore the urban population is much more affected by noisepollution, however, small town/villages along side roads or industries are also victim of this problem. Noise is increasing everywhere, yet unnoticed form of pollution even in developed countries (Narendra Singh and Davar, 2004). Noisepollution is distinguished from other pollution categories due to its source and diffusion characteristics (Hunashal et al., 2012) though noisepollution is a slow and subtle killer, yet very little efforts have been made to ameliorate the same problem. Noise is any unwanted or harmful outdoor sound created that is detrimental (Bhagwat and Meshram, 2013) along with other types of pollution has become a hazard to quality of life. The noisepollution is not a unique problem for developing countries like India only. The worrisome effects of noise are dangerous enough that noise problem is considered next to crime by certain countries (Kapoor and Singh, 1995). Of late, it has been recognised as a pollutant (Negi et al., 1999). Noise is a disturbance to the *Corresponding author: Lavanya, C.
Despite the commitment of the central government, air quality has only experienced marginal improvements. This is due in part to poor local implementation of central level policies. While China has an impressive system of environmental regulation, the duties of the MEP are largely based in the central government. Actual implementation and enforcement of MEPs policies fall under the responsibility of the MEPs regional branches, local Environmental Protection Bureaus or EPBs. The complex relationship of EPBs to local governments and industries often results in failure to fully implement central level policies (Ren, 2013). The complexity of this relationship is partly a result of funding issues; EPBs are embedded in the local government and receive most of their funding from officials who often prioritize economic growth over environmental protection. EPBs must balance their mission of environmental protection against their desire to remain in the good graces of the government officials who provide their funding. This often results in a weak or even corrupted EBP and creates a serious obstacle to effective implementation of the central governments environmental laws (Ren, 2013). Though EPBs perform regular and often unannounced inspections of local industries, they have too little power to enforce anti-pollution laws. The offending industry often returns to their polluting behavior soon after inspections are complete.The threat of a fine is not enough to deter the behavior (Day, 2005). Ultimately poor enforcement of central level policies leaves few options for effectively combating air pollution.
In Indian cities noise is a common nuisance with very sparse information on actual noise levels. The possibility that noise has negative effects on human health has been a strong impetus for research and a major argument for noise control.Prolonged exposure to noise poses severe health hazards. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the noise levels and its impacts on some commercial areas of Allahabad city. The values for continuous sound equivalent Leq for Civil Lines ranges from 80dB to 83dB, for Chowk the noise level ranges from 78dB to 82dB, for Rambagh ranges from 75dB to 82dB, for Katra75dB to 83dB and for AlopiBaghthe noise level ranges from 79dB to 82dB. The results of the impacts of noise revealed that 69-79% of the people are exposed to noise daily, 62-78% experienced tinnitus, 63-85%have problem with sleep disturbance, 61-79% have experienced decrease in working efficiency, 86-93% were annoyed with the present condition of noise level, 24 -67% of the respondents have problems with blood pressure and cardiac and about 39-64% were aware of the impacts of noise. From the present study it can be concluded that noise levels at all the examined sites show higher values than the prescribed standards of 65dB affecting the people working and residing in these areas.
The impact of noise on the staff of Eleme Petrochemical Company Limited (EPCL), third parties, and resident/host communities was studied. Data collection involved physical identification of noise sources and spot reading of noise levels at 1.0m from source. The spatial measurements along the selected routes and estimate of dispersion rates were carried out. About one hundred and eight (108) noise sources were identified and subsequently grouped in terms of equipment types as: air cooler/fans (47%), pumps (37%), compressors (6%, and office areas and others (10%). In spatial variation of noise level measurements, eight (8) routes were identified numbering A Hand a total of 6.32 kilometers of distance and 523 point locations were covered. The measurements were taken at 25 meters interval for a period of four days. In addition to noise level measurements for equipment (noise sources), spot readings were equally taken at the office buildings and other designated areas. Also, questionnaires were administered to 100 workers whose daily activities expose them to different levels of noise at different durations. Results showed that the exposure of workers to noise levels were high to very high in all the areas apart from the office areas. Also, several of the workers suffer from various noise-induced sicknesses and their levels of productivity have been reduced by 31.4% on the average. Urgent measures for curtailment of noise and ultimate protection of the worker's health were presented. Low use of the available earmuffs showed the need to educate all categories of EPCL staff on the dangers of noisepollution.
Our multiple regression analysis indicated that the tar spot in- dex was greater at cooler sites, and sites with greater precipitation, as expected from previous studies of conditions which favour fungal infection. However, the tar spot index was lower at sites with high humidity; this most likely re ﬂ ects the signi ﬁ cant correlation of this variable with both temperature and precipitation, both of which had a larger effect on the tar spot index. We used climate data for the period MarcheJune, on the assumption that the im- pacts of temperature, rainfall and humidity would be greatest during the period of infection and tar spot growth, although we cannot exclude the possibility that there were effects at other times of year (e.g. on spore survival over winter). Climatic extremes may also be important, but maximum and minimum values of every climatic variable are very closely correlated with the mean values that were used in our analysis. There were signi ﬁ cant effects of precipitation and relative humidity on leaf width, but the effects of these variables on tar spot index through changes in leaf width was small compared to that through changes in tar spot numbers.
Consideration of environmental issues in Cambodia is critical; therefore, the Royal Government of Cambodia (ROGC) established the Ministry of Environment of Cambodia in November 1993, given a broad mandate to protect the natural resources of the country and to prevent environmental degradation. This is a basic approach for the long term, in virtually every sector related to land and water resources, which consists of institutional strengthening of inter-agency co-operation and strategy planning within the agencies for concerted efforts in better resources management. In this case, agencies must improve their abilities for baseline evaluation, increase public awareness, and incorporate public investment in decision making to focus national properties. In addition, the government has also delegated an action agenda of provincial agencies, to develop policy powers where appropriate, and provide funding for projects and agency programmes, resources development and skills training.
SC is a small group democracy at work. Community participants from all walks of life agree to attend a number of SC sessions to discuss an issue of common concern. A SC is a peer-led discussion of 8-12 participants; each participant has an equal voice. An impartial facilitator who is not necessarily an expert of an issue leads the group. The facilitator poses some questions to stimulate the discussion and to keep the discussion focused. The SC is run in a spontaneous and friendly environment. SC is a widely practiced social mobilization program in the Nordic States, especially in countries like Sweden, Finland and Norway. This has given the formation of firm democratic governments in those countries. Basic democratic principles were followed in the implementation of the SC process. Prior to the initiation of discussion, participants of each group were given a booklet containing a brief scenario of the present condition / extent of pollution along with a handful of questions on types of current pollutions that are to be discussed so that it becomes easier fo r them to initiate discussion and to avert confusion.