exemplifies the general difficulty in neatly pigeonholing Esther. David Shneer writes of ‘fluid and ever-changing identities’ in connection with Esther’s names (Yiddish and the Creation of Soviet Jewish Culture, 1918-1930, Cambridge UP, 2004, 229n11). The various names under which Esther’s signed publications appeared are identified in the bibliography where known. They include ‘M. L.’, ‘M. Alef-R.’, ‘Alef-R.’, ‘D. Katsenelenboygen’, ‘D. K.’, ‘Esther’ (in traditional Hebrew spelling), ‘Ester’ (in phonetic Soviet Yiddish spelling), ‘-ST-’, ‘M. Frumkina’, ‘M. Frumkin (Ester)’ and, ultimately, simply ‘Frumkina’. Sometimes two of these forms appear on the one publication. The description of Minsk here is from Elissa Bemporad, ‘Issues of Gender, Sovietization and Modernization in the Jewish Metropolis of Minsk,’ Modernity and the Cities of the Jews, edited by Cristiana Facchini, Quest. Issues in Contemporary Jewish History. Journal of Fondazione CDEC, n. 2, Oct. 2011. Other scholarship about Jewish Minsk by Elissa Bemporad includes Becoming Soviet Jews: The Bolshevik Experiment in Minsk, Indiana UP, 2013, and her biography of Esther is forthcoming. On Jewish Belorussia, see also the work of Leonid Smilovitsky. On dating style, see Methodology below. Esther’s birth details derive from her official birth record, which gives her name as Malka in Russian script and Malkah [Ysh. Malke] in Hebrew script.
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By examining the protagonist characterizations of the Esther story, this study attempts to piece together a picture of the narrator's understanding of the issues of identity and identification for diasporic Jews. An examination, albeit brief, of social-scientific criticism helps this discussion by identifying some concerns and issues of addressing ancient texts from modern perspectives. Next, through a study of literary issues like date, setting, and genre, the literary aspects and par- ticularities of the Esther story become more accessible to the reader. The literary tool of charac- terizations (in this study of the Esther and Mordecai characters only) then is the means through which this study draws social-scientific conclusions. Even the narrator's humor reflects a particu- lar approach to understanding life in diaspora. Thus, the story seems to have a message of more than comfort; it is also a reminder that diaspora (at least the diaspora of the Second Temple peri- od) is not a defeating experience to those in the midst of it. 127
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It was a global warming kind of 90° late-September afternoon on the campus of Boston University. With the Red Sox in first place, nobody in the crowd of fans swarming toward Fenway Park seemed to notice a collection of blurry images somewhat randomly decorating the concrete seats and walls of Metcalf Plaza in front of the science building. The one exception was a diehard Yankees fan and evolutionist there to meet Esther Solondz, the artist responsible for some 80 portraits of his friends, colleagues, rivals, successors, and intellectual forebears (Fig. 1). Niles Eldredge was looking for his main man, Charles Darwin, but nearly a year after the project’s start, the information, or message — drawings of photos on cloth — was succumbing to the medium—iron filings overlain with pillars of salt that burned a rust image onto the concrete. The rains of spring and summer had intervened. Some of the cloth froze solid and slowed the process. Somebody had stolen one of the Richard Dawkins portraits before it got to rust. The image of Daniel Dennett had severely deteriorated. What remained now, a spectral collection of faded, weathered faces seemed distorted, almost melted by time and the physics of change. (Images and the artist ’ s blog may be viewed at http://www. BU.edu/Darwin.)
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Moreover, they emphasized that “Whether he knew it or not, Dickens in his creation of Esther holds up for inspection one of the nineteenth century paradoxes about women’s identity’ (Timko and Guiliano 1996, p. 79) and the ending of the novel suggests Dickens’s concept that a woman’s true happiness lies on domestic achievement. He indicates that Esther finally feels happy when she has a handsome husband and lovely children with whom she can imagine a prosperous future. The dots/dash at the end of Esther’s speech: “My guardian has the brightest and most benevolent face that ever was seen; and that they can very well do without much beauty in me — even supposing — …” (Dickens 2008, p. 914) suggests continuation and it can be marked as her continuation of contentment. It seems that: “The middle-class ideology of the proper sphere of womanhood, which developed in post-industrial England and America, prescribed a woman who would be a Perfect Lady, an Angel in the House, contentedly submissive to men, but strong in her inner purity and religiosity, queen in her own realm of the Home” (Showalter 1989, p. 13).
Beginning with the royal edict published in 3:13 and shown to Esther in 4:8, she rehearses events for Ahasuerus, as though prodding his memory and diplomatically leading him to make the connection between his consort and the people he so blithely consigned to destruction (7:4; compare 3:9, 13; 4:7). Choosing her words deliberately, Esther mirrors Haman’s language, using the same image of ‘weighing up’ (compare 3:8) in seeking to assure the king that she has his best interests in view by revealing her ethnicity. So portraying herself and her people as Ahasuerus’ loyal servants, Esther implies that the enemy of the Jews is also the enemy of the throne. Haman thus immediately becomes the common other, over against whom the king and his queen now align and identify themselves, once again in the act of drinking. It is significant that as her discourse gathers momentum it becomes reminiscent of earlier rhetoric of othering in the narrative, both with respect to Vashti (1:16-17) and the Jews.
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Abstract: The conception of the agricultural politicy of the Czech Republic is in accordance with the European model of agriculture, and one of this politicy pillars has been concentrated on the development of the multifunctional agriculture. In this contribution, several ﬁndings from the solution of the research project QF 4142 have been summarised in a synthetic form. It introduced ﬁnancing and support programme of the rape methyl-esther (RME) and mixed fuel production. In the article, the availability and economic potential of the renewable energy sources till the year 2010 are shown primarily. The RME and the bio-diesel form an important part of the biomass in the Czech Republic. We describe in brief the RME cha- racteristics in the year 1997–2004 in the following ﬁelds: production and support of the RME and mixed fuel. We have the capacity of the RME production 150 000 t in the Czech Republic with the average costs 20 CZK/l RME.
answer, because it seems that in order to execute justice, the executioner becomes what the executed symbolised. The article deals with the question of whether Esther acts with justice in her request for retribution. The answer is sought within the concept of traditional wisdom in ancient Israel. James Alfred Loader sees the book of Esther as rich in wisdom themes, to the extent that he would concede to the possibility mooted by Shemaryahu Talmon, that the story of Esther is a historicised wisdom tale (Loader 1992:223). Loader’s main argument apart from the plethora of wisdom motifs in the book is the role reversal and the correspondence with the Joseph story, a point raised by Gerhard von Rad (1953). The correspondence between the Joseph story and the story of Esther is, according to Loader (1992:224), quite significant, in that it is ‘fest in das Muster der Umkehrung integriert, das sie mit der Weisheitsliteratur teilen. Damit finden die weisheitlichen Elemente beider Erzählungen so wie ihre Parallelen eine Erklärung.’
This oratorio tells the story of Queen Esther as presented in the Old Testament Book of Esther. Its format includes choruses and solos with an orchestral accompaniment. The main characters in the story are Esther, King Xerxes, Esther’s uncle Mordecai and their antagonist Haman, with occasional insertions by a narrator. In addition to the primary scripture used, there are several inclusions from the Psalms, Song of Songs, and a commentary poem by Wayne Watson highlighting the oratorio’s sub-title, “For Such a Time as This,” which is the overriding textural theme.
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After Catherine returned to Indiana from Esther’s funeral, she had a dream. It was at the farmhouse, which stood on top of a small rise in an otherwise horizontal landscape. Catherine was trying to climb a spiral staircase that had somehow sprouted from the lawn between the house and shed. In spite of her effort she kept crawling headfirst through the space between the stairs. She turned around at the sound of screen door springs stretching open. Esther stood on the cracked concrete stoop. She said, “Leave your glasses and the mirror behind.”
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While these disparate sources enabled the biographical chapters to include some detailed scenes of Esther’s life, other literary journalistic techniques, such as the use of dialogue, detailed character portraits and immersion, proved impossible. Esther illustrates the difficulty of producing a ‘literary history’ as Sims defines it. For example, his essay on ‘The Personal and the Historical: Literary Journalism and Literary History’, examines the methodology of Michael Norman, author of These Good Men: Friendships Forged from War. Norman explains his research in writing a contemporary military history: ‘I’m looking for . . . moments that I can pull out of history and recreate on the page in such a way that what’s going on become an actual simulacrum of experience itself. The reader must enter the text to finish the text’ (Sims, 2012: 213). Presuming that Norman is substituting ‘history’ for ‘sources’, he reiterates the problem that many historical writers face: that documents (or oral histories) are not necessarily reliable; they are contradictory, they are strange and they often pose more questions than they answer. In the case of deeply historical figures like Esther and others for whom sources are sparse, the writer must rely more on their imagination to read the palimpsest. The more an author relies on his or her
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VOCs). In areas with low walkability, people often have high levels of driving and of vehi- cle emissions per person (Frank et al. 2000, 2006; Frumkin et al. 2004), but if activities and emissions are dispersed, then concentra- tions of vehicle emissions may be low (Marshall et al. 2005). Conversely, walkable neighbor- hoods may exhibit reduced per-capita vehicle use and emissions (Frank and Engelke 2005; Frank et al. 2000, 2006) yet elevated traffic congestion, emissions, and concentrations if activities are highly concentrated. Ideally, one would understand all important impacts before recommending a policy action such as alter- native growth patterns or transportation invest- ments. Our research highlights that high NO exposures may occur where physical activity is encouraged through active transportation and in low-income areas. More work is needed to understand how to avoid that outcome, espe- cially for susceptible subpopulations such as youth and the elderly. Policy options include siting residential buildings (especially schools, Figure 3. Percentage of postal codes in each walkability and pollution tertile. For example, low walkabil-
surface decreases. The comparison between eq 19 and some famous isotherms such as Langmuir, Langmuir-Freundlich, Toth and Frumkin isotherm equations was provided. The results of fitting are presented in Tables 2, 3 and 4. As seen, eq 19 is more useful isotherm to predict the amount of
The adsorption provides the interaction with the surface of metal alloy and also gave data for the reaction among the adsorbed molecules on the surface of alloy . To know the adsorption mechanism of heterogeneous reactions adsorption isotherms were applied . Several trials were made to ﬁt experimental data to different isotherms contain Temkin, Langmuir, Frumkin, and Freundlich isotherms, it was obtain from data that the best isotherm for the research CyD on the surface of Al-Si is the Temkin  as follow:
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The 9th International Frumkin Symposium was held at the Conference Hall of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, Russia, between 24th–29th October 2010. The event was organised jointly by the A. N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Elec- trochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPCE RAS) and the Chemical Department of Lomono- sov Moscow State University. The Symposium was sponsored by the Russian Academy of Sciences and the International Society of Electrochemistry. The fi rst symposium of this series, held in 1979, was dedicated to the memory of Russian electrochemist Alexander Frumkin (1895–1976). Since then, the Sym- posia have been held every 3–5 years to discuss cur- rent understanding of fundamental electrochemistry and its applications.
Sieverts and Lueg  established that the curves relating the corrosion rate of steel in acids and the concentration of organic inhibitors have the form of adsorption isotherms, suggesting an adsorption mechanism. Many adsorption isotherms for interpreting various research findings [23,24] exist; some of them are not amendable for use for adsorption of corrosion inhibitors. The models proposed by Langmuir, Temkin, Flory-Huggins, Frumkin, Freundlich and the so-called thermodynamic/kinetic (El-Awady et al.) isotherms are often applied to corrosion inhibitors. In this work, various isotherms were tested and the Frumkin mode should be the best (Figure 5), where Θ is the ratio 𝜂%/100 (Table 2). Frumkin adsorption isotherm is obtained according to the following equation:
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