Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a term widely used amongst scholars and managers and commonly refers to the responsibilities of a firm to society in four domains: economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary (Halpern & Snider, 2012). McWilliams and Siegel (2000) argue that the concept is ambiguous by nature, and that consequently there is no universally accepted definition. Even though there is a lack of consensus on the exact definition, most available definitions in the literature agree that CSR involves “doing good” for the society at large, employees and the environment (McWilliams & Siegel, 2000). Companies that are committed to CSR often implement the concept of “triple bottom line” accounting. This approach adds two more "bottom lines” to the traditional profit measure, being social and environmental concerns (Bader, 2008). Several institutions, such as Reputation Institute, the FTSE Group and Dow Jones rate companies based on their efforts to promote positive social and environmental change that go beyond what is required by law (Reputation Institute, 2014). Some industries are often absent from such rankings and CSR research on ideological grounds due to the very nature of the industries (Halpern & Snider, 2012). Typical industries include sin industries such as tobacco, alcohol and weapon manufacturers. Even though they do not break any laws, societal norms have a negative impact on the market’s ethicalperception of companies involved in such industries. Whether CSR is seen as a short-term cost or a long-term investment depends on the company’s stance towards shareholder and stakeholder theory.
From the results of statistical tests t obtained t count value of 2.540 with a significant level of 0.002. This means t count> t table (2,540> 1,985) and significant level <0,05 (0,002 <0,05). This means that Gender influences significantly on the ethicalperception of accounting students at Mercubuana University, West Jakarta, especially Accounting Department S1 and D3. This study is in line with the study of Elok (2013). The results of the analysis in this study indicate that idealism, gender, and level of knowledge about the profession of public accountant and accounting scandal affect the perception of accounting students about ethical scandal auditor and corporate manager. Meanwhile, the variable relativism affect the perception of accounting students about ethical scandal auditors and corporate managers and. Noviani (2014) based on research that has been done, This study tested six hypotheses with the conclusion of two accepted hypothesis and four hypotheses rejected. The results showed that the students of gender influence on the ethicalperception of accounting students but not in love of money. . Based on this, the hypothesis can be accepted as follows:
The study was conducted to ascertain the knowledge and ethicalperception regarding Organ Donation amongst medical students in Karachi. After approval from the ethical review committee, a cross sectional sur- vey was conducted at Ziauddin University, during 2010- 2011. With an average of ninety students in each year of study, the total medical student population at Ziauddin University is around 450 students. The class strength of first year was 105 and of fourth year were 90 students. Using convenient sampling, a total of 158 medical stu- dents, filled out the questionnaire, 83 students from first year and 75 students from fourth year. Participation in the study was voluntary. Inclusion criteria for the study population were students enrolled in first year and fourth year while the exclusion criteria was those who were not present and did not give consent. Pakistan has a five year MBBS program consisting of first two pre- clinical years and subsequent three clinical years. There is no formal course dedicated to the teaching of Organ Transplantation at the institution.
In the fourth hypothesis testing, the results obtained indicate that religiosity variable relationship with the ethics of tax evasion shows the path coefficient value of 0.463 with a value of 5,673 t. The value is greater than t table (1.960). These results suggest that religiosity has a significant influence on ethics and tax evasion, which means according to the fourth hypothesis where religiosity affect the ethics of tax evasion. Path coefficient value worth 0.463 which showed a positive, meaning that the higher the religiosity that is owned by a student, it will increase the ethicalperception of tax evasion. This means that the fourth hypothesis is accepted. The results support the research conducted by Peterson et al., (2010) showed that there is a significant positive relationship between religiosity and ethics. Such conditions occur because every religion has always taught a man to do good and have high moral values and teach someone to be able to prevent bad things to do. Religion is believed to be able to control one's behavior. The higher the person's
Every school-going Malaysian child from diverse background has been exposed to the concept of ethical conduct, universal values and acceptable behaviors. This is because some form of moral education is introduced to Malaysian students from primary up to secondary school level. Students are being taught about universal values and acceptable behaviors. The critical problem in creating ethical organizations appears to be one of recruiting and retaining ethical personnel who will reinforce and instill ethical values in other organization’s member. The best and most readily available source for such personnel is higher education institutions that have strong ethical cultures and skilled graduates. But students on today’s campuses encounter a variety of complex situations for which they are often ill prepared by experience or individual development.
Big box retailers also welcome us to a single point of consumption for all needs, which obscures the total surface of food production—its total effects. If ever a time comes when food does not arrive on our supermarket shelves, if the distance between us and our food sources is felt, the magnitude of poverty can be revealed along with it. 50 But those objects that lie closest to us and even share immediate moments with our body, as food objects do, have lost their ethical immediacy. Virilio, quoting Paul Valery, hints that this loss of ethics has occurred because of a loss of bodily self: “The individual of the scientific age is losing his capacity to experience himself as a centre of energy” ( 2008b:109). In effect, we all sit at the site of an impending crisis, one of capital’s contradictions: the effacement of matter and the very ground that reproduces labour power and the complete neglect of the body by capital, when it yet requires the body in order to extract surplus labour time, that is, surplus value.
Not only the interests of individuals, groups, and enterprises but also corporate social responsibilities, corporate procedures and standards as well as the environmental factors such as legal regulations have a role in the formation of the ethical climate (Büte, 2011:173). Among the factors that affect the innovative work behaviors of employees are leader-member relationship, characteristics of the job and the person as well as the organizational culture and climate (Cingöz & Akdoğan, 2011:848). The fact that innovative work behaviors exhibit a dynamic structure shows that they are more easily affected by organizational climate (Khan, Aslam & Riaz, 2012). Moreover, the type of leadership plays a crucial role in the perception, formation and sustainment of the ethicalperception of an employee (Öğüt & Kaplan, 2011:192). This role of leadership in the creation of the ethical climate has been proved with findings (e.g.. Mulki et al., 2009). The hypothesis below has been put forward in the light of these explanations:
Abstract. In this paper we propose some models for the evaluation of the performance of mutual funds within a DEA approach that are able to tackle the problem of the presence of negative average rates of returns. The three models presented adjust some models previously proposed in the literature and regard a model that can be used for investments in mutual funds which have profitability as main objective and two models that are specifically formulated for ethical mutual funds. These two latter models include also the ethical objective among the outputs and differ in the way the ethical goal is pursued by investors.
The Ethical Code enunciated in the previous section shall be applied to clinical practice and all areas of professional activity conducted by doctors. The following section provides interpretation and guidance on how the Code shall be applied to various areas of professional activity. Obviously it is impossible to be exhaustive, but doctors shall conscientiously study the guidelines, endeavour to follow them and extend their application to areas that may not be addressed specifically. Breaches of these guidelines could lead to doctors being asked to defend their actions and ultimately to face disciplinary proceedings for professional misconduct.
Keywords Ethical certifications · Ethical eWoM · Millennial employment · Job-pursuit intentions
Companies aim at recruiting the most promising talents through measures such as financial incentives, career devel- opment programmes or flexible working hours. Another talent-attracting factor is company ethicality, i.e. the extent to which job seekers perceive a company acts responsibly towards the environment and society (Lin et al. 2012; Vla- chos et al. 2013; Wang 2013). Almost half of UK’s work- force prefers to work for ethical companies (Jenkin 2015). Company ethicality is most important for millennials (Solo- mon 2016) and highly educated candidates (Tsai et al. 2014; Wang 2013). Extant research indicates that company ethi- cality results from cues or market signals that job seekers mentally process (e.g. Tsai et al. 2014; Zerbini 2017). Such market signals vary in how successful they are in making ethical criteria decision-relevant (Osburg et al. 2017). How- ever, how and why different types of ethical market signals affect job seekers’ job-pursuit intentions is poorly under- stood. Zerbini (2017, p. 13) recently emphasised that stud- ies considering multiple ethical market signals are “lacking in business ethics research” and calls for more research to unveil signalling outcomes in labour markets, considering other outcomes than employer attractiveness.
Abstract. In recent years in education in health professions in Slovakia big changes have taken place. New insights regarding approximation to the European education system and contextual understanding of health professionals and patients encourage need of change in approaches. The transition from deep-rooted paternalism to individual responsibility of the patients created a gap which was needed to fulfil in education. In our research we analyzed using ANOVA statistics with p < 0.01 a non- standardized questionnaire looking what impact had study of ethical issues on their approach to marginalization, labelling, empathy and holistic approach. Significant difference between both groups of students (125 students at the beginning of the study and 119 students at the end of the study) has been shown related to the study of professional ethics on one side and approach to marginalization, labelling, empathy and holistic approach at other side.
Thus, CSR originally imposes managerial and ethical issues with respect to gaining consensus from other shareholders in implementing CSR programs, because some shareholders worry about the possibility that CSR might soak up the required resources for running the business (Beauchamp et al., 2004). However, in this regard, many studies have attested that CSR is an essential component in operating businesses (Jahdi & Acikdilli, 2009; Neville, Bell, & Mengüç, 2005; Sprinkle & Maines, 2010). Corporations engage in socially responsible endeavors in an attempt to achieve better financial performance, employee commitment, and corporate reputation (Rettab, Brik, & Mellahi, 2009). A number of studies have shown that CSR activities often lead to greater organizational performance in terms of both image and earnings (Graafland &
After having discussed the differences in returns between the two fund types we proceed by analyzing the risk characteristics and we adjust the realized returns for risk. CAPM is the model that is used most frequently in capturing the relationship between risk and expected return. The model predicts the funds expected return as a function of its beta, which measures the marginal contribution of an asset to the portfolio risk. That is determined by the sensitivity of the asset excess return on market excess return. The theory states that the risk for SRI funds should be higher due to the diversification limitations (Boutin-Dufresne & Savaria, 2004). Our results presented in Table 6 are consistent with this expectation. Ethical funds have marginally higher betas for all of the sample years and the difference is statistically significant in years 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005, which indicate that ethical funds are more risky than their traditional counterparts. These results are not in line with earlier findings of Mallin et al (1995) who found that SRI funds were less risky than traditional funds. This result is not likely to be driven by different age of the funds. The average ethical fund was 15,87 years old while the average age for a typical non-ethical fund was 16,24 years. The differences in age are not significant on a five percent level. The Swedish Six Portfolio Return Index is used to calculate the beta values for the funds. This index is used since many of the fund managers invest in large Swedish companies and thereby is this index appropriate to use.
Whistleblowing is an action that is no longer effective for some groups. At the end of 2012, the biggest financial scandal that occurred at one of the companies in Japan, Olympus, was revealed thanks to the services of a whistleblower named Michael Woodford. Woodford was the former CEO of the company, he was fired on October 14, 2012 for asking about the existence of suspicious transactions in the camera company to BOD and BOC. Woodford learned that there were suspicious transactions worth US $ 1.3 billion or Rp.11 trillion and demanded that Olympus explain them in detail. The position of CEO held by Woodford was not a trivial position at all. This position promises a wealth that is not small for Woodford. However, in reality he was willing to sacrifice all his achievements at the company in order to reveal the violations that occurred, which he himself knew would destroy the company where he had been pursuing a career so far. This case is interesting considering there are still many people who tend to want to protect their interests when faced with ethical dilemmas. But this is different from Woodford, he was willing to sacrifice all his efforts to pursue a career at Olympus in order to reveal the truth. There are many factors underlying the choice of one's actions when experiencing ethical dilemmas. These factors can also be different from one individual to another. Factors that influence one's ethical actions include ethical orientation and ethical sensitivity of each individual. An individual's ethical orientation is divided into two, namely the orientation of idealistic ethics and orientation of relativist ethics. When he saw Woodford's attitude which had taken the step to do a whistleblowing outside the company, Woodford might have an idealistic ethical orientation that was higher than his relativist orientation. This made Woodford decide to do a whistleblowing and was ready to accept the consequences. In addition, Woodford may also have a high ethical sensitivity to find out about irregularities in his
Dilemmas, however, implicate that conflict resolution through ethical judgment is extremely difficult. The four central orientations of ethical leadership can assist leaders in attaining ethically justifiable judgments. Leaders can apply the central orientations in terms of two dimensions: a horizontal collective dimension and a vertical time dimension in attempting to filter out the important facets of a moral dilemma and to methodically determine the consequences of all possible solutions (Eisenbeiss, 2012). The horizontal collective dimension refers to the identification and inclusion of all the relevant stakeholder groups involved in the particular dilemma and/or likely to be affected by the decision – e.g. followers, work team, organisation, customers, suppliers, political and non-governmental interest groups, environment, regional and even international community (Eisenbeiss, 2012; Maak & Pless, 2006). Leaders can use the central orientations to analyse the alternative solutions and their consequences, not only with reference to its stakeholders, but to also consider the interests and needs of more distal and vulnerable stakeholders such as social groups, the community, and the environment (Eisenbeiss, 2012). The vertical time dimension concerns the long-term focus of decision making and involves anticipating and taking future developments into consideration. Consequently, leaders can use the four central orientations to determine the consequences of a possible course of action, immediately and in the future. For moral and practical reasons, organisations are interested in decreasing unethical behaviour and relationship conflict. Ethical leaders hence play a pivotal role in reducing such negative outcomes. Leaders set the ethical tone of an organisation and are instrumental in encouraging ethical behaviour and reducing interpersonal conflict among their subordinates. More importantly, however, leaders not only have to be moral individuals, but they also have to go one step further and actively model ethical behaviours. Companies that can hire and/or train ethical leaders will be more likely to create ethical and interpersonal harmonious work environments (Mayer et al., 2012).
On the other hand, the questioning of the meaning of work within the human-earth relationship quickly leads us to a confrontation with the problem of limits, which is typical of the dimension of care and responsibility. In other words, we have to face the ethical dimension with regard to all that is alive, and first of all the animals, which have always been the mainstay of non-industrial agricultural systems. The number of animals which we can raise on the land that we own or use is limited, if we want them to graze freely. If we want to preserve their uniqueness, we need to raise different breeds in dry or wet climates. We need to preserve and respect the earth’s vital cycles and biological balance if we want to maintain its ability to generate and regenerate harvests and crops every single year. We cannot till too harshly if we want to use humus instead of chemical fertilizers. We should not drill the earth too deeply if we do not want to exhaust the water tables. We cannot send too many cattle to the wells, because if we do so the vegetation will not grow and the farmers will suffer the consequences. The herd will be led by the bigger animals, and then the smaller ones will follow, eating the shorter grasses left behind. Most importantly, we have to remember that the earth can contain many human beings and create many working opportunities, if we do not upset it with big mechanical instruments, reducing it to a desolate landscape without trees, bushes or animals.
Of the six hypotheses proposed, four were falsified, one was accepted and one could not to be tested. The first hypothesis, based on the theory of legitimacy assumed the homogenous character of auditor’s ethical awareness and ethical judgment regardless of the size of the audit firm. The assumption was that auditors of small firms imitate the behavior of those in large, well-established firms. This assumption was rejected, as all tests revealed a significant difference in mean scores between the two groups concerning the five ethical dilemmas, and indicated a significant relation between the firm type and each ethical dilemma in the regression analysis.
Gentile interviewed managers in their early career trying to find out what impedes people to stay silent when encountered with an ethical issue. She found there to be four classic rationalizations for doing nothing. The first is the excuse that” it’s standard practice”, everyone in the companies does this on a daily basis. The second is that and individual attempts to find an apology in the phrase “it’s not a big deal”. This is a common argument we can hear among co-workers particularly when they are under time pressure. Third statement is “it’s not my responsibility”. One just might be tempted to speak his mind, but as he does not have the authority (particularly if he is a younger employee) and it is not his responsibility, he remains quiet. The last statement refers to “I want to be loyal”. On many occasions people feel there is a conflict between doing what is right and being loyal to the leader and co-workers, which can be an ethical dilemma as well (Gentile, 2010). Badaracco and Webb performed a series of in-depth interviews of recent Harvard MBA graduates to find out how young managers perceive, define and resolve ethical issues. Analysis revealed that managers received explicit instructions from above to do things that they felt were unethical. They even felt strong organizational pressure. Next, they felt that codes of conducts, ethics programmes provided little help and even believed that the respective company was out-of-touch on ethical issues (either due to busyness or deliberate avoidance of responsibility). Therefore, young managers used personal values and reflection to resolve the ethical dilemmas and did not rely on corporate credo (J. L. Badaracco & Webb, 1995).