Epiphytic Algae

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The Qualitative and Quantitative Composition of Epiphytic Algae on Ceratophyllum demersum L. in Tigris River within Wassit Province, Iraq

The Qualitative and Quantitative Composition of Epiphytic Algae on Ceratophyllum demersum L. in Tigris River within Wassit Province, Iraq

Epiphytic algae are attached to the surface of the aquatic plants. They play a very important role in the freshwater ecosystems; because they are source of the primary production, considered as a rich nutrition source for aquatic living organisms, they move the energy from the sediment to the water column(1), and make a balanced case between the aquatic organisms (2,3,4). Furthermore, algae contribute to oxygen production via the photosynthesis process(5). Human activities in agriculture, industry, and urbanization produce large amount of pollutants that affect the aquatic livings, making it necessary to use these livings especially the algae as indices for evaluating the water quality(6,7,8) Ceratophyllum demersum is considered a native plant all over the world. It is characterized by its forked appearance and exists as submerged, or might be anchored to the soil by the rhizoidal shoot which are the buried branched ends of the stem. The stems are slim and branched with one branch emerges from each node. The leaves of the plant are sessile with margins of toothed appearance, with 5 to 12 leaves branching out from each node(9).
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Systematic Study of Some Epiphytic Algae (Non-diatoms) on the Submerged Parts of Water Hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Loubach] Found in Laguna de Bay, Philippines

Systematic Study of Some Epiphytic Algae (Non-diatoms) on the Submerged Parts of Water Hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Loubach] Found in Laguna de Bay, Philippines

Aquatic macrophytes colonise the soft, sandy sediments of freshwater habitats and are key contributors to the primary productivity of the autotrophic community in the aquatic ecosystems. The relationships between host plants and attached microalgae in the natural environment are still incompletely understood (Toporowska et al. 2008). Most macrophyte substrata are highly dynamic in their physical characteristics and their chemical contribution to attached algal flora (Wetzel 1983). Free-floating macrophytes such as water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) are able to take over light and consume nutrients from the water column, prohibiting phytoplankton from obtaining sufficient resources for photosynthesis (McVea & Boyd 1975). Thus, free-floating macrophytes can dominate phytoplankton and other submerged vegetation. Aquatic plants may also reveal allelopathic activity against epiphytic algae, and as a result the development of epiphyton depends on macrophyte host species (Toporowska et al. 2008). On the other hand, epiphyton can reduce growth and production of macrophytes due to faster uptake of nutrients by epiphytic microalgae than by plant. Macrophytes can cause increase in population of phytoplankton in an aquatic ecosystem by entrapping detritus material in their roots thereby increasing phytoplankton density beneath mats. Overall, free-floating macrophytes seems to limit the productivity of phytoplankton and submersed vegetation under mats, with the exception of certain colonial algal types that may initially be captured within the roots of water hyacinth (Villamagna 2009).
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Water Quality Assessment of El-Salam Canal (Egypt) Based on Physico-Chemical Characteristics in Addition to Hydrophytes and their Epiphytic Algae

Water Quality Assessment of El-Salam Canal (Egypt) Based on Physico-Chemical Characteristics in Addition to Hydrophytes and their Epiphytic Algae

Using a clean scissor, parts (mainly stem) of two prevailing (at downstream station 2-5, only) hydrophytes namely Ceratophyllum demersum and Phragmites australis was clipped and put in separate clean plastic bags. A measured volume of distilled water was added to just moister the cut plant parts, the bags were sealed and were kept in an icebox until reaching the laboratories. The epiphytic microalgae were carefully scraped from the surface of macrophyte parts using a toothbrush, and then raised to a known volume using distilled water. The epiphytic algal suspension was preserved using 1% of Lugol's solution (Prescott, 1978) for qualitative and quantitative analysis of epiphytic microalgae. The surface area of the hydrophyte part from which the epiphytic algae were brushed was calculated using the wetted layer method of Harrod and Hall (1962).
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Composition and structure of epiphytic algae on two aquatic macrophyta speciese distribution on the Euphrates (Al Abassia) River, Iraq

Composition and structure of epiphytic algae on two aquatic macrophyta speciese distribution on the Euphrates (Al Abassia) River, Iraq

Epiphytes are organisms attached to aquatic and are responsible for the majority of primary productivity in aquatic systems , Epiphytic algae are dominant species in lotic system and play a major role in ecological balance between various groups of living organism (Macrophytes) and their environment (Hassan et al., 2014) when epiphytic algae attach to vegetation , mobility is restricted and the ability to capture nutrients from the water column is limited Macrophytes may provide epiphytes with dual the benefits of substrate and a nutrient source (Rogers and Breen, 1981), but increased epiphytic algae may reduce the diffusion of nutrients from water column to aquatic macrophyte leading to reduced plant biomass all growth (Al-Saboonchi and Al-Manshad, 2012), while, macrophytes may benefit from the reduced grazing pressure by herbivores (Gil et al., 2006). Biomass of epiphytic algae may affected by many factors such as morphology of host macrophytes, water level, seasonal changes water depth, temperature and abundance of macrophytes (Verbulst, 2013; Demir et al., 2014). Many studies deal with epiphytie algae such as Mabrouk et al. (2014) how was studied the variability in the structure of epiphytic microalgae and investigated the
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Screening of Epiphytic Algae on the Aquatic Plant Phragmites australis inhabiting Tigris River in Al-Jadria Site, Baghdad, Iraq

Jinan S. Al Hassany | Hind E. Al Bayaty

Screening of Epiphytic Algae on the Aquatic Plant Phragmites australis inhabiting Tigris River in Al-Jadria Site, Baghdad, Iraq Jinan S. Al Hassany | Hind E. Al Bayaty

The present work included qualitative study of epiphytic algae on dead and living stems, leaves of the aquatic plant Phragmitesaustralis Trin ex Stand, in Tigris River in AL- Jadria Site in Baghdad during Autumn 2014, Winter 2015, Spring 2015, and Summer 2015. The physical and chemical parameters of River’s water were studied (water temperature, pH, electric conductivity, Salinity, TSS, TDS, turbidity, light intensity, dissolve oxygen, BOD 5 , alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium and

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A Qualitative Study of Epiphytic Algae (Diatom) on Some Aquatic Plants in Al-Auda Marshes Within Maysan Province / Southern Iraq

Jinan S. Al Hassany | Alaa I. M. Al-Bueajee

A Qualitative Study of Epiphytic Algae (Diatom) on Some Aquatic Plants in Al-Auda Marshes Within Maysan Province / Southern Iraq Jinan S. Al Hassany | Alaa I. M. Al-Bueajee

[2] Al-Saboonchi. A. A. and Al- Manshed . H. N. 2012. Study of epiphytic algae on Ceratophyllum demersum L. from two stations at Shatt Al-Arab river. Thi-Qar Science Journal .3 (2) :57-63 [3] Hadi, R.A.M and Al-Zubaidi, A. J.

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Knowledge to Ecological Preferences in a Tropical Epiphytic Algae to Use with Eutrophication Indicators

Knowledge to Ecological Preferences in a Tropical Epiphytic Algae to Use with Eutrophication Indicators

Eunotia flexuosa is recorded in the literature as indi- cator of oligotrophic environments, acidic pH to neutral and may indicate presence of iron [18]. This research found that their optimal values indicate a column of deep water, greater transparency with respect to other algae (Zsd 0.8 m), temperature of the water around 30˚C, in- termediate concentrations of OD with low saturation percentage (10%), pH 6.8, low conductivities (less than 50 µS/cm), low concentrations of TSS, STD with an op- timum value of 73 mg/L, with regard to nutrients pre- sents intermediate optimal values of nitrates (1.1 mg/L) and PSR (0.55 mg/L), low concentrations of nitrite (0.08 mg/L) and ammoniacal nitrogen (0.06 mg/L) and the highest concentrations of sulphates (3.6 mg/L).
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A Study of Epiphytic and Epipelic Algae in Al-Dora Site/Tigris River in Bagdad Province- Iraq

Jinan S. AL-Hassany |Marwa T. Hindi

A Study of Epiphytic and Epipelic Algae in Al-Dora Site/Tigris River in Bagdad Province- Iraq Jinan S. AL-Hassany |Marwa T. Hindi

The samples are collected for epiphytic algae from (c. 10 cm) of submerged stems of Reed on monthly bases between (09:00am to 02:00pm) in daylight; they are preserved in polythene bags as described in[16]. The samples are collected for epipelic algae from upper (0.5 -1.0) cm surface layer of the sediment for the sites, epipelic algae are attracted by using lens paper tissue as described by [17]. According to [18], Non-diatoms are counted by Haemocytometer while Diatoms are counted by the Micro transect method according to [19]. The identification of both epiphytic and epipelic algae during study period fallows [20, 21, 22] as taxonomic keys references. The study quantitative results are expressed as cell×10 4 /g for epiphytic algae and as cell×10 4 /cm² for epipelic algae.
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Spatial analysis of carbon isotopes reveals seagrass contribution to fishery food web

Spatial analysis of carbon isotopes reveals seagrass contribution to fishery food web

SIAR modelling of source mixtures was unable to distinguish clearly between contributions from seagrass and its epiphytic algae; the crabs might assimilate carbon from epiphytic algae, seagrass, or a mixture of the two. The contributions of seagrass and associated algae to coastal food webs are usually pooled together in studies using carbon isotopes because of a lack of source separation (e.g., Spiller et al. 2010). Improving the resolution of contributions of epiphytes and seagrass is an area for further research and techniques showing promise include manipula- tive enrichment experiments (Winning et al. 1999, Mutchler et al. 2004) and the use of sulfur isotopes (Connolly et al. 2004). Regardless of whether seagrass or epiphytes are nutritionally more important to consumers, the results rein- force the need to conserve seagrass meadows in Queensland and protect them from adverse anthropogenic influences (Maxwell et al. 2014). Managing fisheries requires an ecosystem-based approach, where energy and nutrient sources are also protected from degradation by human activities, even where they are spatially segre- gated from the habitat where the fishery species lives. This projects is the first step towards that goal for giant mud crabs.
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Study of epiphytic bryophytes in the ifrane national park in Morocco

Study of epiphytic bryophytes in the ifrane national park in Morocco

Brachythecium velutinum, Bryum Bryum capillare, Fabronia pusilla, Frullania Grimmia pulvinata, Grimmia trichophylla, Homalothecium sericeum, Hypnum Hypnum lacunosum, Isothecium myosuroides, Orthotrichum anomalum, Orthotrichum Orthotrichum rupestre, Orthotrichum lyellii, Rhynchostegium tenella, Syntrichia ), Syntrichia ruralis (Tortula Trichostomum crispulum. The species exclusively Quercus rotundifolia and Quercus faginea are: Rhynchostegiella confertum, Schistidium Scorpiurium circinatum. We did not found Cedrus atlantica despite numerous visits and explorations in the study area (Figure 4). Only one species is common and exclusive to Quercus faginea and Cedrus Antitrichia californica (Figure 4). No species is alone or Quercus faginea alone. On the other hand, there are two species that are exclusive to , namely Didymodon fallax and , which appear essentially on the basis of trunks on the entire altitudinal range that it occupies in INP very plastic species that has a wide ecological amplitude. This could be why the majority of epiphytic bryophytes found on cedar and zeen oak are also found on green oak, which shows, according to Benabid (2000), a great disposition to withstand harsh ecological
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Anaerobic Digestion of Micro and Macro Algae, Pre-treatment and Co-Digestion-Biomass — A Review for a Better Practice

Anaerobic Digestion of Micro and Macro Algae, Pre-treatment and Co-Digestion-Biomass — A Review for a Better Practice

Conversion of biomass into renewable energy has been one of the key areas of research for the past few decades. A large body of research has been published on renewable energy from algae – micro and macro, which have become a representative of biomass resources with great bio diversity and variability in their biochemical composition [1]. It becomes a sustainable option for AD due to its high presence of starch, proteins and lipids and lack of lignin [2], [3]. Developing research on algae biomass has both economic and environmental sustainability concerns which involve operational efficiency, minimization of environmental impact and socio-economic considerations [4]. To enhance full scale commercial future prospects for algal bio technology, it is then important to develop methods to enhance the valorisation of the algae biomass. AD, a spontaneous process mediated by the micro-organisms does not require cost intensive advanced dewatering or further chemical extraction processes for energy generation from the digested algae biomass. However to increase the utilization of AD involving algae biomass, current research suggests that there is still a need for optimizing algae biomass digestion [5]. Since AD involves the biological degradation of organic matter, adequate
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Marine algal natural products with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties

Marine algal natural products with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties

Various bioactive compounds from marine organisms have been experimentally tested to comprehensively study the biological effects of recently developed drugs [1]. Marine algae are rich in dietary fiber, minerals, lipids, proteins, omega-3 fatty acids, essential amino acids, polysaccharides, and vitamins A, B, C, and E [2-6]. Studies on the bioactivities of marine algae have revealed numerous health-promoting effects, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-cancer effects. This mini-review will evaluate the specific effects found with red (Rhodophyta) [7-11], green (Chlorophyta) [12,13], brown (Phaeophyta) [14], and blue-green [15-18] species of marine algae. Figure 1 provides a brief overview of this mini-review.
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A comprehensive review on ethnobotanical applications and pharmacological activities of Acampe praemorsa (Roxb.) Blatt. & McCann (Orchidaceae)

A comprehensive review on ethnobotanical applications and pharmacological activities of Acampe praemorsa (Roxb.) Blatt. & McCann (Orchidaceae)

The family Orchidaceae represents one of the highly evolved and most diverse group of angiosperms with about 29000 species (coming under roughly 880 genera) found distributed in different parts of the world. This is the second largest family next to Asteraceae and comprises approximately 8% of all vascular plants. The abundance as well as distribution of orchids vary from region to region and depends on climatic conditions. Orchids may be epiphytes, lithophytes, terrestrials or saprophytes depending upon the habit in which they are growing. Majority of orchids are epiphytic in nature. Many orchids are common in occurrence while some are rare and critically endangered. A high degree of endemism is also reported in certain species of orchids. Orchids exhibits significant diversity with respect to size, color and shape of the flowers. Orchids produce minute seeds whose germination is aided by fungal symbiosis. The existence and diversity of orchids is threatened by various factors such as over-exploitation, climate change and habitat loss (mainly due to anthropogenic activities, for e.g. deforestation). Orchids have found ethnobotanical significance. Orchids are well known for producing
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Vol 6 No 1: March-2017

Vol 6 No 1: March-2017

The experiment was started in September 2014-15 and the algal material was initiated to collect. The material was then brought to the lab, where attached dust, animal dung, external parasitic organisms, aerophytes, litter, insects, algae, spirogyra and sand particles were removed by gloved hands and washed thoroughly with the clean tap water. The major mass of the material was shade dried under the laboratory conditions. After a day, the breakdown of bulky molecules of certain thermo labile natural products initiated. The dried mass was then cut into tiny pieces and weighed on the balance. Antifungal activities
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Energy positive wastewater treatment and sludge management

Energy positive wastewater treatment and sludge management

of cost offsetting electricity can be produced from algae grown in U.S. wastewater treatment plants [9]. A recent analysis showed that algae integrated wastewater systems have the potential to reach energy-neutral or energy- positive status. Algae based technologies can be designed as high rate algal ponds (HRAP), photobioreactor (PBR), stirred tank reactor, waste stabilization pond (WSP), and algal turf scrubber (ATS). These systems can produce energy rich algal biomass that can be used as feedstock for high value energy products. A comparison between the anaerobic and phototrophic (algae based) technologies indicates the average bioenergy feedstock production by phototrophic technologies ranged from 1200–4700 kJ per capita per day or 3400–13,000 kJ/m 3 (exceeding
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Enteromorpha Compressa, Gelidium pulchrum, Macro algae from Egypt  Exhibit Potent  Anticancer,  Antioxidant  and anti-inflammatory Activities

Enteromorpha Compressa, Gelidium pulchrum, Macro algae from Egypt Exhibit Potent Anticancer, Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory Activities

Enteromorpha compressa and Gelidium pulchrum were harvested in April from Abu Quir bay at Alexandria-Egypt during 2014. Adhered sand was removed from the algae by washing with seawater and the material was transported to the laboratory of Biochemistry Department,Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University. A small amount of algal sample was preserved in the Herbarium and in 4% formalin for subsequent formal identification by Dr. S. Shanab (Prof. of Botany, Faculty of Science). Algae were thoroughly washed sequentially with tap water and distilled water then allowed to air dry at 25μ◦C away from direct light. The dried material was ground (using electric morter, moulinex) to a fine powder and transferred to labeled brown bottles until required.
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DIVERSITY OF EPIPHYTIC AND ENDOPHYTIC MICROORGANISMS IN SOME DOMINANT WEEDS

DIVERSITY OF EPIPHYTIC AND ENDOPHYTIC MICROORGANISMS IN SOME DOMINANT WEEDS

We found that all leaves of weed species contained fungal endophytes and epiphytes. A total of 46 fungi were isolated as endo and epiphytic fungal isolates from phyllosphere of four weeds (Table- 2). Five fungal genera were common as epi and endophytes from more than one site: Aspergillus (56% of all isolates), Drechslera (10%), Alternaria (10%), Penicillium (6%) and Cladosporium (4%). The other identified genera were rare, such as Absidia, Cuvularia, Phoma and Trichoderma. Frequency of all five common genera differed significantly among weeds (Table-2). For example, Aspergillus was a common epiphyte as well endophyte in all test weeds where as Absidia, Cuvularia, Phoma were only isolated as endophyte in Chenopodium album and Parthenium hysterophorus. Sørensen’s QS of Euphorbia helioscopia (0.23), Chenopodium album (0.37) and Convolvulus arvensis (0.46) for the endophytic and epiphytic fungal assemblages was intermediate in the range (0.12–0.79) of previous studies. In case of P. hysterophorus, the value for Sørensen’s QS was 0.00 indicating no species similarity.
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Community Structure of Benthic Algae in a Lotic Ecosystem, Karbala Province-Iraq

Hassan, F. M.|Salman, J. M.|	Al-Nasrawi, S.

Community Structure of Benthic Algae in a Lotic Ecosystem, Karbala Province-Iraq Hassan, F. M.|Salman, J. M.| Al-Nasrawi, S.

fixation for chlorophyll-a determination. A total of 180 samples collected from five study sites for benthic algae quantitative and qualitative studies. The counting of algae was done according to Eaton and Moss [33] and identified through several references [34, 35, 36, 37]. Chlorophyll –a concentration was estimated according to Eaton and Moss [33]. The diversity of benthic algae in the study sites was quantified using the Shannon – Weaver index [38], Richness index [39] and the presence of algal species at the study sites was measured according to the method of Chandler [40]. Canonical Correspondence correlation (CCA) [41] was used to illustrate the relationship between benthic algae and environmental variables.
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Species Composition of Intertidal Marine Macroalgae inSan Francisco-Canaoay, San Fernando, La Union, Philippines

Species Composition of Intertidal Marine Macroalgae inSan Francisco-Canaoay, San Fernando, La Union, Philippines

There were more red algaes (Rhodophyta) in the open area due to the nature of these plant-like protists to thrive in running water with many nutrients. Red algae contain pigments that allow themto cope with low light intensities and are often found growing under larger seaweeds. number of brown algaes (phaeophyta) are not affected the conditions of the water because of their toughness compared to the aforementioned nature of red algaes It is recommended that further studies along the site of San Francisco-Canaoay and its neighboring coastlines be made. The use of dry and wet sampling methods for a 12 period must be utilized for better biodiversity record. It is recommended too that the residents and the tourists in the area be educated on how to protect the habita
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A STUDY ON EPIPHYTIC LICHENS FROM PRUNUS PERSICA

A STUDY ON EPIPHYTIC LICHENS FROM PRUNUS PERSICA

like units, foliose lichens - leaf like which are not tightly bound, and fruticose lichens - which are free-standing branching tubes. The lichen species identified in the present study are epiphytic lichens which represent all the lichen categories. Ramalina conduplicans (Fig. 1a), Ramalina subpusilla (Fig. 1b), Ramalina sinensis (Fig. 1k), Usnea cineraria (Fig. 1h), and Usnea sp., (Fig. 1i) are fruticose type of lichens. Parmotrema reticulatum (Fig. 1c), Parmotrema cristiferum (Fig. 1d), and Canoparmelia texana (Fig. 1o) belong to foliose type of lichens. Lecanora caesiorubella (Fig. 1e), Lecanora cenisia (Fig. 1f), and Lecanora helva (Fig. 1n) represent crustose forms of lichens, while Chrysothrix chlorina (Fig. 1l), Hafellia curatellae (Fig. 1j), and Phaeographis intricans (Fig. 1m) belong to the squamulose type. It was observed that foliose and fruticose lichens were abundantly present all over the tree trunk and branches of P. persica while there were only few squamulose lichens. All the respective voucher specimens that were identified have been deposited with its respective accession numbers in LWG virtual herbarium, Lucknow (Table 2).
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