The fourth element, ‘ occupational well-being’ , is a more general issue than just a question food business. However, there are some features to food production such as working in cold temperatures that are not common to all other lines of business. Employment laws are general in the meaning that they ap- ply to all employees equally. There are precise regulations for example on occupational safety, equality of workers, and holidays. These issues are controlled by authorities through check-ups on location. How- ever, the laws do not and cannot guarantee that employees like their work or feel appreciated. This leaves plenty of room for business ethics. If raw materials are imported from third-world countries, Finnish or European employment law does not apply where raw material is produced. If local legislation is non- existent, the lack of business law leaves the whole stage for business ethics.
Comprehension and knowledge are conditioned in an intricate manner by the circumstances in which what we refer to as facts are faced up to, and also by the cerebral processes that are referred to as interpretations. In any case, ‘facts’ and moral actions are not always what they seem to be and are in any event interpreted differently by different people in diverse contexts and situations. Some interpretations offered by people are better than those offered by others. What makes some interpretations superior is less distortion. One should evaluate an interpretation and further develop it so as to improve it. To simply accept an interpretation is not acceptable and to “blindly indulgence of an affect, totally regardless of whether it be a generous and compassionate or a hostile affect, is the cause of the greatest evils" (Nietzsche, 1966). For managers, egoism is highly creative and implies prioritizing the self- interest but this is altruistic and diverts one’s thinking if not carefully controlled. In Thus Spoke Zarathustra, he says that one should love oneself "so that one can bear to be with oneself and need not roam. Such roaming baptizes itself `love of the neighbor': with this phrase the best lies and hypocrisies have been perpetrated so far" (Nietzsche, 1968). Once managers are unhappy with themselves, they take their ill feeling out on their employees. However those who are content with themselves, and somewhat egotistical, will ultimately benefit others. Essentially then, in a business context, Nietzsche calls on people to better themselves so that they can also serve the interests of others who are weaker. It is also true to an extent that not all creative people act ethically all the time but nonetheless, says Nietzsche, they do have a great role to play in making the world a better place.
Islam is a way of life. Ethics lie at the heart of Islam. The entire Islamic law places a premium on ethical conduct in all the affairs of man in this world. The Shari’ah is inseparable from ethics. Ethics in an Islamic system differ from that of a conventional system as ethical ideals, theories and practices in the former are shaped by reverence to Allah (SWT) while in the latter ethics are based on transitory customs. Islamic ethics are based on the eternal provisions revealed to man from the Holy Quran and the Sunnah teachings of Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him). The concept of Maṣlaḥah, or social welfare or utility (“common good”), is at the heart of the fundamental decrees of Islam. The ideal of Maṣlaḥah touches on all human affairs – including business – and defines the nature of the proper links and relationships between individuals and the society (Montgomery, 2010). Maṣlaḥah is the building block of all the business ethics of Islamic finance.
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Capitalist tradition did not succeed to create as well as the existence of those few capitalist elements that were formed before the war were eliminated during the communist regime and their access was never as happened in another countries. This creates a gap not only institutional but also Albanian society's mindset taken during this time began to create institutions with European standards rapidly aiming .Laws were dropped on paper, but their implementation in practice is difficult. The main objective consists in the fact the implementation of legislation in practice and not in its modernity. The issue of legislation, related to the degree of development of society and respect for the law by its members and on the other side of the level of control in the organization. This poses a problem for foreign firms, which have invested capital to bring to market high quality products, not fake etc. In addition, these companies must show their interest for measures relating to the identification of their products in the market, which offer guarantees. A distinction the company of competitive products, the firm provides a positive image and high performance.
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The officer isn’t quite sure how to reply to this, which is understandable. It is because this case displays a clear separation between the law on one side and an ethical reality on the other. Moreover, the two appear not only separate but also incompatible; it’s difficult to see any way to bring them together. With respect to the law, the case is clear: Lepp was growing massive amounts of marijuana on his farm and growing it for distribution. Federal law explicitly prohibits both the growing and the distributing. It’s unambiguous. It’s also clear that Lepp was doing it since you could see the crop from the public highway passing by his fields. Everyone saw that marijuana was growing, that people were harvesting it, and that they were planting more. As far as the law goes, Lepp really had no leg to stand on. Once the DEA found out about him, they didn’t have any choice but to bring him in. But ethically—and in terms of rights theory—there seems to be equal clarity going in the other direction. There were few complaints about Lepp’s activities. No one was hurt, and it was his land. It’s hard to see within a libertarian perspective any way to justify the police harassment, the legal proceedings, or the jail term Lepp ended up getting. This doesn’t mean Lepp was treated unjustly; it only means that whatever justice was served on him, it wasn’t libertarian.
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A very complex and controversial issue is that of ethics. The varying ethical norms and social values many a time make the international business environment very intricate and perplexing. The term business ethics refers to the system of moral principles and rules of conduct applied to business. There is, however, no unanimity of opinion regarding what constitutes business ethics. An international marketer often finds that the norms of ethics vary from country to country. What is ethically wrong or condemned in one nation may not be so in another. Bribery, pay-offs or kickbacks are common in business in many countries. However, the extent and intensity of it vary from country to country. In some countries, it is a common practice with government officials and other employees. The law in respect of such practices also varies among countries. According to the regulation in some countries, while bribing is illegal within the country, bribing by the nation's firms in foreign markets to get or conduct business is not illegal because of the feeling that that is inevitable in some markets.
The economic development does not occur independently from social, cultural and political institutions. The institutes, values, and practices that participate in shaping wealth creation are the social capital of a society. This is the reason why starting with 2005, Caux Round Table makes a top of countries taking into consideration an indicator called Social Capital Achievement (SCA), which measures the social capital of a country. SCA is an aggregate of three community sub-systems: economic activity, social/cultural variables, and legal and political institutions. The economic components for the SCA rankings embrace GDP per capital and sovereign currency ratings. Relevant cultural variables and social richness are modeled by indices of corruption, economic freedom, political freedom and human development. Legal and political institutions can be assessed through measures of the rule of law, 12 core best practice standards for management of financial institutions, and other governance indicators.
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philosophy 5 . Instead, amongst the most popular is Bakan’s book and co-authored popular documentary The Corporation (Dir: Mark Achbar and Jennifer Abbott, 2003). Friedman himself appears in the film alongside luminescent critics such as Howard Zinn, Noam Chomsky and Naomi Klein, and is positioned as the primary advocate of corporate self-interest. One of Bakan’s major criticisms is based on Friedman’s claim that corporations have no specific duties other than to maximise profit and as such must not do anything that undermines such self- interest. They have structured their legal framework so that this is now obliged of them (Bakan, 2004: 37). Corporate institutions, thus, encourage the development of psychopathic personalities. They are the epitome of unvirtuous agencies. In Friedman’s account of corporations, they are structured to enhance economic self-interest, with only government as an external control ( ibid. : 80). However, as Bakan identifies, control by government is insufficient. Corporations are committed to self-interest and are in competition with other self-interested institutions; as a result, corporations have to undertake a cost-benefit analysis as to whether they comply with law. The commitment to legality is hypothetical rather than categorical. If a corporation obeys costly law, when evasion would increase their profitability (taking into account risk of successful prosecution), and a competitor act self-interestedly on the same calculation, then the competitor gains advantage ( ibid. : 79-83). In further competition for resources the law-abiding corporation is at an economic disadvantage: compliance with regulatory standards is just another factor to be considered in cost-benefit analyses.
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Financial communication is gaining in importance. Business leaders have learnt to use the system, and in the financial media we can see a prevalence of show over content. Shareholder value is the ultimate value of the business: harsh decisions are taken with the excuse of shareholder value, hiding behind the anonymity of the individual investor. Another consequence of the dominance of the Anglo-American business model is the ‘juridisation’ of business. Every important deal is signed and laid down in a contract. Here again, a perfidious side effect is that many business people use the letter of the contract rather than the spirit of the contract. Worse, the contract is often invoked over something that is not explicitly stated in the contract, rather than trying to solve the problem. To avoid being sued, managers are very prudent when perpetrating unethical acts: they make sure that nothing is written down and that their responsibility cannot be proved. Paradoxically, the inefficiency of the law, the slow pace of justice, is another reason for the recent increase in unethical practices. Some claims are legally defendable, others are not because they are based on good faith, on promises without written agreement. However, even with the law on your side, it is very difficult, costly and time-consuming to win a court case. Even then, it will not restore the harm done to the company, especially the opportunity costs of a lost contract at a given time. It cannot restore the lasting harm done to people who have lost their jobs because of a missed order.
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Business ethics topic – any subject confronting an organization or its agents that could challenge an agent’s sense of appropriateness, values or principles and could negatively or positively impact an organization’s ability to deliver on its mandate or limit its ability to meet its objectives (PWGSC 2009b). Moral topics of a personal or societal nature or those belonging to applied ethics such as medicine and law do not constitute business ethics topics—e.g., assisted euthanasia, cloning or genetic manipulation.
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The paper focused on analyzing the ethical practices and issues faced in the real estate firms of India. The respondents felt that it was important to institute code of ethics because they provided guidance for business conduct, ensured law compliance and helped towards making a socially responsible company. With regards to procedures used to handle complaints, written reprimands were found to be most effective since they encourage correction of mistakes. Mutual respect can be ensured by behaving courteously with everyone and not discriminating within members of the organization. Responsible citizenship can be ensured by acting with skill and care and despite that, if mistakes occur, then the person should respond in a professional manner. Further, integrity and trust were also found to be very important in business ethics. It was also found that delivering high service quality to customers was desired by the ethical protocols. The real estate industry majorly faced ethical issues in the form of corruption and conflict of interests. Thus, it is recommended that efforts are made to reduce eventually corruption from the system. Lastly, it was found that most desired ethical practices in the real estate industry were honesty, integrity, fairness and accountability.
Having made the case for the possibility of moral agency in organisations based on ‘simple’ structures (either a single formal or informal structure) I argued that in order to understand the moral agency generated in large modern business organisations we need to develop more complex models of organisational structure. I started to develop such a model by asking how business organisations come into existence. When it comes to the creation of corporate agents based on formal structures, I argued that any group creating such an agent intentionally must form themselves into an informally structured corporate agent in order to ensure consistency in the interconnected decisions they make. Thus, any formally structured corporate agent must exist in a close relationship with another informally structured agent, both of which may be considered part of ‘the corporation’. In the final section I went on to argue that this example of an informal collective of ‘owners’ interacting with a formal collective entity is not the only complexity that is likely in large business organisations. Rather, it is just one special example of a more general phenomenon – that groups of individuals who fulfil roles within formal organisation structures can also form informally structured agents alongside the formal one. Sometimes these informal agents exert more influence than the formal structure and can come to dominate the behaviour of the corporation (of which they are part). Such a possibility is one way of understanding the notion of ‘corporate culture’ which is often invoked as a material determinant of corporate actions and outcomes. Therefore, a full picture of the generation of moral responsibility within large business organisations needs to appreciate the existence and interaction of a number of different collective agents within a single
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Ron Arkin has been undertaking research with a view to building machines that could fight wars in accordance with the rules of war (Arkin 2010). The actual conduct of war is governed by moral principles enshrined in international law (the so-called jus in bello of just war theory), notably the principles of (1) military necessity, (2) proportionality and (3) discrimination. Accordingly, Arkin has sought to demonstrate how weaponized autonomous robots could not only fight wars, but in doing so comply with the principles of military necessity, proportionality and discrimination. As will become evident, these principles are quite unlike the precisely defined rules - and precisely defined and limited contexts of application of rules - in games, such as chess and Go, in which, as mentioned above, machines have had notable success in recent times. Thus the rules of chess precisely define what moves the chess pieces, (e.g. pawns, bishops) can and cannot make, and precisely define also the context of application, i.e. the chessboard and the configured chess pieces (e.g. pawns, bishops etc.). They also precisely define what counts as winning, e.g. check-mating the king. For the moment I note that by contrast with the rule of chess, the ius in bello moral principles of war are not well- defined, (e.g. what counts as a disproportionate use of force?) and have to be applied in multiple, diverse and shifting military contexts, (e.g. conventional theatres of war and counter- terrorism operations, war at sea and war in the jungle) that are typically not precisely defined or delimited, (e.g. terrorism in civilian areas of failed states). Moreover, what counts as winning a war – and, therefore, what the definition of military necessity is (see below) - is not precisely defined either, e.g. withdrawal of enemy forces from the defending nation’s territory, devastating the enemy’s cities with atomic bombs etc. Importantly, unlike in the typical case of the application of the law by police officers, these principles apply at the collective level, as opposed to merely at the individual level. So the context of any or, at least, most applications of these principles are multi-levelled and applies to organizations and not merely to individuals. What do I mean by the collective level(s)?
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In the changing world of global competitive environment, the business and its ethics effect the productivity, efficiency and gain. Business values and business senses which governed the business matters in all types of business like manufacturing, services, large, small, extend the values to business. The discretionary power and business sense increase the efficiency in production and the more cost effective product produced. The changing world of Globalisation and Liberalization increases the production through foreign capital and technological advancement for productivity and efficiency. The main concern is to show the effect of ethical values in changing business environment for changes and transformation in the production process and techniques for quality and technological advancement in the product. Ethics does not carry ethical thing only, it makes business sense too with a set of moral standards of people owning and managing business to enlarge the extent of market with loyal and branded product. In this article, the focus is on business ethics and its dilemma for competitiveness which effect the business behavior and social attitudes towards business, expose the rights and duties for upliftment of the standard of living in the society. The dilemma effects the paradox of gain and expenditure for business sense and values too.
In the last few years, interest of businessmen and managers has been grown up in the field of business ethics. This trend is being appreciated in the present era of globalization. That means, people are recognizing the need of using the moral principles of “right” and “wrong” in the business too. The basic purpose of ethics is to define the good values of a man and setting the standard for all. The term business ethics basically contains two terms i.e. Ethics and Business. It simply means use of ethics in the business. That means the use of a person‟s fundamentals towards life in the business.
Examining business morals is critical for some reasons. Late episodes of dishonest activity in business underscore the broad requirement for a superior comprehension of the variables that help to ethical and unethical choices. Examination and Research show that building a moral reputation among workers, clients, and the overall population gives advantages that incorporate expanded effectiveness in every day operations, more noteworthy representative responsibility, expanded investors readiness to depend reserves, enhanced client trust, satisfaction and fulfillment, and better money related performance.
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Firstly, the MOE could consider giving research grants to academics and researchers to develop ethical cases in the context of Malaysia to alleviate the concern on lack of teaching materials in relation to ethics. Moreover, KPM should collaborate with MOE to train all teachers and lecturers at school and tertiary institutions on approaches to teaching ethics, imparting ethical values and becoming role models for students. Furthermore, the perception that accounting lecturers are unwilling to teach ethics should be studied further, as it could be a misconception of students. This is because prior literature suggests that the accounting educators perceive that they are the most appropriate to teach ethics .
Cadbury is one of the world’s largest confectionary manufacturers. Cadbury believes that good ethics and good business go together naturally to produce the best long-term results for all the stakeholders. Cadbury’s vision is to be the biggest and the best confectionery company in the world. Its success is sustained by understanding and responding to the needs of consumers, customers, suppliers, colleagues and citizens. Its values are based upon performance, quality, respect, integrity and responsibility, honesty, openness and courtesy. This means everyone in Cadbury acts in an ethical way to protect and promote the company and its reputation among the people and communities it does business with. Cadbury maintains ethical sourcing standards and develops sustainable agriculture programmes such as the ‘Cadbury Cocoa Partnership’. Cadbury recognizes its environmental responsibilities. It reduces environmental impact, in particular targeting carbon, packaging and water use, within its broad ‘Purple Goes Green’ environmental programme.
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New articulations of ‘value’ have been emerging for a few decades now (Muniesa, 2011; Helgesson and Kjellberg, 2013), creating a plethora of new vocabularies in their wake (Painter-Morland, Pouryousefi, Hibbert and Russon, 2018). The potential of these beliefs and concepts to encourage ethical and sustainable enterprise is still open to debate (Dubuisson-Quellier, 2013). Research is therefore needed to critically interrogate the validity of the new concepts that attempt to articulate changing beliefs about the value of responsible and sustainable business and consumption. The reality is that sedimented practices that result from capitalist growth ambitions, consumption patterns, financial systems and other aspects of the broader political economy still perpetuate unethical and unsustainable practices. We are therefore interested in how certain mind-sets have emerged (Werhane, 2008) and how these are sustained or changed within contemporary environments. The goal of this collection of papers is to go beyond theory in studying the ways in which these mind-sets become embodied practices, shaping our lifestyles as well as our ethical or unethical behaviour through everyday habits, intuitions, and emotions. What emerged from the SI call and the editorial review process is a series of papers that help us to address some, but not all of these questions. In this editorial, we contextualize the papers in terms of some of the broader philosophical debate in the business ethics and sustainability field, i.e. philosophical pragmatism, and highlight the need for future research to explore these questions to better understand how they shape the course of transition.
DOI: 10.4236/blr.2019.105063 1200 Beijing Law Review Excluding instead from the NAP, in whole or in part, the behaviors sub 2b), even if it does not make the resulting system lose its sense, however it allows in- vasions of the sphere of the affected individual, without this being justified by the slightest difference with respect to the situation of the victim of a targeted action.