a. At present most students do not have the opportunity at school or college to engage with the social and ethical aspects of developments in biomedical research at any depth post-16. An ability to understand and critically engage with biomedical topics is vital to young people today in terms of the skills they will need to deal with dilemmas both at a public and individual level. With the new AS/A2 model, a course such as Science for Public Understanding could be taken by most post-16 students. Scientific issues could then be explored at a greater depth than they are in the very broad General Studies syllabus, emphases being given to risk assessment and rights and responsibilities. Similar courses of science for all are run in high school education and highereducation in Thailand, Israel and Holland. 5 The Wellcome Trust could explore with highereducation institutions, professional subject bodies and teachers how this could best be achieved.
be transitioned to highereducation (Paul, 2005). Highereducation institutions often demonstrate a longer path of decline then corporations, but can fail nonetheless (Paul, 2005). Atkinson (2002) provided examples of colleges in the United Kingdom that necessitated operational, though not ethical, turnarounds because of various failures in operations, financial management, or both. Atkinson (2002) detailed six distinct colleges in case studies, applying a strategy of “recognising the crisis; stabilising the crisis by taking control of all expenditures; analysing what has gone wrong; making management changes; managing stakeholders; identifying strategic options; planning recovery; and delivering recovery” (p. 25). These institutions of highereducation were suffering from financial crisis and experienced an additional financial shock, but were not suffering as a result of ethicalissues (Atkinson, 2002). Atkinson (2002) also differentiated between “recovery” and “turnaround” in that recovery was simply a single stage of an entity-wide turnaround that is comprehensive and involves the entity as a whole that addresses both strategic and operational issues. Atkinson (2002) derived this application from Slatter and Lovett’s (1999) corporate turnaround strategies. Slatter and Lovett (1999) emphasized that an organization needed to first stabilize from the crisis, demanding proper cash management, improved financial controls, and reducing costs. As the crisis continued, Slatter and Lovett (1999) encouraged a change of leadership and increased
Universities and institutions are composite and independent organizations, each one with a diverse history and background. Ethical matters and concerns will not be the similar in all organizations and each institution will require undertaking ethicalissues in a way that makes logic for its own. Education does not conclude with knowledge over few languages or issues. It also means to impart the desired knowledge and skills and intelligence, refining the soul and self-realization. We, as Indians do have a loaded and huge volumes of religious inheritance but it is a subject of regret that we are not behaving ethically on our enriched customs and heritage.
To gain more insight into understanding the components of an ethical risk assessment consideration should be given to the underlying theories of ethics. Although scholars in the field of business ethics previously made use of many different approaches and methods to understand ethical conduct in the workplace, two distinct multidimensional constructs, namely ethical climate and ethical culture, have been singled out as the most prevalent constructs to assess and evaluate ethics (McCabe, Trevino and Butterfield 2001). Ethical climate is described as the shared overall feelings and perceptions of employees of what is considered right and wrong in the workplace. These feelings and perceptions are informed by the way the organisation and or its subsystems deal with ethicalissues (Cullen, Victor and Stephens 1987; Hellriegel and Slocum 1974). Ethical cultures, on the other hand, are those elements that stimulate ethical conduct and attempt to gain insight into the values, believes and assumptions held by employees (Kaptein 2008). Ethical culture can therefore exert powerful influence on employee behaviour and can also help employees to distinguish what behaviour is acceptable (right) or unacceptable (wrong) in an organisation (Martin and Siehl 1983). Ethical culture is also instrumental in nature and is driven by cultural systems that include codes of ethics, leadership, structures, rewards systems and training programmes (McCabe et al 2001).
Abstract: Social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter are examples of information communication technologies (ICTs) that have been widely adopted by students, and could potentially be useful as a resource for teaching and learning in further and higher educational institutions. Facebook tops the charts in social networking space, but when it comes to social messaging on mobiles WhatsApp walks away as the winner (Spohr, 2013). Facebook have recently purchased the popular social mobile app (Tech2, 2013). However, the use of social media has brought about numerous logistical issues and ethicalissues relating to interactions with students. For example, the use of some tools in educational institutions is rather informal raising problems of accessibility and inclusion. Based on this phenomenon, we will conduct research to explore the usage of social networking sites and mobile social apps within further and highereducation. We will use the survey method to ask students and staff their views on the use of this technology for learning and communication purposes. In this way we hope to compare the views of students in highereducation on courses in Music Business and Psychology. While self-report methods are inherently subjective, we believe it is important to explore how both staff and students both use and view different features of these technological tools. Using focus groups, we hope to identify the main themes concerning the use of educational technology for staff and student groups. A larger sample will be obtained using a questionnaire to garner opinions on the main concerns raised. Analysing this data may help in providing recommendations for educational institutions, keeping in mind the important logistical and ethicalissues some are unaware of.
Administration shares a large measure of responsibility for failing to fund transdisciplinary programs at the same level as autonomous established programs at the university. More importantly, few administrations have encouraged the integration of sustainability across the curriculum. Although unintended, this represents a wholesale failure of vision and leadership at a time when it is most needed. Most administrators are not familiar with the issues addressed by these programs, and thus they are unlikely to see them as mission critical. This incomprehension undermines administrators’ ability to effectively manage an institution in an era when external forces can rapidly and dramatically affect costs and revenues. Typically, an administration will respond to fiscal challenges by cutting expenses. Sadly, it the marginally budgeted
What is needed is a more nuanced, context-sensitive alternative to quality assurance. In order to counter social inequalities, highereducation needs broader conceptualizations of quality (Abbas & McLean, 2007). One way to reconstitute quality assurance is to transfer some of the weight placed on comparative reporting of standard key performance indicators to other types of institutional intelligence that illustrate how universities address social inequities and address these issues through their research, teaching, and administrative activities. According to Rintoul and MacLellan (2016) “universities can help improve the societies within which they are located; therefore, supporting ethical leadership leading to good governance practices that can be pursued on an on-going basis” (p. 52). That is, universities have a duty to improve their local environments. If social goals are explicitly articulated in the quality assurance discourses, then institutions would need to channel their efforts on offsetting adverse effects of inequities that continue to persist in our society. Educational leaders should develop quality assurance processes that incorporate collective ways of defining quality and collaborative methods for achieving social goals.
Power. The ethical dilemmas behind collaboration bring about the issue of power. Power is linked to pre-established roles, positions, and relationships, for example, a school principal researching his/her school including teachers. There are other instances of unequal distribution of power such as that between a teacher as an insider and a researcher as an outsider in a school-university project and their different roles and academic backgrounds, or a researcher with an insider’s perspective. In these relationships there may be cases of privileged knowledge, sensitive information, and ongoing personal relationships that are in tension with professional relationships. Mockler (2014) remarks that teacher researchers should have the desire to identify and understand the power dynamics at work within the classroom. We may agree that knowledge is power and knowing about something which others do not may confer a researcher or a teacher with special access to the social fabric of their embedded practices. Power is thus linked to maintaining confidentiality.
The introduction of new information technology has a ripple effect, raising new ethical, social, and political issues that must be dealt with on the individual, social, and political levels. These issues have five moral dimensions: information rights and
traditionally under-represented groups indicate the need to pursue better focused access strategies including those for the strengthening and further development of pathways in upper secondary education (OECD, 1997c, 1998a). Further strengthening of vocational education and training can enhance equity for under- represented groups, by opening up more access routes (Lamb et al, 1998). Alternatives to over-reliance on traditional exams might include greater use of school principals’ recommendations (Moses, 1999), and the provision of flexible enrichment programmes aimed to increase interest in study and raise the competence levels of under-represented groups (the origin of the US Magnet Schools aimed at blacks to build up cultural capital, but now popular with middle class whites). Although manipulating entry criteria for under-represented groups is widely practised (quotas, bonus points etc), some commentators object to the quality and efficiency trade-off that is involved, and prefer to see resources devoted to improving competence (Barker, 1999). This criticism raises the more general issue of affirmative action and the importance in policy making of insisting that public institutions in a democracy play a role in advancing diversity and striving for fairness in the face of disadvantage (Tierney, 1997). Innovations in recruitment are a feature of American highereducation. They include for example delegating to certain alumni the right to make pre-offers on behalf of the university in certain regions or districts and dyadic offers, that is to both mothers and daughters as a way of increasing their chances of success (Pascoe, 1999).
Before independence the education system that prevailed in India was very much conservative. Affinity towards bookish knowledge, impractical thinking and monotonous approach dominated the entire process. During post-independence period while Dr Radhakrishnan gave emphasis to highereducation, qualitative improvement of research and quality of teachers, Dr L S Mudaliar (1952-53) considered education at Madhyamik level to be more important. Dr D S Kothari (1964-66) was the first educationist who desired to improve quality of education from pre-primary to research stage and told about the necessity of manpower planning. New education policy of 1986 was drafted with a very broad outlook especially keeping in view the educational requirements of 21 st century and highlighted equality in education, qualitative changes at all levels, women empowerment, vocationalisation of education, technological application, establishment of schools, and colleges of excellence. Unfortunately recommendations of different commissions and provisions created in education policy could not be implemented due to lack of infrastructure and the stake holder initiative despite of inadequate funding. As a result, we cross the threshold to the 21 st century with about 52% literates and leaving behind the unfinished agenda for universalization of primary education and demands for qualitative improvement of secondary and highereducation. National system of education tried to render its service for socio-economic upliftment in the country however there is lacuna behind this launch. Prior to this the introduction of Right to Education likely to bring forth fragile quality of elementary and secondary education that possibly weakens later stage of education. One after another Indian system of education begets unpromising policy on the verge of mercy anthem rather than to be hard-hitting curriculum.
All of the steps discussed here can ensure that when managers make business decisions, they are fully cognizant of the ethical implications and do not violate basic ethical precepts. But we must remembers that not all ethical dilemmas have a clean and obvious solution; that is why they are dilemmas. At the end of the day, there are clearly things that managers should not do and things they should do; but there are also actions that present true dilemmas. In these cases a premium is placed on the ability of managers to make sense out of complex messy situations and make balanced decisions that are as just as possible.
Education in ancient India was highly advanced as evident from the centres of learning that existed in the Buddhist monasteries of the 7th century BC up to the 3rd century AD Nalanda (Perkin, 2006). In these centres, gathering of scholars-- Gurukula-- used to be engaged in intellectual debates-- parish ads-- in residential campuses. A few of these centres were large and had several faculties. Historians speculate that these centres had a remarkable resemblance to the European medieval universities that came up much later. The ancient education system in India slowly got extinguished following invasions and disorder in the country. Till the eighteenth century, India had three distinct traditions of advanced scholarship in the Hindu Gurukulas, the Buddhist Viharas, and the Quranic madaras as, before the British set up a network of schools to impart western education in English medium (Perkin, 2006) The first such college to impart western education was founded in1818 at Serampore near Calcutta. Over the next forty years, many such colleges were established in different parts of the country at Agra, Bombay, Madras, Nagpur, Patna, Calcutta, and Nagapattinam. In 1857, three federal examining universities on the pattern of London University were set up at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.
This study is a qualitative case study. Qualitative studies are concerned with fieldwork in which the researcher meets people in the site to make observation and records behaviors in the actual setting (Ragin 1997;Yin2014). Because human behavior is influenced by the actual sitting, the researcher must conduct the study in real situations to make observations especially in education (Lincoln and Guba1985; Gulsecen and Kubal 2006). The procedures of a qualitative research is inductive that enables the researcher to make concepts, abstractions and hypotheses from the gained details. Thus, the primary instrument is the researcher to make the data collection and finalizing the analysis; all these steps are done by the researcher without using questionnaires or machines. In this study, the data was collected from multiple sources: interviews, direct observations and documentation. To understand the teachers' understanding of democracy and its role in education, several interviews was conducted. For comprehending the impact of the teachers' conceptions on their teaching practices, field observations and field notes were used in this study.
Due to growing educational technology, a variety of research in EFL highlight the need to shift from traditional teacher-centered learning towards student-centered learning (Hmaid, 2014; Nakatani, 2005; Gulnaz, Alfaqih, & Mashhour, 2015; Başal, 2012; Zare, 2012). In a traditional one-size-fits-all model of education, students play passive roles, having no control over their own learning, just receivers of teachers’ knowledge, and teachers make all the decisions concerning the course, teaching methods, and the different forms of evaluation (Ahmed, 2013). In a traditional learning environment, students are assigned to a grade level and attend class, where they meet their teachers face to face at the same time and get the same learning materials limited to what their teacher has arranged in advance, without regard to individual learner’s learning requirements and demands (Kinshuk, Chang, Graf, & Yang, 2009). In contrast, in student-centered learning, students are actively involved in learning process, have greater input into what, how and when to learn it, and take responsibility for their own learning (Ahmed, 2013). Brown (2008) also states that student-centered learning approach refers to an active learning process where students are involved in what to learn, and designing, teaching, and evaluation are based on the learners’ needs and abilities. Students engaging actively in the learning process, according to Park (2003), tend to understand more, learn more, remember more, enjoy it more and be more able to appreciate the relevance of what they have learned, than passive students. The teacher acts as a facilitator, guide, co-learner, and co-investigator, and the learner plays the role of an explorer, teacher, and producer (Ahmed, 2013; Jones, Valdez, Nowakowski, & Rasmussen, 1994). Froyd and Simpson (2008) refer to two reasons why
The group acts as a link between the Environmen- tal Project Manager and the library, disseminat- ing information about university and external initiatives. One way this is achieved is through the ‘Monthly Planet’ e-mail which has been devel- oped as a result of feedback from members of staff who have been on environmental awareness workshops. The environmental project manager e-mails four or five quick points to those who are interested, on issues relating to social and envi- ronmental factors, locally, regionally and globally, to increase general awareness. The staff newsletter is also used as a way of maintaining environmen- tal awareness.
marketers seek to limit out understanding of their true intentions and some activity lack transparency. Potential moral issues emerging from neuroscience applications include awareness, consent and understanding of individuals consumers to what may be viewed as invasion of their privacy rights” (Gang et al., 2012, p.287). It introduced questions such as who controls and owns brain scans, who has access to the data and what measures will be taken to ensure that the information is used and interpreted confidentially (Wilson et al., 2008). The ethical challenges and considerations posed by neuromarketing are largely the same for any traditional marketing research study (Egrie & Bietsch, 2014). Concerns addressing privacy, autonomy, protection of test subjects, validity and reliability of the findings have been problems faced in research studies by marketers for a long time (Smith & Murphy, 2012). For instance the importance to provide a good random sample of the population and ensure that study
By bringing attention to this schism, questions are raised once again as to who the book is for, and should be read by. At the beginning of this review I suggested that the book would be of interest to anyone concerned with the present state and future of HE, however this would suggest that ‘students’ would benefit from reading this book as much as anyone who deals with them during their time at university. The reasons why I would suggest that students would benefit from reading this book, and/or engaging with the questions it raises regarding the purpose of university, is on account of them experiencing their own frustrations due to their position as consumers. Indeed, while ‘students-as- consumers’ can be placed as the central perpetrators of consumerism, they are not the villains of this narrative anymore than victims themselves. It is therefore through Williams’ articulation of this schism that the book reveals, and in part falls into, the category of one of the many ironies that the marketised approach to education encourages: as Frank Furedi (2009: 2) has suggested ‘one of the distinct and significant dimensions of academic and intellectual activity is that it does not often give customers what they want’ .
Female leaders seem to prefer a transformational leadership style . Another research carried out by Rosener  revealed that women are more likely than men to use “transformational leadership”, i.e. motivating others by transforming their individual self-interest into the goals of the group. The characteristics of transformational leadership relate to female values developed through socialisation processes that include building relationships, communication, consensus building, power as influence, and working together for a common purpose. This is supported by Shane et al , stating that femininity is found to positively correlate with transformational leadership. Further several studies focusing on transformational leadership indicated that women are perceived, and perceive themselves, as using transformational leadership styles more than men . Bass  and Bass and Stogdill  also suggest that women are slightly more likely to be described as charismatic, as women scored higher on transformation factor than men. This is further supported by Comer et al  where they noted that female business managers tend to be rated higher than male managers on the ‘individual consideration’ dimension of transformational leadership styles. Yammarino et al.  also noted that female leaders rather than male leaders tend to develop the individualised, unique relationships with subordinates necessary to effect the transformational leadership style. In describing nearly every aspect of management, women made reference to trying to make people feel part of the organisation from setting performance goals to determining strategy . Men, on the other hand, were found to be more likely than women to: adopt “transactional” leadership styles (exchanging rewards or punishment for performance); use power that comes from their organisational position and formal authority . Likewise, many authors refer to transformational leadership as a feminine leadership style. However, research by Hackman et al.  show that transformational leadership is a stereotypically gender-balanced style.
a significant role. To achieve sustained productivity growth by consistently increasing the value-added of output, a highly-educated labour force was necessary. Education gives rise to a person’s initial tacit knowledge, which is an essential building block in technological learning. A continued expansion of R&D capabilities in industry drew on the skilled labour force that had resulted from the government’s expansion of the highereducation system. A second important factor has been the outward- looking, export-driven development strategy of the government, which drove domestic industries out to the international market, putting them under fierce competition. In order to survive the competition, they have had to keep up with technological changes by investing heavily in R&D. Thirdly, the government’s industrial policy that favoured large firms gave birth to a unique business organization in Korea, “chaebol”, which are typically global multinationals owning numerous international enterprises. Chaebols enjoy greater financial affluence owing to the economies of both scale and scope of their business operations. They have deeper pockets and are able to engage in risky and expensive R&D projects that are even unthinkable for small- and medium-sized firms (Ibid).