Ethanol-induced gastric ulcers

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Prophylactic effects of <em>Clausena excavata</em> Burum. f. leaf extract in ethanol-induced gastric ulcers

Prophylactic effects of <em>Clausena excavata</em> Burum. f. leaf extract in ethanol-induced gastric ulcers

After 1 hour, the rats were anesthetized through intra- muscular route with a combination of ketamine (50 mg/kg) and xylazine (5 mg/kg). The abdomen was opened by making a small midline incision below the xiphoid process. The pyloric portion of the stomach was slightly lifted and ligated, avoiding traction to the pylorus or damage to blood vessels. The stomach was then carefully put back into the abdominal cavity and the abdominal wall was sutured. After 4 hours, all rats were euthanized under CO 2 , their stomachs immediately removed, and the volume and pH of gastric content determined. Total acidity of the gastric content was determined by titrating with 0.01 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution using phenolphthalein as an indicator, and calculated using the formula: total acidity (mEq/L) = volume of NaOH solution × 0.01 × 36.45 × 1,000. 13,14
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Antiulcer And Antioxidant Potential Of Zizyphus jujuba Mill Root Extract In Aspirin And Ethanol Induced Gastric Ulcers.

Antiulcer And Antioxidant Potential Of Zizyphus jujuba Mill Root Extract In Aspirin And Ethanol Induced Gastric Ulcers.

contraceptive, antifungal, hypoglycemic and wound healing Ulcer is the asymptomatic gastrointestinal disorder defined as a breach in mucosa of alimentary tract, which extends through the muscularies mucosa into the submucosa or deeper and occurs due to imbalance between aggressive factors like acid, pepsin, [13] and defensive factors like prostaglandins, gastric mucus, bicarbonate secretion, innate resistance of mucosal 15]. The wide incidence and prevalence of ulcer is also attributed due to several other factors such as stress, regular or steroidal anti inflammatory drugs and reactive oxygen species and bacterial infections [16].
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ANTIULCER POTENTIAL OF FICUS DALHOUSIAE STEM BARK METHANOLIC EXTRACT IN ALBINO RATSSyed Safiullah Ghori* ,Mohd Firdousuddin Amer &Shazia SiddiqaDOWNLOAD/VIEW/http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.163851

ANTIULCER POTENTIAL OF FICUS DALHOUSIAE STEM BARK METHANOLIC EXTRACT IN ALBINO RATSSyed Safiullah Ghori* ,Mohd Firdousuddin Amer &Shazia SiddiqaDOWNLOAD/VIEW/http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.163851

The present results demonstrate that the formulation of Ficusdalhousiae protects the rat gastric mucosa against hemorrhagic lesions produced by aspirin and ethanol. These inducing methods of gastric lesions are rapid and convenient way of screening plant extracts for antiulcer potency and cytoprotection in macroscopically and microscopically visible lesions 9 . Aspirin induced and ethanol induced gastric ulcers has been widely used for the experimental evaluation of antiulcer activity. Aspirin induced and ethanol induced gastric lesion formation may be due to stasis in gastric blood flow, which contributes to the development of the hemorrhagic and necrotic aspect of tissue injury 10 . It is of interest to note that administration of antioxidants inhibit aspirin
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BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ANTI ULCEROGENIC POTENTIAL OF CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM L  SEEDS

BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ANTI ULCEROGENIC POTENTIAL OF CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM L SEEDS

Cardiospermum halicacabum L. var. microcarpum (Kunth) Blume and var. luridum (Blume) Adelb. (Sapindaceae) are used for various ailments in Indian traditional medicines. The present study evaluated the antiulcerogenic property of seed oils (Petroleum ether extracts) in animal model. Ethanol induced gastric ulcers was used for this study and analysed for gastric volume, ulcer score pH, free and total acidity and sodium and potassium ions. Bio-chemical estimations like total proteins, total hexoses, hexosamine, fucose, sialic acid and protein were also made. Ulcer score was calculated for the same model. Oils were found to be more effective and exhibit concentration dependent anti-ulcer property.
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Antiulcer and hepatoprotective effects of Semicarpus anacardium Linn seed extract Md. Liyakat Ahmed, Ashwini Jadhav, Paramjyothi Swamy*, Syed Sanaullah and N. Santosh Kumar

Antiulcer and hepatoprotective effects of Semicarpus anacardium Linn seed extract Md. Liyakat Ahmed, Ashwini Jadhav, Paramjyothi Swamy*, Syed Sanaullah and N. Santosh Kumar

The antiulcer effect of Semicarpus anacardium Linn. seed extracts was investigated against aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced and ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. Both the models revealed ulcer healing property of the seed extracts. The present investigation also revealed the hepatoprotective activity of the seed extracts, against ethanol induced hepatotoxicity. Histopathological studies of the liver showed significant restoration of the normal histomorphological pattern of hepatocytes. The biochemical estimation of serum bilirubin, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase ( SGPT ), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase ( SGOT ) and alkaline phosphatase ( ALP ) showed significant reduction in the rats fed with the seed extracts. The study, thus, substantiates the potential anticulcer and hepatoprotective effects of Semicarpus anacardium seeds.
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Evaluation of antiulcer activity in the methanol extract of acanthus ilicifolius leaves in experimental rats

Evaluation of antiulcer activity in the methanol extract of acanthus ilicifolius leaves in experimental rats

The anti-ulcer activity of Methanolic extracts of Acanthus ilicifolius Leaves (MEAI) was investigated in pylorus ligation and ethanol induced ulcer models in wistar albino rats. In both models, the common parameter determined was the ulcer index. MEAI at doses of 100, 200mg per kg body weight produced significant inhibition of the gastric lesions induced by pylorus ligation and ethanol induced gastric ulcers. The extract showed the significant reduction in the gastric volume, free acidity and ulcer index as compare to control. This present study indicates that Acanthus ilicifolius have potential anti ulcer activity in the both models. These results may further suggest that the Leaf Methanolic extracts were found to possess anti ulcerogenic as well as ulcer healing properties, which might be due to anti secretary activity.
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EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF SEED OF MUCUNA PRURIENS ON GASTRIC ULCERS

EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF SEED OF MUCUNA PRURIENS ON GASTRIC ULCERS

Pylorus ligation induced ulcer was used to study the effect of extracts on gastric acid secretion and mucus secretion. The ligation of the pyloric end of the stomach causes accumulation of gastric acid in the stomach. This increase in the gastric acid secretion causes ulcers in the stomach. The original Shay rat model involves fasting of rats for 72 hours followed by ligation of pyloric end of the stomach. The ulcer index is determined 19 hours after pylorus ligation. The lesions produced by this method are located in the rumen region of the stomach. [44] In this model, the ulcers developed as lesion in the glandular portion of the stomach. The agents that decrease gastric acid secretion and increase mucus secretion are effective in protecting the ulcers induced by this method. The ethanolic seed extract of Mucuna pruriens and ranitidine significantly decreased the total acidity and free acidity. The ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens increased the mucus content but the increase in mucus content was not significant when compared with that of control.
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Effects of pithecellobium jiringa ethanol extract against ethanol induced gastric mucosal injuries in Sprague Dawley rats

Effects of pithecellobium jiringa ethanol extract against ethanol induced gastric mucosal injuries in Sprague Dawley rats

Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including gastric ulcer disease, with antioxidants reported to play a significant role in the protection of the gastric mucosa against various necrotic agents [20]. Antioxidants could help protect the cells from damage caused by oxidative stress and enhance the body’s defense systems against degenerative diseases. The administration of antioxidants inhibits ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats [21]. P. jiringa extract has been shown to contain antioxidants [5], and it is likely that the gastroprotective effect exerted by this plant extract could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. Our results revealed the protection of the gastric mucosa and inhibition of leukocyte infiltration to the gastric wall in rats pretreated with P. jiringa extract. The activation and infiltration of neutrophils appear to be involved in the initial processes that form the lesions. Similarly, Abdulla et al. [22] demonstrated that the reduction of neutrophil infiltration into ulcerated gastric tissues promoted the prevention of gastric ulcers in rats. Wasman et al. [23] showed that the oral administration of plant extract before ethanol administration significantly decreased neutrophil infiltration into the gastric mucosa. Neutrophils mediate lipid peroxidation through the production of superoxide anions [24]. Neutrophils are a major source of inflammatory mediators and can release potent reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants. These reactive oxygen species are highly cytotoxic and can induce tissue damage [25]. We observed a flattening of the mucosal folds, which suggests that the gastroprotective effect of the P. jiringa leaf extract might be due to a decrease in gastric motility. It has been reported that changes in gastric motility may play a role in the development and prevention of experimental gastric lesions [22]. The relaxation of the circular muscles may protect the gastric mucosa through the flattening of the folds. This flattening will increase the mucosal area exposed to necrotizing agents and reduce the volume of the gastric irritants on the rugal crest [22,23].
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EVALUATION OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF HYDROALCOHOLIC FRUIT PULP EXTRACT OF CUCUMIS SATIVUS

EVALUATION OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF HYDROALCOHOLIC FRUIT PULP EXTRACT OF CUCUMIS SATIVUS

Ethanol has been shown to increase the risk of ulcer in humans but produces potent ulceration in rats 23 . Oral administration of ethanol interrupts the mucosal defense system, thereby aggravating mucosal damage that might bring about necrosis as well as apoptosis of gastric mucosal cells 24 and significant production of oxygen free radicals leading to increased lipid peroxidation, which causes damage to cell and cell membrane 25 . Ethanol induces ulcers by the reduction of gastric mucosal blood flow and mucus production in the gastric lumen, a decrease in endogenous glutathione and prostaglandins levels and increase of ischemia, gastric vascular permeability, generation of free radicals, and production of leukotrienes. It has been found that oxygen-derived free radicals are implicated in the mechanism of acute and chronic ulceration and scavenging these free radicals can play an appreciable role in healing these ulcers. Ethanol induced generation of free radicals elevate the lipid peroxide level and reduces the cysteine, which is required for glutathione synthesis, thereby depleting glutathione levels. Reduced glutathione is found in high concentration in gastric mucosa of rats and humans. Glutathione is important for the maintenance of mucosal integrity and depletion of glutathione from the gastric mucosa induces macroscopic mucosal ulceration.
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Anti Ulcer Activity of Leaves of Gmelina Arborea Plant in Experimentally Induced Ulcer in Wistar Rats

Anti Ulcer Activity of Leaves of Gmelina Arborea Plant in Experimentally Induced Ulcer in Wistar Rats

The gastric ulcers were induced in rats of either sex weighing between 150-250 g by administrating absolute ethanol (8 ml/kg). They were kept in specially constructed cages to prevent coprophagia during and after the experiment. The rats were divided in to four groups each containing six animals and fasted for 24h and allowed free access to water. The first group received control vehicle only and the second group 286 mg/kg body weight, third group 667 mg/kg body weight received hydro alcoholic extract of Gmelina arborea and fourth group received Standard OMZ in the dose of 20 mg/kg were administered orally daily to different groups for five days. On the sixth day of experiment the drugs were administered orally 30 min prior to the oral administration of absolute ethanol. The animals were anaesthetized 6 h latter with ether and stomach was incised along the greater curvature and ulceration was scored 10-12 .
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Lagerstroemia speciosa L  tannins reduces the gastric mucosal damage caused
by ethanol and cold restraint stress

Lagerstroemia speciosa L tannins reduces the gastric mucosal damage caused by ethanol and cold restraint stress

The reported medicinal attributes and antioxidant property of the plant triggered us to assess the protective effect of this against ulcer. In this study, the anti ulcerogenic effect of tannins was investigated in rats using ethanol and stress induced ulcer models. In addition, the effect of tannins on oxidant and antioxidant parameters in rat stomach tissue was evaluated. Ulcers are thought to be due to the imbalances in gastric offensive and defensive mucosal factors. To regain the balance, different therapeutic agents are used to inhibit the gastric acid secretion or to boost the mucosal defense mechanisms by increasing mucus production or stabilizing the surface epithelial cells [27].The ethanol model has been used widely to produce gastric mucosal damage and produces necrotic lesions in the gastric mucosa by its direct toxic effect, reducing the secretion of bicarbonates and production of mucus [28]. It is well established that gastric acid secretion and the products of the 5-lipoxygenase pathways play a key role in the development of ulcers, induced by irritant agents such as ethanol; [29] and many anti-ulcerogenic drugs act by reducing the acid secretion.
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63. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. on Indomethacin, Pylorus ligation and Helicobacter pylori induced gastric ulcer in rats

63. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. on Indomethacin, Pylorus ligation and Helicobacter pylori induced gastric ulcer in rats

by measur ing the ulcer index, ga str ic glutathione level, a lka line phosphata se activity a nd histopathological examination. Ethanol extract of C. halicacabum in a concentration dependent manner (200-600 mg/kg) inhibited gastric ulcers induced by oral administration of indomethacin (48 mg/kg). The active extract administration reduced the ulcer index and alkaline phosphatase activity showing the protective role of C. halicacabum against indomethacin induced gastric ulceration in rats. Similarly, C. halicacabum ethanol extract reduced gastric acid secretion in pylorus ligated rats. However, the extract did not show much healing of gastric ulcer, induced by H. pylori. Omeprazole and triple therapy drugs were used as standards for indomethacin and H. pylori induced gastric ulcers, respectively. When comparing the effectiveness of C.halicacbum against the three modes of ulcer induction, the alcohol extract of C. halicacabum showed better antiulcer activity against ulcers induced by indomethacin and pylorus ligation dose dependently. However, the same extract failed to show any anti H. pylori activity when monitored both in vitro and in vivo.
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EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT FROM MORUS ALBA LEAVES SUPPLEMENTATION ON GASTRIC TISSUE GLUTATHIONE LEVEL IN INDOMETHACIN INDUCED ULCERS IN RATS

EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT FROM MORUS ALBA LEAVES SUPPLEMENTATION ON GASTRIC TISSUE GLUTATHIONE LEVEL IN INDOMETHACIN INDUCED ULCERS IN RATS

Protection offered by the EMA against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration may be linked to their advantageous medicinal attributes occasioned by secondary metabolites. These include ability to scavenge free radicals and regulate mucosal membrane permeability thereby countering the effect of indomethacin on gastric acid secretion. This is in agreement with the scientific community, where gastroprotective potentials of plant extracts against indomethacin- ulcerated rats were associated with their secondary metabolite 40, 41 .
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Evaluation of Shivaksharpachan Churna for its Gastroprotective Activity

Evaluation of Shivaksharpachan Churna for its Gastroprotective Activity

Shivaksharpachan Churna is a popular marketed herbal formulation, composed of herbs and spices, used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders by traditional healers. But there is no scientific evidence for its gastroprotective activity. So we have taken attempt to evaluate Shivaksharpachan Churna for its gastroprotective activity along with effect on the anti oxidant enzymes to justify its anti-ulcer action. Ethanolic extract of Shivaksharpachan Churna (ASE) (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) were administered orally, twice daily for 5 days for prevention from pylorus ligation (PL) and ethanol (EtOH)-induced ulcers followed by estimation of anti-oxidant enzymes i.e. LPO, SOD and catalase. ASE showed dose dependent inhibition of ulcer index in both models. ASE prevents the oxidative damage of gastric mucosa by blocking lipid peroxidation and significant increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. Results shows that ASE possesses significant gastroprotective activity which might be due to gastric defense factors and phenolics might be the main constituents responsible for this activity.
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Anti-ulcer potential of saponin fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus on a various experimental animal models

Anti-ulcer potential of saponin fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus on a various experimental animal models

Background: Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn is a perennial herb, belongs to the family Trichopodaceae, is wild plant, a rare genus, small glabrous herb growing in the Agasthyar hilly forest of Kerala. The Kani tribes of this area call this plant as “Arogyapacha” or “Arokyapachilai” in Malayalam. Objective: The present study was investigated for anti-ulcer potential of Saponin fraction of the whole plant of T. zeylanicus on various experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity study of saponin fraction of T. zeylanicus (SFTZ) was carried out on female albino rat up to 2000 mg/kg as per OECD guideline No.423. The experimental animal models, i.e., ethanol induced ulcer, restrained stress induced and pyloric ligation (PL) induced ulcers model were tested for anti-ulcer activity SFTZ at three various doses of (75,150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.,) for 5 days to Wistar Albino rat. Esomeprazole (10 mg/kg, p.o.,) was used as a reference standard for the present study. Results: Treatment of SFTZ (75,150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.,) showed a significant dose-dependent effect in lowering ulcer index with significantly increased in percentage protection against ethanol, restrained stress and PL induced ulcer model in rats. Biochemical parameter like gastric volume, pH, free acidity, total acidity total proteins, total hexoses, hexosamine, fucose, sialic acid, and pepsin were determined in PL induce ulcer models. The result showed significantly increased in level of defensive mucin secretion in terms of total carbohydrates: Protein ratio after SFTZ treated rats in PL induce ulcer models. Conclusion: The action potential of SFTZ is positively found to be more active in alleviating the ulcer by chemical and physical induced models.
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ANTI ULCEROGENIC EFFECTS OF ARECA CATECHU L  IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

ANTI ULCEROGENIC EFFECTS OF ARECA CATECHU L IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

Induction of Ulcers and their Scoring (Ulcer Index): Adult male wistar Rats weighing 120 g were used for the experiment. They were grouped into four groups of five animals each. All the animals were fasted for 18 hrs and deprived of water for 12 hrs, prior to the experiments. Gastric ulceration was induced by intragastric administration of absolute alcohol 6 . Briefly, absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg) was administered intra gastrically to group II. Group III and IV were pretreated orally with freshly prepared Areca nut extract 30 min before with two different doses,
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Evaluation of acute toxicity and gastroprotective activity of curcuma purpurascens BI  rhizome against ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats

Evaluation of acute toxicity and gastroprotective activity of curcuma purpurascens BI rhizome against ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats

Ulcer is a lesion or open sore which generally pertains to the mucous membrane or skin of the body. In the digestive system, peptic ulcer in the lining of the duode- num or stomach is an irritating disease which has afflicted a noticeable proportion of the world population [1]. The disruption in the protective effect of the stom- ach mucosa against gastric acid is a common cause of peptic ulcer [2]. Studies have shown that the etiology of this disorder is related to cigarette smoking, stress, infec- tions, nutritional deficiencies and alcohol consumption [3]. Helicobacter pylori infection in particular, contrib- utes to the occurrence of 90% of duodenal ulcers and 80% of gastric ulcers [4]. In addition, the administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs remains as one of the drug-related causes of peptic ulcer disease [5]. In recent years, exposure of human to a variety of noxious chemicals and agents has significantly elevated the risk of gastric attacks [6]. Numerous anti-ulcer agents, which are presently being used in the market, exhibit limited efficacy and considerable severe side effects on the human body [7]. Therefore, screening for new agents capable of treating peptic ulcers needs to continue in order to find compounds with reduced side effects while maintaining high-therapeutic efficacy.
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 ANTI-ULCER AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF THE LEAF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CORCHORUS OLITORIUS (TILIACEAE) IN RATS

 ANTI-ULCER AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF THE LEAF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CORCHORUS OLITORIUS (TILIACEAE) IN RATS

The present study was carried out to find the possible antiulcer mechanism of action of C. olitorius. Several models of gastric ulcers were induced in rats to evaluate the prophylactic (HCl/ethanol, indomethacin/HCl-ethanol, indomethacin and pylorus ligature) and the healing (Acetic acid and ethanol/aspirin) potential of the leaf queous extract of Corchorus olitorius (ECO). The gastric ulcerations, mucus production, pH, volume and acidity of the gastric juice were measured. Some parameters of oxidative stress (SOD and MDA) were measured in stomach simples obtained from the animals in the indomethacin model. Oral administration of ECO (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) dose-dependently prevented ulcer formation by HCl/ethanol (4.65%, 39.70% and 46.17% of inhibition), indomethacin/HCl-ethanol (7.97, 34.95 and 45.85%), indomethacin (24.94, 48.83 and 58.44%) and pylorus ligature (36.93, 54.95 and 77.47%). The inhibitory effect of the extract against HCl/ethanol induced ulcer was not suppressed by the pre-treatment with indomethacin (20 mg/kg, i.p.). ECO reduced Shay- ligated gastric acid secretion from 81.20 mEq/l in the controls to 56.57, 53.96 and 49.421 mEq/l for the extract doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The ulcer-healing test showed a dose-dependent reduction of ulceration induced by acetic acid and ethanol/aspirin. The highest dose of extract (400 mg/kg) showed a highly significant (p<0.001) reduction of ulcer with corresponding healing rate of 94.08 and 33.75, respectively, for acetic acid and ethanol/aspirin induced ulcers. The prophylactic and healing actions of ECO were associated with significant increases in gastric mucus production. The levels of SOD were improved in rats treated with the extract. The antiulcer activity of ECO in rats was attributed to its ability to reduce acid secretion, to enhance mucosal defense and in vivo antioxidant status.
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EVALUATION OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF AERIAL PART OF ARGEMONE MEXICANA LINN

EVALUATION OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF AERIAL PART OF ARGEMONE MEXICANA LINN

On the contrary in India, herbal drugs are an integral part of the Indian system of medicine (Ayurveda) which is an ancient and main stream system. The antiulcer activity of aerial part of Argemone mexicana was investigated on ethanol induced model and indomethacin induced model albino wistar rats. In both models the ulcer index was common and it is determined. Ethanolic extract of dose 300 mg/kg and 600mg/kg p.o. produced significant inhibition of gastric lesions induced by ethanol induced and indomethacin induced ulcers. The extract 300mg/kg and 600mg/kg showed significant reduction in gastric acidity and ulcer index as compared to control. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of glycosides, tannins, alkaloids,
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ATI-ULCER EFFECT OF ARGYREIA SPECIOSA ETHAOLIC ROOT 
EXTRACT I RATS

ATI-ULCER EFFECT OF ARGYREIA SPECIOSA ETHAOLIC ROOT EXTRACT I RATS

The anti-ulcer activity of EREAS against ethanol-, aspirin- and indomethacin-induced ulcers was established in this study. Results of acute toxicity showed that the plant is safe as exemplified by its use as food in domestic and wild animals. Ethanol induced gastric ulcer was employed to study the cytoprotective effect of the extracts. Ethanol induced gastric lesion formation may be due to stasis in gastric blood flow which contributes to the development of the haemorrhage and necrotic aspects of tissue injury. Alcohol rapidly penetrates the gastric mucosa apparently causing cell and plasma membrane damage leading to increased intra cellular membrane permeability to sodium and water. The massive intracellular accumulation of calcium represents a major step in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal injury. This leads to cell death and exfoliation in the surface epithelium [19] The extract protected the stomach against ethanol’s necrotic damage and its effect was more pronounced than sucralfate, a cytoprotective agent. may be due to both reductions in gastric acid secretion and gastric cytoprotection earlier study has suggested the plant’s ability to protect against HCl/Ethanol challenge by prostaglandin-like cytoprotection. Treatment of rats with However, an antisecretory effect might be indicated as the extract protected the stomach mucosa from NSAIDS (aspirin and indomethacin) induce gastric damage through mechanisms which include suppression of prostaglandin generation, overproduction of leukotrienes, acting as a topical irritant and by reducing the local blood-flow [2] .
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