Europe and Italy

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Labour Market Policies and Recruitment in Europe and Italy

Labour Market Policies and Recruitment in Europe and Italy

Labour policies in Europe and Italy now generate more selective and transparent recruitment processes than in the past because they must take into account the impact, constraints and induced opportunities created by the many different policy measures. They are more selective because the range of labour policies requires the capacity to discern and classify different categories of desired can- didates in the light of the administrative measures involved. They are more transparent because the measures themselves may require a certain degree of formalization of recruitment initiatives, such as the advertising of vacant posi- tions with certain contractual conditions, the mandatory registration with public and private intermediaries and the disclosure of business data and projects to public authorities to obtain access to the measures. The employer, therefore, must be prepared to establish priorities and make evaluations and contingent choices during the recruitment process. This renders the employee search process more critical and requires more sophisticated professional skills on the

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Fan du Cinéma: Imitation, Europe and The Trip to Italy (2014).

Fan du Cinéma: Imitation, Europe and The Trip to Italy (2014).

That The Trip to Italy is interested in imitation, and the meaning of the audio-visual image within a culture of reproduction, is hardly surprising, given its status as an already over- determined bundle of prior influences, of which Rossellini’s film is only one. It is a sequel, and one that in its format follows its original quite closely. Structured as this trip also is around the earlier Italian journey of the poets Byron and Shelley, to whom both men assume something of a fan-ish devotion, the film is also about two men retracing the route of two other men two centuries previously. More broadly, but just as pertinently, this journey to Italy – which, amongst its many things, can also be viewed as a travelogue about Italian cities, regions and its restaurants – also contends with the long history of European representation and travel in the country. The film and its protagonists are in fact positioned very specifically within this tradition of visiting and documenting Europe. Looking down at one point from the balcony of a Rome bar onto the bustling spaces below, Coogan echoes the Romantic poets’ own decrying of mass culture in his professed disgust for modern travel. ‘Too many tourists’, he drawls contemptuously. Coogan and Brydon are typically, and literally, presented in an elevated position as luxury travellers: here in Rome, in their valley-perched high-end hotel near Naples, and in the final sea-view restaurant in Capri, their vantage point distances them from the decried objects of contemporary tourism (the reiterated joke in the television series’ opening credits has Coogan, talking to Brydon by phone from another balcony – his

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Policy strategies for a transition to a bioeconomy in Europe: the case of Italy and Germany

Policy strategies for a transition to a bioeconomy in Europe: the case of Italy and Germany

Abstract: Grand societal challenges call for a transition from a society based on finite fossil resources towards a bio-based economy, based on renewable resources. Such a transition should involve not only the energy sector, but also the manufacturing sector. As acknowledged in the European Bioeconomy Strategy, the promotion of a bioeconomy is dependent on policy efforts across a wide spectrum of policy spheres. In the literature on sustainability transitions, this insight is captured in the increasing interest in the concept of policy mixes or policy strategies for promoting transitions to more sustainable modes of production and consumption. In this paper, we present a comparative analysis of bioeconomy strategies in Germany and Italy with a focus on the bioplastics sector. The paper adds to the existing literature on policy mixes by extending the concept of a policy strategy and applying it for the purpose of the comparative analysis. Moreover, the analysis is linked to the discussion on multi-level systems of governance in the European Union. A key finding is that linkages between the two policy strategies via policy making within the European Union have helped in reinforcing the nascent transition to a bio-based economy in Europe.

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Popular Racism, Modernity and Europe - an ethnography on Turin (Italy)

Popular Racism, Modernity and Europe - an ethnography on Turin (Italy)

As it has been pointed out by different scholars (Gundle & Parker 1996; Sassoon 1997), the entry into the Economic and Monetary Union, has been considered by all the Italian parties (except Rifondazione Comunista) as a chance not to be missed. All the Italian governments since 1991, date of the signing of the Maastricht Treaty - governments lead by Ciampi, Amato, Berlusconi, Dini, Prodi, D’Alema and again Amato today - have promoted politics to bring Italy to meet the criteria of economic convergence set up by the Maastricht Treaty in order to join the European monetary union. The goodness of the “entry in Europe” has been taken for granted and remained undiscussed within the Italian context, differently from other European countries where a wide public debate on this issue has taken place. On the media, the entry into the monetary union has been advertised as “the European train” which Italians do not have to miss. At the same time, in the last decade, governments and media have stressed how Italy did not meet any of the requirements of the Maastricht Treaty, differently from other more developed European countries such as Germany and France. Also the Northern League, promoted an idea of Northern Italy which had to join Germany and Europe leaving Southern Italy behind. In other words, the entry in Europe has been presented by Italian politicians and media in terms of modernity and as a unique chance to get out from Italian backwardness, and it has remained unquestioned. If we consider that Italy has always been represented and has represented itself, in opposition to other central European countries, as “late” and “backward”(Dickie 1996; Gribaudi 1996), it is possible to understand how this idea of Europe and modernity has been pretty appealing for Italian people and it has become a terms of reference for the redefinition of Italian identities.

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Credit Crunch in Europe: Comparing Austria, Italy and Greece

Credit Crunch in Europe: Comparing Austria, Italy and Greece

While awaiting the new rules on credit, credit crunch has had and continues to have remarkable consequences on the European economy. At the end of April 2014, the President of ECB, Mario Draghi, said that perhaps there will be one or more target long term refinancing operations (TLTRO) in the future for European banks. The aim of the operation would be to mitigate the credit crunch in Europe through the introduction of a large amount of liquidity. Such an operation will surely be useful for the European banks. We point out, however, that credit system has for a long time been traversing a constant phase of crisis. Many banks made capital increases after 2011 because of the worsening of their assets and, in particular, of the increase in junk credits. The outlook at a general level is not so comforting [22] (Dirk Schoenmaker and Toon Peek 2014). To give an example, in Italy the most important credit groups have closed many branches in recent years and intend to close many more shortly. In our modest opinion, while it is undoubtedly useful to insert liquidity into the system, in order to see the European banks starting to give loans again like before the crisis, their problems of equity must first be solved.

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First record of the invasive mosquito species Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on the southernmost Mediterranean islands of Italy and Europe

First record of the invasive mosquito species Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on the southernmost Mediterranean islands of Italy and Europe

In 2014, with the aim of reinforcing the prevention and control of both animal and human vector-borne diseases, and in improving preparedness and respon- siveness for these diseases in the European Union (EU), a joint project with the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), called VectorNet, was set up. One of the main objectives of VectorNet is to implement targeted entomological surveillance/ monitoring in Europe and the area surrounding the Mediterranean Basin. In this regard, the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) of Rome and the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia (IZS) of Pa- lermo were involved and both institutes carried out an entomological study on the islands of Lampedusa, Linosa and Pantelleria, during the summer of 2015. The study aimed to verify the current southernmost European distribution limits of Ae. albopictus and to investigate the potential occurrence of other invasive mosquito species, in light of the presence on Lampe- dusa of the first reception centre for migrants arriving there. According to the Italian Ministry of Interior, about 11,500 migrants, originating mainly from Africa, arrived in Italy in 2016.

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Effectiveness Cost of HIV Rapid Tests in Italy and Europe

Effectiveness Cost of HIV Rapid Tests in Italy and Europe

The placing on the market and putting into service in the Italian and European territory of medical devices bearing the CE marking is permitted. This marking demonstrates compliance, respectively, with Legislative Decree 46/97 (implementation of Directive 93/42 / EEC). With the EC declaration of conformity, the manufacturer guarantees and declares that the products in question satisfy various provisions. The manufacturer prepares the required technical documentation. The manufacturer or the representative shall keep said documentation, including the declaration of conformity, a provision of national authorities for control purposes for at least five years from the date of manufacture of the last product. The documentation includes, in particular, a general description of the product, including the expected variations and the uses for which it is intended, the design schemes and manufacturing methods, the diagrams of the parts, the parts, the circuits, etc., the description and the explanations. necessary for understanding the schemes the results of the risk analysis and a list of the rules laid down, applied in full or in part, and a description of the solutions adopted to meet the essential requirements of this decree where the rules laid down have not been fully applied. in the case of products placed on the market in a sterile package, the description of the methods used and the validation report, the results of the design calculations, the checks carried out, etc. If a device is to be connected to one or more other devices for operate according to the intended purpose, the conformity of the first device with the essential requirements must be demonstrated in connection with at least one of the devices to which it is to be connected, which possesses the characteristics indicated by the manufacturer, the solutions adopted, the preclinical evaluation, the clinical evaluation and labeling and instructions for use. The clinical evaluation and related documentation are actively updated with data from post-sales surveillance. Where you do not consider Post-sale clinical follow-up within the surveillance plan is necessary after-sales applied to the device, this conclusion must be duly justified and documented. Not all the devices highlighted in the analysis meet the legal requirements and can be considered for use in Italy and in Europe.

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Tax systems and tax reforms in Europe: Italy

Tax systems and tax reforms in Europe: Italy

The gains coming from the reform on the level of fiscal burden suffered by corporation and on its distribution and effects have however been considered contrasting or small (Giannini, 2002; Congiuntura.irs, 2002). At least in principle, the reduction to 33 per cent of the corporate statutory tax rate would not be more favourable than keeping the allowance for internal sources in force with its expected effect of the allowance to progressively reducing effective average tax rate. The “all- in” statutory rate remains far higher in Italy than the European average 30 . This seems the main drawback of the reform. The rate is also far over those of income tax and of interests, and thus it increases opportunity for arbitrages and elusion. The progressive repeal of Regional business tax planned by the Government might reduce these spreads, but it is not easy to be compensated (also to finance the Regions) without other further charges on enterprises. Finally the just mentioned proposals of the abolishing of the business tax and also of the allowance on internal sources would reduce neutrality of investments financing, while raising capital marginal effective rate.

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The Generational Perspective of Gender Gap and Discrimination in Southern Europe

The Generational Perspective of Gender Gap and Discrimination in Southern Europe

As documented by Eurostat [epp.eurostat.ec.europe.eu], the patterns of formal educa- tion strongly varies across countries of southern Europe, although the incidence of highly educated individuals is consistently higher for females than males everywhere. Indeed, at European level (EU-27), in 2005, the proportion of graduate females is equal to 30%, more than two percentage points respect to their male counterpart (27.9%). This differential is the highest for Spain (7.7 percentage points), which also keeps the highest proportion of gradu- ates (43% for females vs 35.3% for males), even more than the European average. Con- versely, the incidence of graduates is lower than the EU-27 average for Italy (19.9% for females vs 14.9% for males), Portugal (21.7% for females and 17% for males) and Greece (27.5% for females vs 23.4% for males) with smaller gender gaps constantly in favour of women. Currently, in Greece and Italy, the upper-secondary school stands for the most fre- quent highest completed degree of formal education for both the genders; in Portugal, it is the primary school.

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Waves of Mental Health Demands During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Waves of Mental Health Demands During the COVID-19 Pandemic

As the world prepared itself by closing borders, airports, isolating populations, and all other public health decisions, the waves of mental health demands started progressively. Beginning in China and later spreading to Europe, especially Italy and Spain until it got to the USA, Brazil and other countries in America, we perceived different phases of psychological demands, whether it was to the mental health services by phone or the online modality, adopted by most mental health professionals in the world.

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The Italian (In)Security Package: Security vs. Rule of Law and Fundamental Rights in the EU. CEPS Challenge Paper No. 14, 10 March 2009

The Italian (In)Security Package: Security vs. Rule of Law and Fundamental Rights in the EU. CEPS Challenge Paper No. 14, 10 March 2009

Furthermore, the memorandum noted that the frequent adoption of emergency laws is indicative of a “serious weakness of the state mechanism…to deal effectively with social problems”, which should be dealt with by means of ordinary, and not exceptional, legislation. In addition, in relation to the evictions implemented by the Italian authorities in the ‘unauthorised’ nomadic settlements, Hammarberg stressed the principle that “eviction should never take place if the authorities are not in a position to make available alternative, adequate accommodation”. Finally, he emphasised the need to give special attention to the effective protection of the human rights of Roma and Sinti children, as enshrined in the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child. Besides the Council of Europe, many other international actors have reacted to the Italian government’s measures addressed at the Roma community. To mention a few examples, on 21 July 2008 the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) sent a delegation of experts to Italy to assess the human rights situation of the Roma and Sinti population. 59 The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) manifested its concerns through a spokesman who said that UNICEF was “shocked and deeply worried by the plans”. 60 The European Union Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) published a report that brings together the facts on the anti- Roma events that occurred in Italy during May–June 2008 and then describes the responses of the Italian authorities in the form of legal measures. 61

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Mapping economic crisis in South Europe: Greece, Portugal and Cyprus

Mapping economic crisis in South Europe: Greece, Portugal and Cyprus

From the very first moment that the countries of the Southern Europe (Greece, Italy, Spain and Portugal) applied for admission to the European Community in the 1970’s, it caused concern to the “developed” Northern countries that viewed the South as a threat to the pace of their economic progress (Verney, 2009). In the 1990’s, after Greece, Portugal and Spain had already entered the EC, the matter of the “developing” South was once again a hot topic. The unstable economies and monetary systems of Greece and Italy raised the fear that the South European countries would weaken the new currency that the European Union wanted to create and compete internationally. In order to secure the new currency and its strength, the European Union was prepared to launch it without the countries that did not meet the criteria of the Maastricht agreement, thus, the countries of the South Europe (Greece, Portugal, Italy and Spain).

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New and noteworthy records of vespid wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) from the Palaearctic region

New and noteworthy records of vespid wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) from the Palaearctic region

Boreomontane species found in the British Isles, Sardinia, a large part of continental Europe (from Scandinavia and northern Russia to Spain [Cantabrians and Pyrenees], northern Italy, Bulgaria and southern Russia), northern Turkey, central Asia (from eastern Kazakhstan to Mongolia and the Chinese territory of Xinjiang), most of Siberia, north-eastern China, Sakhalin, Alaska, Canada, and the extreme north-eastern United States (Maine) (C ARPENTER

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Proper Medical Prescriptions and Cord Blood Harvesting Improvement at a Children’s Hospital of North Eastern Italy

Proper Medical Prescriptions and Cord Blood Harvesting Improvement at a Children’s Hospital of North Eastern Italy

A systematic harvesting of hematopoietic progenitor cells for transplant purpose in oncology begun in Friuli Venetia Giulia (FVG), a region of north east Italy, at the end of 2000. The actual economic crisis in Italy and in all Europe slows down number births and the cord blood related collection, because tests’ ticket during pregnancy and medical visits are many expensive; nevertheless some specific medical prescriptions and test during pregnancy are exempt from tickets in public health, but not all doctors and patients know rules and modalities of exemption in obstetric-gynecology. Moreover there are formal errors due to the bad quality of external quality control (EQC) of some tests useful to the validation of the cord blood collection. The aim of this work is to study the impact of formal errors in prescriptions and tests validation at a Children’s Hospital of Trieste (main town of FVG region). To this aim had been performed a monitoring, during 2013-14s, to improve appropriateness of prescriptions related to stem cells collection and to make more suitable and safe transplants and related medical cares.3300 medical prescriptions were monitored for 24 months (from 2013 January to 2015 December), and studied with a χ 2 test before and after analysis not in compliance with activities and was introduced a management protocol of improvement: the

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Riforme e Investimenti  Europa e Italia  By Marco Fortis and Alberto Quadrio Curzio  An analysis

Riforme e Investimenti Europa e Italia By Marco Fortis and Alberto Quadrio Curzio An analysis

To grow at a more sustained pace in Italy and in Europe it is necessary to focus on investments. The theme of investments occupies a central part in the volume of Fortis and Quadrio Curzio. In particular, in the second part of ‘Europa, Investimenti e Infrastructure,’ Quadrio Curzio tackles this issue with rigor, and links it to that of the combination of growth-employment and environmental protection. If, on the one hand, the growth rate in the Eurozone in 2017 has exceeded 2%, one must look beyond the favorable cycle and maintain a long-term perspective. Quadrio Curzio observed this for a long period of time in Brussels, unfortunately, the thesis prevailed that the combination of stricter rules and more powerful markets was enough to ensure a spontaneous diffusion of well-being (p. 106). Moreover, the Eurozone, in recent years, predominantly focused on monetary policy. However, this policy alone is not able to revive growth, if it is not supported by an investment-based economic policy. From the years of the crisis until today, the theme of the relationship between investments, in particular investments in infrastructure and economic growth, has assumed an ever-increasing interest. Much empirical research has amply demonstrated that investment in infrastructure is a variable that positively influences GDP. Naturally, not only are investments in tangible factors and infrastructures, but are also in intangibles (of which technological knowledge, research networks and the quality of human capital are certainly important elements). Furthermore, tangible and intangible infrastructure investments are instruments of infrastructural economic and social policies, which, combined with technological progress and globalization, can effectively contribute to economic growth. This is why, according to Quadrio Curzio, infrastructures are the key to growth in Europe. Moreover, in the world, and not only in Europe, there is a great need for investment in infrastructures to stimulate development, especially in the poorest countries, but, as Quadrio Curzio points out, citing a McKinsey study on the subject, it is necessary to find funding from institutional investors and banks, which have substantial capital (estimated in about $ 120 trillion). To make this possible, the EU should aim not only at public investments but also at investments in public-private partnerships and, at the same time, improve the management of projects and funding. A public investment policy, also indicated by Christine Lagarde, would at this time be particularly facilitated by interest rates close to zero or, in any case, very low. Quadrio Curzio positively assesses the Juncker investment plan 4 , but still considers it insufficient. He also stresses that China is the country that invests more in infrastructure (think of the “ New Silk Road ” ).

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Investigation on potential malaria vectors (Anopheles spp ) in the Province of Trento, Italy

Investigation on potential malaria vectors (Anopheles spp ) in the Province of Trento, Italy

Several Anopheles species (Diptera, Culicidae) with var- iable susceptibility and capability to transmit the infec- tion by Plasmodium spp. occur widely all over Europe, even if their exact distribution is still poorly known. The most important belong to the An. maculipennis com- plex (An. maculipennis sensu lato), while others (Anoph- eles algeriensis, Anopheles claviger, Anopheles hyrcanus, Anopheles plumbeus, Anopheles superpictus) have histor- ically played a minor role as secondary vectors, although their vectorial competence is being reevaluated [1]. In particular, An. plumbeus proved to have some receptiv- ity towards P. falciparum and, therefore, it was suspected to be involved in cryptic malaria transmission in Central- Western Europe [3].

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The Insurance Market of Natural Hazards for Residential Properties in Italy

The Insurance Market of Natural Hazards for Residential Properties in Italy

The fourth aspect deals with the real compensation to be paid by the insurers and the time requested to com- pensate for the damage. The companies propose policies against earthquake losses with indemnity limits that can also be 50% in case of housings and 30% in case of condominiums. These values seem to be among the lowest in Europe. Only in Austria the limits are quite similar to those in force in the Italian market (Table 1). Furthermore, the joined application of the deductibles (among the highest in Europe), that can reach 20% of the value insured, and the low indemnity limits may not guarantee an adequate fulfillment of the property rebuilding or repairing especially for two typologies of damaged properties: those collapsed and those slightly affected. In the first case, the compensation limit fixed by the companies will be insufficient to rebuild the housings, in the second case; the low losses won’t be compensated for due to the application of deductibles. On the basis of this, a prompt simulation of the application of deductibles or indemnity limits on a large scale territory affected by a huge earthquake, such as the Irpinia one in 1980, suggests that the towns localized in the mesoseismic area are unlikely to be rebuilt only with the insurance compensation. Considering a medium-size house with a rebuilding value of 100,000 € and the deductibles and compensation limits as indicated above, we can see that the owners of housings affected by minor damage (e.g. ~20,000 €) or entirely collapsed would suffer the most significant impact of the restrictive insurance rules in terms of percentage of non-reimbursable losses. Indeed, the spread between the real economic damage and the effective insurance compensation will be high and equal to 100% of the economic damages in case of slight effects, and 50% in case of house collapse. In event of slight damage, the losses will be entirely within the deductibles, and the home owner will have to pay

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Farewell National Champions. Bruegel policy brief 2006/04, June 2006

Farewell National Champions. Bruegel policy brief 2006/04, June 2006

SUMMARY Controversies over “national champions” in Europe raise the question of where exactly is “home” for a modern corporation. This survey of Europe’s 100 largest listed companies shows that their home market is increasingly Europe as a whole rather than any particular country within it. The share of European sales in their total revenue is almost identical, on average, to the share of US revenue for the US Top 100, at 65%. The share of their national (or, for smaller countries, regional) base is on a rapidly declining trend and stands at 36.9% of global revenue in 2005 against 50.2% in 1997. The geogra- phical distribution of employees within the same companies appears to follow a similar pattern. In this group, German companies are among the frontrunners of both europeani- sation and globalisation. Italian and, to a lesser extent, Spanish companies remain stron- gly biased towards their home market, though less than in the past. French companies have europeanised rather than globalised, while for UK-based companies, both trends have been simultaneously powerful.

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RED vs  REDD: Biofuel Policy vs  Forest Conservation  Factor Markets Working Document No  41, May 2013

RED vs. REDD: Biofuel Policy vs. Forest Conservation. Factor Markets Working Document No. 41, May 2013

These headline results are shown at the regional level in Figure 5. The business-as-usual scenario suggests agricultural land use will increase by 2030 in all regions except Europe, the US and Oceania. Southern Africa and the Rest of Africa experience particularly strong increases of 37% and 29%, respectively. The introduction of RED policies increases agricultural land use in all regions as the additional demand for biofuel feedstocks leads to strong increases in land demand. The area under cultivation due to RED in Canada is 24% higher than the baseline value in 2030, 17% in the US and 13% in Indonesia. These regions are all land-abundant. The limited nature of Canada’s biofuel policy indicates that the observed effect is a trade effect. The results suggest that the RED policies have a limited impact on land use in land-constrained regions, including Southern Africa (0.4%) and Rest of Asia (0.3%). The average worldwide increase in agricultural area is 3% following the introduction of RED.

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chap07.pdfView Download

chap07.pdfView Download

In the late 1400s, the Renaissance spread to northern Europe. The Northern Renaissance refers to the art in places we know today as Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, and the Netherlands. Like Italian artists, northern artists wanted their works to have greater realism, but they used dif- ferent methods. One important method they developed was oil painting. First developed in Flanders (FLAN • duhrz) —a region that is in northern Belgium today— oils let artists paint intricate details and sur- face textures, like the gold braid on a gown.

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