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"There Were Only Friendly People and Love in the Air": Fans, Tourism and the Eurovision Song Contest

"There Were Only Friendly People and Love in the Air": Fans, Tourism and the Eurovision Song Contest

This chapter will give some insight into the Eurovision Song Contest (ESC) as an event that attracts a particular group of tourists – fans. Fan tourism is a growing field and the travel industries are increasingly viewing fans as a key market segment. Visit London, for example, has built a whole marketing campaign around fans and fan tourism – “Fans of London” (Visit London, 2017) – and VisitBritain encourages fans of Britain to post pictures and comments on social media as part of the global #OMGB (“Oh My GREAT Britain”) campaign (VisitBritain, 2017). As the concept of the fan has become more inclusive it has also entered into the mainstream consciousness – we can now be fans of “almost anything” (Guerrier, 2015). Although being a fan may still be “fraught with baggage from historical and contemporary media representations” (Stanfill, 2013, p. 17) – and fans are sometimes viewed as a threat to the dominant social order (Jensen, 1992; Hills, 2002; Sandvoss, 2005; Jenkins, 2008; Duffett, 2013) – the broadening of the fan concept has placed particular emphasis on fans as customers and, as such, they are attractive for businesses (Linden & Linden, 2017). In fact, in the experience economy, or consumer society, where subcultures are increasingly difficult to identify, it is instead normal to be a fan. So, while fans were previously viewed with suspicion, being a fan can now enhance one’s status and increase one’s social and cultural capital not only within the fandom, but beyond it too. Fans experience things, and after all, experiences are what we are all after. Fan tourism traditionally often takes the form of a secular pilgrimage (Hall, 2002; Digance, 2006), as a location or site that has a meaning in the “text” surrounding a popular culture figure may be regarded as “sacred” within the fandom (Linden & Linden, 2017). A well-known example is
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Evidence for the influence of the mere exposure effect on voting in the Eurovision Song Contest

Evidence for the influence of the mere exposure effect on voting in the Eurovision Song Contest

uncontrollable extraneous variables that influence the way in which individuals vote. However, prior familiarity with candidates can be well estimated in the Eurovision Song Contest. The Eurovision is a yearly extravaganza in which European countries (and some geographically close countries with strong links to Europe) are represented by a musical act from that country. The contest is televised and takes place over the course of an evening, during which time viewers can vote for the act which they thought the best. Votes within a country are collated after which each country distributes its points (1-8, 10, 12) to the various acts.
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Skirting the issue: finding queer and geopolitical belonging at the Eurovision Song Contest

Skirting the issue: finding queer and geopolitical belonging at the Eurovision Song Contest

Eurovision is, by its very nature of bringing together diverse nations and cultures in an event that celebrates “Europe”, political. The various social, political and cultural concerns of the European citizenry find a place on its stage, which is a platform for nation building in its various overt and covert ways, and for requesting and expressing belonging to the European community. As discussed above, the modern tradition of Eurovision offers queer audiences an important opportunity to experience belonging to Europe. Perhaps ironically, this is an experience of Eurovision shared by both gay communities in Western Europe and the Eastern countries in which dominant social discourses about homosexuality are oppressive. The soft and hard political dimensions of the event are experienced differently according to a nation’s security in its belonging to Europe. In the case of the international concerns about Azerbaijan as a host, it demonstrates the very hard political limitations the nation faced for thinking about its identity as a Muslim state and as member state of Europe. For Finland, on the other hand, its membership in the progressive West, and the Nordic region more specifically, affords performers like Siegfrids the luxury of depoliticising their actions; while decried on th e margins, the EBU’s approval of the so - called “lesbian kiss” implicitly established that in some cases and for some countries it was acceptable to reflect current concerns on the ESC stage. Importantly, Siegfrids’ kiss was acceptable because it re-affirmed equality as an important part of “European” – and by extension EBU – ideology. Even as the Eurovision Song Contest seeks its song to unite Europe, it remains a prism through which the EBU’s and the community’s shifting boundaries and power relations can be examined.
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Eurovision: Performing State Identity and Shared Values

Eurovision: Performing State Identity and Shared Values

The most significant example of progressiveness demonstrated in the show is through normalisation and understated references to LGBT+ identity. One of the hosts, Assi Azar, is gay and references this occasionally, most notably when he mentions his husband during a conversation with Madonna (Fairyington 2016). Since the late 1990s, Eurovision has become a safe space for the LGBT+ community and has demonstrated its willingness to penalise broadcasters who attempt to attack them (Bakker 2018). Numerous scholars (Singleton, Fricker, and Moreo 2007; Baker 2017; Lemish 2004) have studied the relationship LGBT+ fans develop with the contest: appropriating it and recognising it as a queer event. Eurovision in turn, has embraced this connection as part of its identity, as Yair (2019, 1019–20) summarised: “the sexual vision of Eurovision is clear, celebrating lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) identities as the new mode of modernity. Although the EBU bans politics, transgender performers, drag queens, homosexuals and lesbians constitute the liberal spearheads of the cosmopolitan vision of the ESC.” This has led to friction with some member countries, with Turkey, which left the contest in 2012 due to dissatisfaction with voting procedures, stating in 2018 that they will not return while transgender individuals and drag artists are allowed to perform (Madamidola 2018). The response by the EBU was clear: “The Eurovision Song Contest’s values are of universality and inclusivity and our proud tradition of celebrating diversity through music, (…) TRT has made a huge contribution to the contest in the past, (…) and we would very much welcome them back should they decide to participate again,” (Madamidola 2018). The EBU reaffirmed its commitment to inclusivity and diversity and placed the ball firmly in TRT’s – the Turkish broadcaster – court making clear that they were welcome to join again once they were willing to accept the contest’s values.
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Shake it up sekerim. The Turkish Eurovision Experience

Shake it up sekerim. The Turkish Eurovision Experience

sociocultural framework. Issues that have derived from this divide have been extensively covered by academics, policy makers, and journalists. This thesis will attempt to expose the politics of pop culture in a pan-European setting. The way performance and politics come together in Eurovision and the phenomenon of televoting can thus give new insights on Turkey’s place in Europe. The Eurovision Song Contest has been covered by scholars as Ivan Raykoff and Robert Tobin in A Song for Europe (2007), and Dafni Tragaki and Franco Fabbri in Empire of Song (2013), both in which the connection of Eurovision with national sentiment have been laid bare. These works often cover a particular performance or event and elaborate on its deeper meaning and societal role on a national scale. Other times scholars like are very broad and general in their explanation of Eurovision through a more Eurocentric point of view, like Dean Vuletic in Postwar Europe and the Eurovision Song Contest. The ambition of this thesis is to specifically analyse Turkey’s position in Eurovision, and its perceived political importance in the quest to become a full member of the EU. Researching the Turkish experience for a longer period of time and comparing performances with internal political and economic developments will give a new meaning to the overlooked influences of Eurovision.
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A Hybrid System Approach to Determine the Ranking of a Debutant Country in Eurovision

A Hybrid System Approach to Determine the Ranking of a Debutant Country in Eurovision

The Eurovision Song Contest (ESC) was born in 1955 and held for the first time in Lugano, Switzerland, in 1956, with seven countries competing. The number of participants increased to 16 in 1961. Non-European countries can also take part: Israel, Morocco, Turkey, Armenia and Georgia are now regular participants. In 2008, Azerbaijan and San Marino will participate for the first time. Since 2002, there are 24 slots for finalists, four of which are reserved for the Big Four (France, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom). Other countries are guaranteed a slot every other year. Every year the ESC is broadcasted by television, and since 1985, this happens via satellite. In 2001, the contest is broadcast live all around the world. Nowadays, it is watched by several hundred millions of people [9].
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Neurochemical control of cricket stridulation revealed by pharmacological microinjections into the brain

Neurochemical control of cricket stridulation revealed by pharmacological microinjections into the brain

Pharmacological inhibition of cricket song patterns The early lesion experiments, which elicited long-lasting stridulation, and the finding that electrical brain stimulation blocked ongoing stridulation indicated the existence of inhibitory mechanisms within the brain controlling stridulation (Huber, 1955, 1964; Otto, 1971). Our data from GABA and picrotoxin injections support this evidence. GABA is a common inhibitory transmitter within the CNS that binds to ionotropic receptors. It elicits a rapid transient opening of Cl − channels and thereby a hyperpolarization of the affected neuron (Sattelle, 1990; Hosie et al., 1997). GABAergic neurons are widely distributed within the CNS of insects (Homberg, 1994), where there is some evidence for different subtypes of GABA receptors (Sattelle, 1990; Hue, 1991; Anthony et al., 1993), although their spatial distribution within the CNS has not yet been mapped. The effects of GABA injections on singing behaviour indicate that the control system for stridulation in the brain of crickets is sensitive to this transmitter. These data are supported by the effects of picrotoxin, an alkaloid that is known to stabilize activated insect GABA receptors in an agonist-bound closed formation (Hosie et al., 1997), thus blocking GABA-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (Sattelle, 1990; Anthony et al., 1993). Since picrotoxin elicited motor activity combined with singing behaviour, we assume that picrotoxin caused a general disinhibition of descending motor commands that also allowed the song patterns to occur. Thus, either the descending command neurons for stridulation and/or their presynaptic neurons seem to be under constant inhibition from GABAergic neurons.
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Resolution of agonistic conflicts in dyads of acquainted green swordtails (Xiphophorus helleri, Pisces, Poeciliidae): A game with perfect information

Resolution of agonistic conflicts in dyads of acquainted green swordtails (Xiphophorus helleri, Pisces, Poeciliidae): A game with perfect information

Our results are coherent with those prescribed by an «asymmetrical games with perfect information» as applied to familiar pairs but not to unfamiliar ones. Contestants that recently had the opportunity to settle conflict and meet again, upon recognizing each other, use the original asymmetry to rapidly settle disputes (Maynard Smith and Parker, 1976). These contestants can be considered as being in a situation of perfect information about their respective roles and solutions must be ESSs according to Selten's (1980) theorem. This could be reflected in the present data by the fact that all prior roles were reinstated, without any escalation. Though, prior winners systematically defeated prior losers under both conditions of cognizance, contest outcome was more extreme in familiar dyads than in unfamiliar ones. Fam individuals conformed to and reinstated their initial dominance relationship while, in Unf pairs, respective roles were less clearly identified. The costs of conflicts were also higher in Unf pairs than in Fam ones. Though total contest lengths did not significantly differ,
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Contests with general preferences

Contests with general preferences

Within the classical literature on contests (e.g., Congleton et al., 2008), a standard result exists in which aggregate efforts are increasing in the size of the prize. Furthermore, it is also usually observed that the dissipation ratio of the prize is independent of the prize but increas- ing in the number of players. Thus as the number of players increases, the dissipation ratio tends to one (e.g, Hillman and Samet, 1987). Yet both these predictions—of increasing aggre- gate effort and invariance of the dissipation ratio with respect to the prize—are not universally observed. Thus we attempt to provide an encompassing model that explains the conditions on contestants’ preferences under which they do occur, and indeed, when this conventional wisdom is reversed. We begin with a simple Tullock share contest with a general preference structure, but then advance our framework to include a general contest success function as well as providing an analysis where the prize is endogenously determined by aggregate ef- forts. Throughout all advancements, we observe the rate of change of the marginal rate of substitution as pivotal to the outcome of the contest.
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The Role of Noise in Alliance Formation and Collusion in Conflicts

The Role of Noise in Alliance Formation and Collusion in Conflicts

Many real-world conflicts are to some extent determined randomly by noise. The way in which noise is modeled in contest success func- tions (CSFs) has has important implications both for the possibility of forming cooperative relationships as well as for the features of such relationships. In a one-shot conflict, we find that when noise is mod- eled as an exponential parameter in the CSF, there is a range of values for which an alliance between two parties can be beneficial, whereas that is not the case for an additive noise parameter. In an infinitely repeated conflict setting with additive noise, sustaining collusion via Nash reversion strategies is easier the more noise there is and more difficult the larger the contest’s prize value, while an increase in the contest’s number of players can make sustaining collusion either more or less difficult, all in marked contrast to the case of an exponential noise parameter. Which noise specification is appropriate is therefore an important consideration for modeling any conflict situation.
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Song as an Honest Indicator of Developmental Stress in Song Sparrows

Song as an Honest Indicator of Developmental Stress in Song Sparrows

The Developmental Stress Hypothesis proposes that the honesty of birdsong is maintained by costs incurred during development, such that song in adulthood reflects exposure to early-life stressors. The purpose of this thesis was to provide a rigorous test of the Developmental Stress Hypothesis in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). My three objectives were to determine the long-term effects of early-life stress on: 1) physiological traits (Chapters 2, 3, and 4); 2) male song production (Chapter 5); and 3) the response of females to song (Chapter 6). Nestlings were hand-reared in captivity under one of three treatment conditions: control, food restriction, or treatment with corticosterone (CORT). Exposure to both stressors affected nestling growth, standard metabolic rates, immune function, and endocrine regulation. There were pronounced sex differences in the effects of early-life stress on physiological traits. For example, females exposed to either stressor had lower plasma estradiol levels, but CORT-treated males had higher basal testosterone levels, showing that early-life stress has opposite effects on plasma sex steroid levels in males and females. Exposure to early-life stress affected male song production. Males exposed to either stressor sang less complex song and food-restricted males sang less accurate copies of the tutor song. Neither stressor affected song stereotypy or trill performance, however, suggesting that developmental stress may not affect vocal performance in this species. Females exposed to either stressor were less selective in their behavioural response to conspecific versus heterospecific song and to high versus low complexity song. This was paralleled by
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PubMedCentral-PMC4872295.pdf

PubMedCentral-PMC4872295.pdf

The crowdsourced intervention has been described in detail elsewhere [15]. Development of the intervention for this trial included the following steps. First, we posted a public call for videos promoting HIV testing and hosted a call to increase awareness of the contest. Second, a group of multisectoral judg- es, including researchers, community health leaders, public health and marketing experts, and business leaders, evaluated each of the video entries with a score of 1 (worst) to 10 (best). The judges identi fi ed a single contest winner based on the ca- pacity to reach untested individuals, generating excitement, and community responsiveness. Finally, the winning video was in- cluded in the intervention arm of this trial (Supplementary Data A). The 1-minute video showed 2 Chinese men falling in love and getting tested for HIV together. The health market- ing video intervention was developed independently from the contest by a small marketing company with the guidance of a municipal public health bureau (Supplementary Data B). The 1-minute health marketing video included a cartoon providing HIV education and promoting HIV testing.
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User experiments with the Eurovision cross-language image retrieval system

User experiments with the Eurovision cross-language image retrieval system

The user experiments were undertaken in the following manner. At arrival time participants filled in a pre-test questionnaire to establish their search and language abilities. Participants were then briefed on the goals of the experiments, and shown how to use the Eurovision system. Then followed 10 minutes when participants were able to perform their own searches and become familiar with the Eurovision system. Two experiments or tasks were performed by the users: a known-item and category search, comprising of 4 topics each. The condition varied in each task was the search language: either English or their native language. Users performed half the topics in English and half in their native language, the system providing the same functionality in each case. The presentation order of topic and search language was rotated according to a Latin-Square arrangement as used in iCLEF (Gonzalo & Oard, 2002). This reduces bias from users performing the same tasks with the same system in the same order (counter-balancing). Users were allowed a maximum of 10 minutes to complete each topic with no restriction on their search methods.
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The relationships between rugby players’ tackle training attitudes and behaviour and their match tackle attitudes and behaviour

The relationships between rugby players’ tackle training attitudes and behaviour and their match tackle attitudes and behaviour

tackles (whether as a ball carrier or tackler) during a match depending on their positional role in the team. 24 25 The nature of two or more bodies physically engaging at such frequencies and sometimes at high speeds exposes players to muscle damage and a high risk of injury. 26 27 Tackle-related injuries account for up to 61% of all injuries during a rugby match. 23 27 28 Thus, players ’ ability to tolerate and contest tackle events (whether as a ball carrier or tackler) is a pre- requisite for safe participation and success in rugby. 29 Not much is known about training for the tackle and how this translates into performance of the tackle in matches. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relation- ships between players ’ training attitudes and behaviour and their match attitudes and behaviour for tackling in rugby union.
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Design and Analysis of the First BOWS Contest

Design and Analysis of the First BOWS Contest

This section is devoted to the comparison between the results obtained during the two phases of the contest, to try to un- derstand if the knowledge of the watermarking scheme in the last three months has been useful for the contenders. By an- alyzing the results, summarized in Table 4, it is possible first of all to note that a limited number of participants succeeded to remove the watermark from all the three images, demon- strating that the adopted watermarking scheme is highly ro- bust. In fact, at the end of the first phase of the contest the hall of fame was composed by only 20 records, whereas in the second part 25 new successful attacks entered in. How- ever, most of the contenders registered more than once in the database, since they were able to increase the performance of their attacks, so that actually only 10 participants succeeded in the first phase, and 17 in the second one. In particular, it is interesting to note that the best results were obtained by researchers expert and well known in the watermarking area. The attacks have been carried out by a high number of clients in the first phase; in many cases, only a limited num- ber of trials were applied by the contender, without remov- ing the watermark, after which the contender refrained from continuing the contest. This fact can be explained by assum- ing that the first trials were carried out by people without experience on watermarking that perceived the contest too difficult for their skills, and thus after a few trials decided to stop their participation to the contest. In the second phase of the contest, a lower number of contenders participated, but with greater experience. The number of attacks in the sec- ond phase was ten times the attacks in the first one; however, the successful attacks were only twice as much, so that the percentage of successes decreased a lot from 13.9% to only 2.86%, showing that in the second part of the contest the sen- sitivity attack [6–8], based on a high number of uploads and small changes in the parameters controlling the attack, was heavily applied. This fact is confirmed when the number of images uploaded by each IP address is analyzed. As a matter of fact, the contest log files show that most images have been received by computers used by A. Westfeld; in particular, his attacks definitely prevailed in the second part of the contest (we estimated that he uploaded more than 600.000 images), whereas in the first one, his images represented about one half of the attacks. These results indicate that A. Westfeld made massive use of the sensitivity attack during the contest, with particular reference to the second phase.
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Tacit Collusion in Repeated Contests with Noise

Tacit Collusion in Repeated Contests with Noise

In a contest, players compete by making irrecoverable expenditures or costly efforts to in- crease their probability of winning a prize. Lobbying, electoral competition, litigation, ad- vertising competition, R&D competition, military conflict, and sporting competition are all examples of real-world contests. In many such contests, players’ winning probabilities are determined not only by their expenditures, but also by pure chance or noise. For example, a military conflict could be decided not only by the sizes of the countries’ armies, but also by the geography and prevailing weather where the conflict takes place. Many real-world contests are also repeated. Repeated contests could provide players opportunities and in- centives to collude by mutually refraining from competing with one another. If players are sufficiently patient (or, equivalently, believe the contest will repeat with a sufficiently high probability), then long-term collusion could dominate short-term opportunism when players use strategies with implicit threats to punish deviations from collusion. Continuing with the military conflict example, the long-lived nature of interactions among countries could pro- vide them incentives to alter their military expenditures or reach other agreements that have them refrain from engaging in costly conflicts. Because there are many real-world repeated contests with noise, gaining insight into how noise affects incentives for collusion in repeated contests is important.
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Essays on Civil Litigation and Contest Theory

Essays on Civil Litigation and Contest Theory

Parallel to the Tullock tradition of contest models — in which no player wins a prize almost surely (in equilibrium) no matter how much she spends — are all-pay or rank-order contests (or auctions) — in which the highest spending player wins the highest prize almost surely. Baye, Kovenock, and De Vries (1996) first characterized equilibria for this class of games, and Konrad (2009) and Serena and Corchón (2017) provided recent surveys. Applications of all-pay contests include political lobbying (for example, Hillman and Riley 1989, Baye, Kovenock, and De Vries 1993, Che and Gale 1998), R&D (for example, Che and Gale 2003), litigation (for example, Klemperer 2003, Baye et al. 2005), and school tracking (for example, Xiao 2016). Studying moral-hazard problems faced by firms, Lazear and Rosen (1981) compared workers’ incentives under rank-based compensation and under output-based compensation, and Akerlof and Holden (2012) characterized the optimal rank-based compensation structure. To advance their goals, all-pay contest designers can optimally determine the number and distribution of prizes (Moldovanu and Sela 2001), exploit the contestants’ concerns for relative ranking (Moldovanu, Sela, and Shi 2007), or introduce insurance to reimburse the losers (Minchuk and Sela 2017). While the present effort clearly does not attempt to develop all-pay contests, we nonetheless share the same ambition as authors who generalize all-pay contests. In particular, Baye et al. (2012) offer equilibrium characterization of a simultaneous-move, two-player rank-order contests with complete information, in which each player generates affine spillovers that depend on her rank. Siegel (2009, 2010) generalizes all-pay contests to allow for arbitrary cost functions, while Xiao’s (2016) model permits convex prize sequences. Moreover, Olszewski and Siegel (2016) approximate the equilibrium outcomes of all-pay contests with a large number of asymmetric players who may have complete or incomplete information. Xiao (2017) recently builds upon Siegel (2009, 2010) to introduce performance spillovers in
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Overbidding and Heterogeneous Behavior in Contest Experiments

Overbidding and Heterogeneous Behavior in Contest Experiments

Another way to reduce overbidding is to promote pro-social behavior among contestants. One such mechanism is communication. Cason et al. (2012), for example, find that when two contestants (or two competing groups) are allowed to communicate, they usually collude by exerting very low efforts (close to zero). Even when communication is not possible, there are other mechanisms through which subjects can still learn to reduce their efforts. Savikhin and Sheremeta (2013), for example, find that subjects reduce efforts in a lottery contest if they simultaneously participate in a public good game. Mago et al. (2012) find that subjects exert lower efforts in contests when their identities are reveled through photo display. The authors argue that photo display reduces social distance and enhances pro-social behavior, leading subjects to behave more cooperatively.
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An elimination contest with non sunk bids

An elimination contest with non sunk bids

On the other hand, Gradstein and Konrad (1999) focus on the optimal structure issue and, studying a Tullock contest with symmetric players, ask under which conditions it is better for the designer to choose a multi-stage format rather than a single-stage one, thereby endogenizing the choice of the contest structure. They find that a single-stage contest is preferable only when the contest rules are discriminatory enough, i.e., when the effort exerted by contestants is relatively more important than random factors in determining the outcome of the contest (like in an all-pay auction). Also in this agenda, Amegashie (1999) models a two-stage Tullock contest with symmetric players, and finds that the result that an increase in the sensitivity of the contest sponsor yields an increase of exterted efforts, which was given as granted for one-stage contests, does not necessarily hold in a multi-stage context. Other papers belonging to this line of research are Moldovanu and Sela (2006) - who implement an analysis similar to Gradstein and Konrad (1999) but in an incomplete information setting - and Gradstein (1998) and Amegashie (2000).
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Leadership and social change: a contest for influence

Leadership and social change: a contest for influence

Even though leadership is a contest for influence, where multiple would-be leaders vie for the support of the same group, it is rarely studied as such. The present research aimed to address this gap. The two studies presented in this chapter pitted two competing leaders, a pro-status quo incumbent and a pro-change alternative candidate, against each other in order to investigate the dynamics of influence involved in the process of mobilising for social change. These studies showed that a new, pro-change leader will succeed in mobilizing collective efforts for change over an existing leader when existing leaders are unable to keep up with the momentum for change, but only when emerging leaders are also aligned with followers’ understandings of intergroup relations and therefore seen to advance change ‘we believe in’ (Study 2). However, when new leadership candidates are unable to capture the group’s future aspirations, the current leader seems likely to retain their influence (Studies 1 & 2).
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