This course begins with the late Middle Ages and continues to the present (roughly the 1300s to 2000ish). Not only is Western (European) Civilization an important part of our heritage, but its contributions to global modernity are powerful, significant, and necessary to understand our society and the world at large. The unique dominance – whether celebrated or resisted - of Europe in the last half millennium also makes Europeanhistory a valuable prism for understanding the modern world. You will acquire skills to master this course including critical thinking, document analysis, academic writing, logic and rhetoric, and historiography. These skills translate into a scholarly proficiency that will prove invaluable to your future academic endeavors. Advanced courses, especially AP courses, are valuable in general for developing the deep thinking and academic discipline necessary to succeed in college; in fact, U.S. Department of Education studies show that taking an advanced course is the number one predictor as to whether or not a college freshman will complete their degree.
questions of periodization, addressing precisely when things change. The Oxford Handbook is about post-war Europeanhistory; the subtitle of Kaelble’s book is ‘recovery and transformation after two world wars’. Given its multi-author status, the Handbook cannot make a single point about what historians mean when they debate the timing of ‘post-war’, but it can ensure that these debates are clearly articulated and central to the presentation. Dan Stone, who has written about historical memory of the Holocaust and who is therefore particularly attuned to how the war and its aftermath have been remembered and constructed since the fall of the Berlin Wall, argues in his introduction that ‘we are only now living through the postwar period’ (p. 33). In other words, it is in the last 20 years that proper discussion about the War has been possible in the public sphere across Europe: that people have stopped living the legacy of the war on a day-by-day basis and have started, instead, coming to terms with it. Expressed differently, by a cold warrior, the Second World War effectively continued in new forms until the demise of Communism. Geoff Eley, however, emphasizes the existence of a ‘post-1945 settlement’ whose most important characteristic was ‘the centrality acquired by organized labour’ (p. 38). In this way, the impact of the Second World War on European life was
Before discussing some of these works in the context of early modern Europeanhistory, it may be useful to capture some of the broader cultural and intellectual developments that have given impetus to this move. The first is the digital revolution that has been altering beyond recognition how we use, retain, and access information. The amount of records produced and stored online – how safely? for how long? – is growing at an astronomical rate to volumes that the mind finds difficult even to conceive. As we learn to organise our files and folders on hard drives or in the cloud, archives become a common presence in our lives, and now serve as an evocative metaphor for many artists, scientists and commentators. 4 Meanwhile, new projects are
This class introduces students to the political, economic, religious, social, intellectual, and artistic trends that shaped Europe from 1450 to the present. Students should acquire knowledge of the basic chronology of events and movements from this period as well as develop the ability to analyze historical documents and express historical understanding in writing. As part of the Advanced Placement program, the course prepares students for the AP EuropeanHistory exam. All students are expected to take the exam.
Students will periodize Europeanhistory from 1450 to the present in a variety of ways, including politics, international relations, and opportunities for women. Categories in History will be used such as political events, social changes, economic trends and intellectual and cultural movements. Such categories and periods will show overlapping or parallel timing of each other. Students will date transitions and cite reasons for their choices. Art Movements will be categorized into Renaissance, Baroque, Neoclassical, Romantic, Impressionist, and Modern both in the beginning of and the end of each and the characteristics of each. Time Lines will be used to visualize the chunks of History. After periodization, analysis will begin of the periods and further DBQ’s will be added to the analysis.
Europeanhistory in order to provide a common base of knowledge that can be used in developing individualized courses of study. History 783 is also ideal for graduate students in the History Department and in other programs for whom it can likewise serve as an introduction to the field. In selecting the readings, I opted for works that not only address critical issues in the history of this part of the world, but are also of value from a methodological or interpretive perspective. Among other topics, the readings address nationalism, the experience of war and revolution, Communism’s appeal, gender, the rise and fall of the Communist order, and key developments in the region in the post-Communist era. We will also consider what is particularly “Russian” or “East European” about the issues under discussion, and raise fresh questions that might inform your own research agenda as you continue with your studies.
o Catherine, like other Eastern European monarchs of the time, sought to strengthen the state by the application of reason to her policies. Historians still disagree about the sincerity of her advocacy for reform. Was she sincere or did she hope to shape public opinion in Western Europe?
Ian Kershaw’s To Hell and Back, the first part of a two volume entry in the Penguin History of Europe series, is the more conventional of the two. It is a synthetic chronological ‘bird’s-eye view’ of the ‘forces that shaped the continent as a whole’ suitable for a broad general readership or a course textbook. And, as might be expected from Kershaw as one of the premier historians of Nazi Germany, it is thorough in its coverage, extremely well written, and judicious in its conclusions. While Kershaw aims at a ‘birds-eye view‘, it is the view of a bird with an eagle’s eye for details. The book is amazingly comprehensive in paying attention to developments in numerous small countries as well as the larger great powers whose actions dominated developments, which is an especially impressive accomplishment in a book whose text runs just over 500 pages. Not to put too fine a point on it, Kershaw’s firm grounding in German and Nazi history provides him with a fulcrum from which he is able to leverage all of Europe’s history in the period brilliantly.
After the end of the colonial empires the word ‘colonialism’ could only be used to refer to a phenomenon from the past and thus fell out of use. ‘Imperialism’ however continued to be used, and from then on also indicated those forms of domination that were formally different from but factually comparable to those formerly practiced by the colonial powers. For a while the word ‘neocolonialism’ was also used for this pur- pose, but somehow that term was less successful. By the end of the Sec- ond World War America had become the new superpower. Accordingly, imperialism was now mainly applied to describe the foreign policy of the United States vis à vis other countries, in particular in Latin America, Asia and Africa. There was also an attempt to make the concept applica- ble to the policy of the Soviet Union with regard to the Central and East- ern European countries that came under its influence after 1945, but this was not very successful. The reason for this is that, historically speak- ing, imperialism has connotations with capitalism, and not with com- munism, and with overseas possessions and not with adjacent countries. Although there clearly was a Soviet Empire, it was not considered to be an example of imperialism but of traditional power politics. Only in its very general meaning as another word for all forms of power policies or simply as an invective, was it also used to describe communist countries like the Soviet Union and China. After the end of the Cold War this use of the word imperialism lost much of its earlier attraction.
Robert S. Wistrich, the Neuberger Professor in Modern Jewish History at the He- brew University of Jerusalem, can hardly be considered a senior scholar for whom the major part of his work is behind him. Yet the sheer amount and range of his writing would be staggering even if he had been active in the historical profession since World War II. It may come as a surprise to learn that he was born in the Soviet Union in 1945. Among the post–Second World War generation of scholars, Wistrich, who was raised and educated in Great Britain—albeit with formative stays at Stanford and Jerusalem—is truly an extraordinary figure. He has written nine books (and counting) and edited four others (and counting); he was also a lead adviser for two documentary film projects which were broadcast internationally. Scholars of Central Europeanhistory and modern Jewish history could not fail to notice Wistrich’s tremendous output. Obviously there is some overlap in his books and articles; but, given the quantity of his work, the areas of repetition are not nearly as plentiful as one might expect.
The contest between economic development and the preservation of the natural world has had important implications for the way the Great Barrier Reef has been treated, both physically and imaginative, by European Australians. Most recently well circulated imagery of coral from the Reef's north, bleached as a result of higher than normal ocean temperatures caused by climate change, provided a vivid sense of the conflict between industrial development and the maintenance of global environments. In Australia the bleaching event has invited a frank ultimatum from Reef scientists who research the collage of life it sustains: you can have coal mining or the Reef, not both. Embedded in the choice is an understanding that Australians have a complicated appreciation of the Reef. While most Australians appreciate the Reef's natural beauty and romantic appeal, they hold conflicting valuations of coal mining and the jobs it provides. This thesis explores the tension between exploitation of the Reef and its preservation throughout the history of European and European Australian engagement with it. Specifically, it examines the history of perceptions of the Reef by considering how explorers, scientists, politicians, tourist company operators, nature and travel writers, and
Comparative politics show that building a real democratic regime is far from simple, and that institutional engineering is not enough for this to succeed. European federalists were acutely aware of this difficulty. However, the EC benefited from the fact that each Member State was already a democratic regime, ensuring a high standard of human rights' protection and enjoying vivid democratic societies. With such a background, organising direct elections for the EP seemed to be an efficient means to establish democracy at European level or, at least, to increase the legitimacy of the European Communities so as to allow for deeper integration. Organising direct elections was a way to assert the existence of a European people; to favour the adoption of a constitution; to affirm the sovereignty of citizens regarding the process of European integration; to increase control over the Commission; to impose majoritarian logic and political pluralism as alternatives to diplomatic negotiations and bureaucratic rationality; to assert the existence of a European citizenship and of the necessity for the EP to take care of human rights and civil liberties.
education was everywhere and everybody understood that it should be different. The work done by the CoE and the Recommendation led to influence the curricula and you would find it the new ideas and practices in the section "what should be done in History classroom". But then the problem was that the History curricula and History textbooks were written by Academics, and these Academics didn't want to decide that things should be different. So yes, on the one hand, you see that all the curricula talked about multi perspectivity, about more interest for Social History, but if you look further, they still want to have their things there in History councils. Sometimes you would see some change accidentally, for instance in Romania, they had the History of the "Romanians", and we were like "Ok come on, are there not other people in this country?" and when we talked about it nothing change. But suddenly there was a political change, and then it became the History of the Romania, acknowledging Jewish etc, so it was really a big change. In some other countries, they were a bit more aware that they had to rethink. For instance, Slovenia was in the most healthy process to move towards new curricula. As soon as you started to re address the curriculum, the Second WW and its legacy went on the table. One of the things that the West did not understand enough is that, ok, communism came in, but it was not only due to the fact that there was the power of the Russians and whatever, it was also because there was a political development in the countries it selves. Many of them had extreme right and fascist governments and people wanted to get rid of that. So this is very complex and what happened in the Second WW and in the three years after, that really came on the table. Until now it is an unsolved problem. Interviewer: Ok. So would say that EUROCLIO disseminated the CoE material (Robert Stradling handbook and Recommendation)?
A regulatory European framework with economic incen- tives needs to be installed to stimulate the research and development of orphan devices similar to the legislation around orphan drugs. Incentives are needed (as for or- phan drugs) to enable useful medical devices to reach the patients and clinicians in a timely fashion. Collection and analysis of publicly accessible safety/efficacy data (EUDAMED: European Databank on Medical Devices) needs to be centralized between all EU Member States to reach a sufficient number of patients to perform com- parative-(cost)effectiveness and –safety studies.
Clearly, the Treaties of Rome and the creation of the European Economic Community in 1957 became the definite European responses to the end of World War II and the renaissance of parliamentary democracy in Western Europe after 1945. 11 As for 2004, the beginning unification of Europe through the unprecedented Eastward enlargement of the European Union and the signing of the first ever European Constitution in the same year are still open to final judgment and controversial in meaning and success. But there cannot be too much doubt that both the enlargement and the effort to constitutionalize the European Union must be considered as the honest re- sponses of the EU leadership to the fall of the Iron Curtain and to the quest to combine parliamentary democracy and constitutional authority on the national level with democratic transparency, efficiency and accountability on the EU level. Enlargement and constitution-making were and deserve to be considered the necessary and logical consequence of the revolutionary changes of 1989 12 No matter the still unfinished business of enlargement to Southeastern Europe: 2004 was a pivotal year in the unification of Europe, setting the course that will continue for some time. And no matter the many disputes about the European Constitution and its eventual destiny: The signing of the document in 2004 by 25 European countries and, after all, its ratification, so far, by a majority of EU member states with a majority of Union citizens was a unique and revolutionary expression of the ongoing constitutionalization and politicization of the EU. 13 In a structural sense,
Historians of economics often do small “m” methodology, which has the potential to influence mainstream economics. For reasons I will make my best effort to make clear, there are not plenty of examples of this today, but an earlier concrete example is Lionel Robbins’ early methodological essay. An Essay on the Nature and Significance of Economic Science [Robbins (1932)] redefined the scope of economics and was a defence of abstract theorizing as well as a critique of Marshallian intuitionism. In the essay, Robbins attacks the value judgments on which measurable utility rested. His program was soon after taken up by Hicks and Allen, thus influencing mainstream economics in a significant way [see Backhouse (2003, pp.311-12)] 5 . Outside economics, Thomas Kuhn is a wonderful example of how the interaction between the history and methodology of science can be naturally fruitful.
In the standard story, the computer’s growth has been rapid and short. It starts with the giant machines warehoused in World War II–era laboratories. Microchips shrink them onto desktops, Moore’s Law predicts how powerful they will become, and Microsoft capitalizes on the software. finally small, cheap devices come out that can trade stocks and beam video around the world. That is one way to approach the history of computing—the history of solid- state electronics in the past 60 years. But computing existed long before the transistor. Ancient astronomers developed ways to predict the motion of the heavenly bodies. The Greeks deduced the shape and size of Earth. Taxes were summed; distances mapped. Always, though, computing was a human pursuit. It was arithmetic, a skill like reading or writing that helped a person make sense of the world. The age of computing sprang from the abandonment of this limitation. Cash registers came first to organize mathematical computations using what we now call “programs.” The idea of a program first arose in the 1830s, a century before what we traditionally think of as the birth of the computer. Later on, the modern electronic computers came out. These electronic computers were capable of doing any kind of information processing and also the manipulation of its own programs. These are the computers that power our world today. This paper discusses some of the major issues addressed by recent work in the history of technology. It suggests the different aspects of the development of computing. These are relevant to those issues for which that recent work could provide models of historical analysis. Keywords:- Steps Toward Modern Computing, Computing Present History, The Tripartite