The soil constitutes a major component of the earth surface and it supports a large biomass. Hence, when soil is degraded, it is not able to provide plants with rooting space, water and nutrients; this contributes to land degradation. Two major characteristics of soil were evaluated for Environmental Sensitivity to Desertification: soil water availability and erosion resistance. These qualities are evaluated by using simple soil properties or characteristics such as parent material, texture, soil depth and slope. However, due to the non-availability of dataset for parent material variable in Katsina state, Kosmas et al.  formula for evaluating soil quality index was modified (as in Equation 2). Soil depth and texture were obtained from African soil grid data of year 2015 (www.isric.org/content/african-soilgrids-t250m-geotiffs). Similarly, the slope variable was derived from the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) at a spatial resolution of 30meters. The SQI was computed using equation (2) below:
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not balanced or are not sustainable for that particular environment. The environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESA’s) to desertification around the Mediterranean region are found in a different sensitivity status to desertification for various reasons, i.e. low rainfall and extreme events due to low vegetation cover, low resistance of vegetation to drought, steep slopes and highly erodable parent material (Ferrara et al., 1999). A thorough assessment of desertification would require the analysis of several physical and socio- economical factors. Quantitative information on the causal factors is scarce and the use of models to assess the sensitivity to desertification and drought is the most common approach (EC 2004). Desertification indicators are those, which indicate the potential risk of desertification while there still time and scope for remedial action. Regional indicators should be based on available international source materials, including remotely sensed images, topographic data (maps or DEM’s), climate, soil and geologic data. At the scale ranging 1: 25,000 to 1:1,000,000 the impact of socio- economic drivers is expressed mainly through pattern of land use. Each regional indicator or group of associated indicators should be focused on a single desertification process. The various types of ESA’s to desertification can be distinguished and mapped by using certain key indicators for assessing the land capability to withstand further degradation, or the land suitability for supporting specific types of land use. The key indicators for defining ESA’s to desertification, which can be used at regional or national level, can be divided into four broad categories defining the qualities of soil, climate, vegetation, and land management (Kosmas et al., 1999). The Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI
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The term “environmental sensitivity of marine regions” describes the vulner- ability of diﬀerent marine areas to harmful eﬀects of radionuclide releases. This is intuitively understood, however, it is not easy to ﬁnd a clear deﬁni- tion of the term that is suitable for modeling. It is necessary to give some consideration to the diﬀerent elements of the marine environment, including: (i) the water and sediment phases and their interactions and (ii) diﬀerent pathways and bioaccumulation processes of the marine organisms for the diﬀerent radionuclides. Furthermore, one must deﬁne what endpoint(s) is of concern (doses to humans, marine organisms, etc.).
Environmental sensitivity index corrosion mapping of Ndoni river, Ahoada river, New Calabar river, Tombia river, Buguma river and Bonny estuary was carried out with the aim of developing an environmental analysis index corrosion map of the shorelines as well as corrosion rates of the brackish water and estuarine environment. Methods developed by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Nigerian oil Producing Trade Sector (OPTS) was useful in this study.8 ESI types were found in the area which includes 1b, 9b, 9c, 10a and 10b.Animal biodiversities prominent in these shores include Sea turtle, White crab, Shorebirds, Crocodile, Iguana, Snail, Toad, Frog, Millipede, Earthworm, Tilapia and Jellyfish. The relationship between number of socioeconomic features and biological species along the shores using Spearman’s correlation coefficient (r) value is 0.93. The corrosion rates of the metal coupons in the various shores of Ndoni river, Ahoada river, New Calabar river, Tombia river, 0.053g, 0.059g, 0.109g, 0.125g, 1.630g and 2.680g respectively. The results from this study can serve as a good decision support program for environmental managers
Abstract: Studies of unmet health care needs have shown that women, people with poor health, and people with lower socioeconomic status are more likely to report having unmet health care needs. In this study, we examined the types of and reasons for unmet health care needs in 465 people with environmental sensitivities. A second area of inquiry involved negative reac- tions to general anesthesia. Results showed that the most common barriers to receiving care were the inability to find a provider who understands environmental sensitivities and a lack of accessibility due to chemical and electromagnetic exposures in health care environments. Lower income and poorer health (longer illness, a worsening or fluctuating course of illness, and a higher level of disability) were significantly correlated with the total number of reported unmet health care needs. Some people with environmental sensitivities reported having negative reactions to anesthesia of long duration; most common were nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and reduced cognitive ability.
My hypothesis is that some especially sensitive individuals, based upon their distinctive neurobiological makeup, will react to some external influences under some conditions. Fur- thermore, the degree to which a person draws upon uncon- scious material (a form of internal sensitivity or, one might say, thin boundaries) will inevitably color his/her percep- tions. So, to the extent that any anomalous influences exist in the external environment, certain individuals will register these more clearly versus others who see, hear, feel, and smell through a denser “veil” of internal imagery. None of this obviates the possibility that, in any given circumstance, indi- viduals who are suggestible, who are anxious or fearful, who believe a priori in the paranormal, or who are simply uncom- fortable with ambiguity, will misinterpret normal stim- uli. 37-40
The analysis on the spatial dimension of environmental sensitivity shows that people are more sensitive to the deterioration of the global environment rather the than domestic environment. One of the possible explanations for the gap between global and domestic environmental evaluations might be the influence of mass media. People’s information regarding the global environment comes primarily from mass media which full of envi- ronmental challenges and irreversible influence. However, such challenges and influences are not tangible, im- mediate or visible in the course of day to day life. This might give people an illusion that environmental issues are not as much of an emergency as it described, or at least the environment around them is much better. This may become one of the reasons why the environment situation continues to worsen. To some extent, the more positive evaluations on domestic environment might also explain the high percentage of current satisfaction on the environmental quality, since they believe that they are enjoying a better environment than others.
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Nanotechnology involves the ability to see and control individual atoms and molecules which are about 100 nanometer or smaller. One of the major tools used in this field is atomic force microscopy which uses a wealth of techniques to measure the topography and investigates the surface forces in nanoscale. Friction force is the representation of the surface interaction between two surfaces and surface topology. In order to have more precise nano-manipulation, friction models must be developed. In this study a sensitivity analysis has been conducted for nano-manipulation of nanoparticles toward dimensional and environmental parameters based on Coulomb and Hurtado and Kim (HK) friction models using Sobol method. Previously graphical sensitivity analysis has been used for this target in which the percentage of importance of parameters is not taken into account. But in Sobol method as a statistical model this problem is solved. Results show that cantilever thickness is the most effective dimensional parameter on critical force value while cantilever length and width are of less importance. Environmental parameters such as cantilever elasticity modulus, substrate velocity and adhesion, respectively, take next orders.
We found that model sensitivities and uncertainties vary strongly depending on different input factors such as topog- raphy or different soil types. The analysis shows that model evaluation performed at single locations may not be repre- sentative for the whole modeling domain. For example, the sensitivity of modeled mean annual ground temperature to ground albedo ranges between 0.5 and 4 ◦ C depending on el- evation, aspect and the ground type. South-exposed inclined locations are more sensitive to changes in ground albedo than north-exposed slopes since they receive more solar radiation. The sensitivity to ground albedo increases with decreasing elevation due to shorter duration of the snow cover. The sen- sitivity in the hydraulic properties changes considerably for different ground types: rock or clay, for instance, are not sen- sitive to uncertainties in the hydraulic properties, while for gravel or peat, accurate estimates of the hydraulic properties significantly improve modeled ground temperatures. The dis- cretization of ground, snow and time have an impact on mod- eled mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) that cannot
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The most harmful environmental pollution in today’s world is noise pollution. Researchers have been studying the impact of urban road traffic noise on human health. The significant and relatively-recent rise in noise levels has been studied in terms of both magnitude and extent within the congested and poorly- urbanized city of Puri, home to the famous 12 th Century Jagannath Temple. It has also been observed that even the remote sea beach area of the city is not free from anthropogenic noise.
(1999) reported that, genetic contribution of seed number per spike in genotype and environment interaction was more than genetic contribution of spike per plant and grain weight in wheat chromosome addition lines. Also he indicated that sensitivity of seed per spike to environmental variation was lower than other two components. Therefore the seed per spike had the most important role in phenotypic stability of wheat in different environments. Also he identified chromosomal genes location of genotype and environment interaction by this method. These results were similar to the findings of the present study, because the first multiplicative component of yield had the highest genetic contribution in final yield.
An SSD was built using the Species Sensitivity Distribution Generator (US Environmental Protection Agency 2014). There are several assumptions and criteria required to build a representative SSD (Posthuma et al. 2002), and the authors recognise there are several limitations with the distribution presented in Figure 9. The usefulness of an SSD depends on the data it is created from, therefore important caveats to consider for the SSD presented in Figure 9 are: both NOECs and LOECs were used so that a range of species (9) could be included covering key taxa (e.g. fish species, isopods, copepods echinoderms, and crustaceans) see Supplementary Material for references. Only mortality, reproduction and growth endpoints (Connors et al. 2017) from the largest particle size class (10 – 5000 µm) of ecotoxicity studies were considered as this size fraction is most relevant to particle sizes measured in the environment and consequently most representative. It should be noted however, that only a single ecotoxicity study where a particles/L value could be calculated used a >100 µm particle size exposure. If no significant effect was reported or the concentration below the LOEC was reported this was considered the NOEC, while LOECs were the lowest concentration that had a significant effect. Endpoints were included that may not have adhered to high quality tests that are desirable for SSDs (Wheeler et al. 2002). Marine and freshwater data was combined in the SSD presented to increase statistical power, because alone, not enough data is yet available to build an SSD for the freshwater or marine environment singly. Freshwater and marine specific SSDs are presented in the Supplementary Material. We present the first attempt to build an SSD for the risk assessment of MPs, which in itself cannot provide regulatory guidance; however, it provides a starting point for what the SSD will look like and should be updated as more relevant data become available.
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factors, environmental factors, but also homeostasis maintaining system and time factor. What's more, the damage effect as well as protective effect of each factors should be distinguished during the research and analysis of diseases and treatment of patients. Because this mode can fully explain pathogenesis of all diseases, it may be widely used in diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and many aspects of any diseases in theory. In particular, this model is a base of the Personalized Medicine and the Precision Medicine . Therefore, it may change the modern medicine at many aspects.
How can EIA integrate prognoses on susceptibility or climate sensitivity of environmental issues (regarding the two example climate change impacts) – at which stages in the process is which information necessary (e.g. presentation of the current status, zero alternative or assessment of environmental impacts)?
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The potential for biochemical and physiological systems to be plastic, or flexible, within individuals exists within most animal groups. For example, there is a parallel shift in regulated body temperature and metabolic performance in response to environmental change in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) (Seebacher et al., 2003). Facultative hypothermic responses [e.g. torpor and hibernation (St. Pierre and Boutilier, 2001; McKechnie and Lovegrove, 2002; Storey and Storey, 2004)] also represent reversible plasticity in the sense that biochemical systems shift in a functional way, in this case to minimise energy expenditure (Ramnanan and Storey, 2006) rather than maintaining constant or near-constant metabolic capacity.
Figure 7 shows the DOC concentration sensitivity experi- ments to variation in sorption (m) and desorption (b) using the Taylor diagram (Taylor, 2001). The correlation coeffi- cients were used to quantify the similarity between simulated and observed DOC patterns. The normalized standard devi- ation (SD) and the centered root-mean-square (rms) differ- ence were used to measure the temporal variability and in- ternal model error of the models, respectively. The position of each letter appearing on the plot quantified how closely that model-simulated DOC concentration patterns matched the observations, and thus the more distance of SD and rms difference between the observational data (dashed arc, refer- ence) and the simulations indicated more sensitivity for the m/b variations. The sensitivity results showed that the corre- lations with observations were about 0.6; the increase (1–3 and 2–3 in Fig. 7) and decrease (1–2 and 2–2) sorption pa- rameter (m) had greater effect on DOC concentrations in dif- ferent soil layers than the variation (1–5 and 2–5 for increase, 1–4 and 2–4 for decrease) of desorption parameter (b), sug- gesting the response of DOC concentration to sorption was more significant than the response to desorption in temperate forest soils.
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an important factor for controlling population dynamics and can reduce species extinc- tion rates by driving a non-equilibrium community response (Dakos et al., 2009). The effect of regular seasonal forcing on modelled populations have been explored through predator-prey models (Rinaldi and Muratori, 1993), multi-species plankton community models (Dakos et al., 2009), plankton-fish food webs (Doveri et al., 1993), and ecosys- tem models with implemented variability within the upper mixed layer (Popova et al., 1997). The above examples of model simulations confirm that chaos is an inherent response within a seasonally forced environment. However, some of the studies have emphasized the narrow range of forcing parameters for which chaotic behaviour is predominant. For example, Popova et al. (1997) applied a 4-component ecosystem model (nitrogen, detritus, phytoplankton and zooplankton) with implicit representation of upper mixed layer depth and seasonality, and found that chaos is only prevalent under environmental conditions corresponding to the low latitude regions of strong upwelling. The model simulations of Doveri et al. (1993), where a 4-level marine food- web (phosphorus, phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish) is simulated in a well-mixed box, suggest that chaos is a phenomenon occurring in high-light, high-phosphorus regions, such as low latitude eutrophic lakes.
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qualitative scale ranging from “very low sensitivity” (○), to “very high sensitivity” (●●●●●), through intermediate values expressed with a 0.5 score resolution (○ =0.5; ●=1). As it can be seen in Table 2, better accuracies are related to those systems adopting different technologies, in particular when technologies are exploited to detect metrological parameters fitting the specific characteristics of the sensors (for example, laser for classification and counting, radar for speed, etc.). This assumption is confirmed by the results achieved for the double technology system, where counting and classification are operated by a laser scanner, reproducing the three-dimensional profile of the vehicles, and speed by radars.
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The findings of this study focus on the perspective of environmental education in the curriculum 2013. At the elementary level, the delivery of environmental issues is through thematic integrative learning methods and integrated with other subjects. Various sciences through experience and habituation are combined into 9 themes that are integrated into lessons like Pancasila and Citizenship Education, Indonesian, Mathematics, Natural Sciences (IPA), Social Sciences (IPS), Cultural Arts and Crafts, and Physical Education. Furthermore, environmental education with an integrated thematic learning method is taught in an integrated manner with other subjects. From 9 themes that have been set out, the themes relevant to the living environment are the second theme "Always Save our Energy" and the third theme "Caring for Life Creatures". The learning materials are presented through interesting stories, in which students are invited to perform activities based on the theme and reading texts. In addition, learners are invited to make habits in daily life. Such habits are not conveyed verbally but should be done so that they can establish good personal with the noble characters.
quality, coexposure to a combination of environmen- tal contaminants may have a decidedly negative im- pact. One of the environmental factors relevant to childhood lung disease is the recent increase in com- plexity and distribution, if not the levels, of airborne pollutants, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), diesel exhaust, respirable particulate matter (ultrafine, fine, and coarse modes [ ⬍ 0.1, 2.5, and 10 m in aerodynamic diameter, respectively]), and ir- ritant gases (ozone, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen di- oxide).