Abstract This article explores the current issues on the public-private divide in the Ethiopianhighereducation landscape and their policy implications. It critically examines issues related to legal and regulatory frameworks in order to understand the public-private divide in the Ethiopianhighereducation context. The article is based on two premises. The first pertains to the idea that public and private highereducation providers are commonly required to meet the quality and relevance imperatives of their salient stakeholders as stipulated in the highereducation proclamation. The second concerns the argument that an enabling policy and legal framework is crucial for the private highereducation sector to play a key role in addressing the social demand for highereducation, and thereby contribute for the socio-economic development of a country. This article draws mainly on secondary sources of data from official government documents including policies, proclamations, pertinent national and international research reviews, national and organizational level plans and strategies, statistical abstracts and reports as well as key informant interviews to analyze the issue under study. The findings revealed that the private highereducation providers are playing a significant role in addressing the unmet social demand for highereducation through increasing access and thereby creating employment opportunities. However, the existing playground/rule of the game is not fairly treating both public and private providers in terms of student admission, quality regulation and other policy incentives. It is argued that the government should create a fair and robust legal and regulatory framework to maximize the benefits of both public and private providers in terms of improving access, relevance, and quality education. Finally, policy implications for improvement of the current status of private providers are suggested based on the findings.
Academic dishonesty is a fundamental issue for the academic integrity of highereducation institutions. Highereducation institutions are places where citizens are prepared for a diverse need of life and societal issues. Hence, for long time, university students were not only a pride for their family, but for all the vicinity. They were respected and were models for high school students. Moreover, the society expects very high academic integrity. However, against these social values, academic dishonesty has reached alarming proportions in Ethiopianhighereducation institutions. New forms of dishonesty such as cheating, plagiarism and other forms of dishonesty are challenges of the re- quirement of academic honesty and integrity in highereducation institutions today. Students’ access to modern technologies, such as mobile phones, iPods, internets, scientific calculator has broadened the ways by which students can achieve the goal of dishonesty. Therefore, this article will explore the chal- lenges of academic dishonesty in our highereducation and it’s far reaching implications for corruptions. In doing so, the paper will explore the mode of academic dishonesty and suggests systematic and comprehensive efforts to promote integrity and prevent dishonesty, especially compatible with the ad- vancement of technology.
Contemporary developments around the world have brought about increasingly challenging times for highereducation. Highereducation (HE) is becoming challenged by the pressures of massification, increasing forms of accountability and competition, new stakeholder expectations, and rapidly changing environment (Taylor, Hanlon & Yorke, 2013). The emergence of new technologies, internationalization of HE expressed as “the process of integrating an international, intercultural or global dimension into the purpose, functions or delivery of post-secondary education (Knight,, 2003, p. 2), and globalization in general have facilitated this dynamics. The globalization of the world economy also influenced HE globally to engage in in-depth reforms to meet the new economic challenges (Sewonu, 2010). Particularly, the exchange of ideas and knowledge among highereducation institutions (HEIs) and others who have interests in HE has increased; mainly attributed to increase in interaction and need for collaboration. In addition, access to ICT in developing countries has facilitated interaction and use of knowledge developed somewhere. In this regard, it is common to observe these days that countries and universities are benchmarking and exchanging new ideas. This general move towards sharing ideas and getting the best out of the practice on one hand and move towards the convergence on the other hand are getting support from governmental and non-governmental institutions. For instance, the move to support HE reform efforts by mega institutions such as the European Union, World Bank and other similar institutions has facilitated this convergence that in turn led to close link among HEIs in the world. In this regard, it is worth mentioning the EU which is supporting the endeavor of HEIs to establish a European HigherEducation Area as an effort to unify Europe. The EU has been keen to support European HE in facilitating their reform efforts. In addition, the shift of the World Bank in its position to support HE in developing countries, the attempt of the AU to harmonize African HE and OECD's move towards encompassing HE issues into its economic and political objectives could be taken as evidence of such moves.
These highereducation institutions are also occupied with corrupt and immoral leaders. The Behavior of educational leaders in Ethiopian public universities is unethical and cannot meet the standards that are expected from ethical leaders . It is not difficult for university workers to observe that universities are becoming the center of corruption and other various pervasive discriminations, even more than other public institutions and offices. Academic dishonesty which truly leads to corruption and other academic scandals has reached startling degree in Ethiopianhighereducation institutions . This is because there is no strong and binding code of ethics and the practices of ethical culture in these universities. If there is such ethical code, and strong ethics training and disciplinary action as well as its effective practical implementation that can be timely inspected and regulated by government, corruption and other various unethical practices can be significantly reduced. It is very important to learn from universities of developed countries including most of American, European, Australian, Chinese and other developing countries university such as some of South African Universities and so forth. They have strong code of ethics and the practice of work ethics as well as strict disciplinary actions. Their workers evaluation method and ethics training is better. Unlike Ethiopia, the government and university leaders of developed countries are serious about corruption, bad governance, academic dishonesty and other unethical behavior of the workers. These universities are politically neutral and their leaders are elected basing on their merit rather than political loyalty to the government.
From 1974 to 1991, during the Derg era (military junta), nursing education somewhat changed as nursing schools required students to be eighteen years of age and to have completed 12 th grade. The length of nursing programs was two and half years to receive the highest award i.e., diploma in nursing (Abdurahman Ali, 2011; Bethabile Lovely Dolamo and Olubiyi, 2013). In 1991, after the end of the military junta, nursing education in Ethiopia completely transformed. Many private and government universities opened and offered diploma and baccalaureate nursing programs. The admission criteria to enter a Diploma nursing program was based on the score attained in grade 10 on the Ethiopian general Secondary Education Certificate Examination (EGSECE). To qualify for the baccalaureate nursing program, candidate’s 12 th grade EthiopianHigherEducation Entrance Certificate Examination (EHEECE) scores were considered. In 2009, a postgraduate nursing educational program was inaugurated in Addis Ababa University. Later, Mekelle, Gondar, and Jimma Universities also launched Masters in nursing degree programs. Currently, the Masters degree in nursing is the highest educational level a nurse can attain in Ethiopia (Bethabile Lovely Dolamo and Olubiyi, 2013; Tsehaie Yohannes, 2002).
Finally our present pattern of education only does the mantel development. Hence we have no of cases where a acaclomially were good student fails to occurred the actual position in his life and becomes the victims of presentation. Though the no of innovation schemes, plans were introduce for better education but can not prove fruitful. Hence, with the academic improvement the moral and personality development programmes should be included as the part of Evaluation system.
Globalization is the process of global integration of activities related to national markets, economics, technology and related resources for national and international trade with the use of modern information technologies. Countries are becoming interdependent and globe has to monopoly as such. Globalization is now not an optional. The global education market is too big to be ignored for instance the World Trade Organization (WTO) was established. in globalization the education has become a marketable activity. the highereducation is treated as market commodity and it is selling at higher prices. GATS have provided global facilities in highereducation at local level.
In a previous article, using Popular Education methods of empowerment in the classroom, I argue that white students (especially those who are socially privileged) need to be encouraged to access the black perspective on language and linguistics. There seemed to be a culture of ‘deprivation’ among the white English Literature students I taught who did not seem to have been introduced to African and Asian literature in English, and who, consequently, did not engage with colonialism and racism from a black perspective. Marx  and Ladson-Billings  advise that, because most educators are white, the effect of whiteness needs to be explored, particularly in the face of statistics about educational failure among BME children. A more inclusive approach would after all empower all students to become ‘change agents’, as experienced by Chatterton [26: 37]: ‘What I saw in my students was proof of a huge amount of talent and commitment which, if directed towards social justice, can have a real impact on the immediate surrounding world.’
In order to build upon EUA’s recent work in enhancing the relationship between quality assurance processes, creativity and innovative practices, EUA launched a project in 2007, entitled Quality Assurance for the HigherEducation Change Agenda (QAHECA). QAHECA aimed to explore what kind of quality processes for teaching and learning, both internal and external, support creative and innovative highereducation institutions and seeks to limit the potentially problematic effects of these processes. Recommendation directly related to creativity said „ Quality assurance should be inclusive. A key success factor for an efficient quality assurance (QA) that enhances creativity at institutional level implies engaging the whole institutional community and not just considering QA as the special purview of a specific QA unit. This approach regards, for example, strategic planning, educational development and staff development as part of QA processes. We also urge the QA agencies to revisit their standards and processes in order to analyse in which ways they can encourage institutions to adopt this approach“ . It is obvious that the mentioned EU documents and projects just gave general recommendations for fostering creativity at HEIs. Unfortunately, they did not offer any analysis of eventual obstacles and limitations that could arose in implementation of those recommendations. One other research, “The State of Creativity in Education” was conducted among individuals (1014 educators) in the field of education across 13 countries (Australia, New Zealand, China, Hog Kong, Taiwan, India, Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and South Korea) in the Asia-Pacific region in 2013. The main goal of this survey was to probe respondents on their attitudes, goals, challenges and needs in the area. Faculty, administrators and other members of the primary, secondary and higher educational structures of their countries, answered a series of fifteen questions related to creativity in schools: current practices, goals, the impact on broader innovation and more . The main results of survey were following : Uncovered strong support for creativity in the
Instructional Technology Librarian: this recently emerging area has in common few of the conventional parts of academic librarians such as referencing, directive, and gathering advancement. Nonetheless, it sometime combines the further part of both the instructional designer and instructional technologist. A new term has been coined: ‘blended librarian’, which is defined as a combination of traditional and modern, technologically prepared librarian . He should be able to integrate the information technology with the teaching- learning process in highereducation, and is expected to evolve from the current librarians into both librarians and instructional or educational designers. A blended librarian will be able to put together the skills of classical librarians with the IT skills, and can put technology in adequate, beneficial position in education process like an instructional or educational designer would. The main principles outlined by Bell and Shank are:
As described above, initiatives concerning excellence in highereducation within the EU are incidental and the development of excellence programmes has only just started in most member states (Wolfensberger, 2015). Even though excellence programmes are still limited in scope, the actual implementation is beginning and high-ability students in highereducation increasingly receive attention (Rostan & Vaira, 2011). The “modernisation agenda for universities in every EU member state [contains the topic of] promoting system differentiation in highereducation, including the trend to concentrate talents and resources in one or more institutions (elite universities) or in centres of excellence” (Maassen, 2008, p. 100). The European HigherEducation Area (EHEA) specifically articulates the ambition of recognition and promotion of excellence in highereducation across Europe (Brusoni et al., 2014; McGrath, 2000; Schleicher, 2006). Furthermore, the EU‟s „Education and Training 2020‟ framework (ET 2020) devotes explicit attention to the issue of excellence (Drachenberg, 2011; Robertson, 2010). According to the second objective of the ET 2020, “the major challenge is to ensure the acquisition of key competences by everyone, while developing the excellence and attractiveness at all levels of education and training that will allow Europe to retain a strong global role” (European Council, 2009).
The provision that IGAs must be directly related to the ‘core missions’ of the CSO (Article 103:1) is particularly difficult for Ethiopian charities and societies. The logic behind this provision is enabling CSOs to promote their areas of interest and address business development gaps in those areas while avoiding overcrowding and market distortion in certain business areas and discouraging the establishment of CSOs with business as their primary interest. However, the logic works only for some CSOs. Organizations that are engaged in service delivery can easily identify IGAs (e.g., opening schools, clinics, bookstores, pharmacies, etc.) directly to their missions. In this regard, CSOs that receive 90% of their funds from foreign sources are in an advantageous position. The challenge is for Ethiopian registered CSOs working on rights issues and receiving only 10% of their funds from external sources. They find it difficult to identify business activities leading to marketable products and services that are directly related to their missions.
3. This approach progressively narrows and devalues the conception of education. Wolf points out that whilst someone with a degree is more likely to earn higher than someone without one, graduates are exposed to certain financial risks. For example, tuition fees (with a degree in England likely to cost a student up to £27,000 for a three degree), living costs and the opportunity cost generated by not taking on full time employment instead of a third level course.
A great deal of international student mobility is supported and stimulated by various kinds of programs and schemes. Most countries have several bilateral and multilateral agreements and programs in this field. The best known framework of international student mobility is the European ERASMUS and subsequent (since 1995) SOCRATES programs. Started in 1987 with a view towards the common market of 1992, ERASMUS (and other schemes such as COMMETT, LINGUA and TEMPUS which specifically deals with exchange with Eastern Europe) had the ambition, among other goals, to increase significantly the mobility of students in order to develop the European dimension of highereducation. Student mobility was seen as a powerful means to support the creation of an internal market of professionals and qualified workers and the creation of a European attitude. Initially the European Commission had no competencies in education, because even after the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 its powers in educational matters were restricted, and because direct strategies at harmonization of the structures of highereducation were not considered as feasible, student mobility was the only means for Europeanization of highereducation.
In recent years the concept of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) has gained wider importance, especially as increased attention has been given to the importance of RRI in dealing with societal and global challenges (Mejlgaard et al., 2018). Due to its relevance, RRI has been embedded in EU and UK research policies even though there is still some discussion with regards to its definition and dimensions (Burget at al., 2016). The most referred to definition is the one of von Schonberg (2011), who defines RRI as “a transparent, interactive process by which societal actors and innovators become mu- tually responsive to each other with a view on the (ethical) acceptability, sustainability and societal desirability of the innovation process and its marketable products (in order to allow a proper embedding of scientific and technological advances in our society)”. This view of RRI has been shaping the current research and innovation landscape. In par- ticular, in the UK the biggest funder of ICT research, EPSRC (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council) openly committed itself to develop and promote RRI, stating that “As a public funder of research, we have a responsibility to ensure that our activities and the research we fund, are aligned with the principles of Responsible Innovation, cre- ating value for society in an ethical and responsible way” (EPSRC, 2018). To implement RRI into research, EPSRC recommends the APREA-4P framework approach, which fo- cuses on anticipating the effects of a research of an innovation, reflecting on these effects, engaging with the public and acting accordingly. This framework has been developed by Owen at al., (2013) and further implemented by Jirotka at al., (2017). The European Un- ion incorporated as well RRI in its research policy, making it part of its European Framework Programmes (e.g. Horizon 2020). The EU vision of RRI focuses instead on six aspects: public engagement, gender equality, science education, ethics, open access and governance (European Union 2012).
“No, we’ve got one sergeant who did 30 years with Bedfordshire Police and retired and then joined our police force, that can be done, there’s a way around it with the pension. So, ultimately, he’s now a sergeant. He gets his sergeant’s pension from Bedfordshire and his current wage so he’s been around the block a few times in 30 years and he’s very, very good at what he does. He has two children who are about four, five years younger than me and they’re just going to university so he’s really pro university degree highereducation because he’s putting his own children through it as it were. I do think that that might be something that lessens the anti nature of this distrust towards highereducation and this looking down on it, these officers’ children are actually going through highereducation themselves because when these officers were younger and they didn’t or couldn’t go to university, for whatever reason, now that their children have the opportunity to go I think they are much more sort of pro than they would have been had their children not been going to university. I think university has become more accessible and the fact that their children are going makes them far more open to the concept of highereducation than they would be if they weren’t”.
Highereducation imparts in-depth knowledge and understanding so as to advance the students to new frontiers of knowledge in different walks of life (subject domains). It develops the student ability to question and seek truth and makes him/her competent to critique on contemporary issues. It broadens the intellectual powers of the individual within a narrow specialization, but also gives him/her a wider perspective of the world around. According to Ronald Barnett (1992) there are four predominant concepts of highereducation.
ronment, and the choice of assessment procedures can enhance the development of such skills. In the study we present in this paper we made these choices with the aim to provide a moti- vating and engaging context that requires the use of higher order cognitive skills. We wanted to provide a powerful learn- ing environment (Smeets, 2005). To achieve this aim we de- signed a programming course for the Behavioral Sciences stu- dents in our college. During this course, titled “Design of com- puter-based games and interactive stories”, students learn to program using a visual programming environment. The visual programming environment that we used, along with the special activity of game design, provide a context for effective self- assessment, analysis, hypothesizing, testing, debugging, experi- menting and reflecting. All these higher-order cognitive skills are essential for self-learning. The game design provides a con- text for exercising the iterative processes that are required from any project design and implementation. It is especially impor- tant when the resulted artifact is expected to be used by others. Such skills of project design and implementation, sometimes called design thinking, are appreciated by employers and should be part of highereducation. Game design is a suitable context for developing these skills (Hayes & Games, 2008).
The Bologna process, as it has now come to be called, actually began as a consequence of the coming together of the Ministers of Education of France, the UK, Germany and Italy in order to sign what was called the Sorbonne Declaration. The terms of the Sorbonne Declaration have been modified and added to by subsequent declarations in Bologna in 1999, in Prague in 2001, and in Berlin in 2003. No attempt will be made here to show how the ambitions of the process have expanded over time. Instead, I shall try to list the most important policy commitments which can be derived from these declarations. It should be remembered that the European Union, and the Commission, are only indirectly involved in this process and that therefore the declarations have no legal force. Compliance, whether by governments or universities, is therefore voluntary, at least in the sense of being not legally compelled.