Aphanmixis polystachya (Amoora rohituka) is well known traditional plant in India. The plant is having laxative, anthelmintic, astringent, Immunosuppressive, potent antitumor activity and in-vitro antibacterial, antifungal activity. The aim was to search for anti-ulceractivity of aqueous and methanolic extract of Aphanmixis polystachya stem bark. Aqueous and methanolic extract of Aphanmixis polystachya stem bark was investigated for its potential to protect gastric mucosa against ulcers induced by Pylorus ligation method, indomethacin induced, Stress ulcer through cold water immersion. Ulcer index, free acidity, total acidity and Percentage protection were used for evaluation of antiulceractivity. Pre-treatment with both Aphanmixis polystachya stem bark extracts in dose of 200 mg/kg significantly diminished the ulcer index and the % protection of ulcer compared with control group (p<0.05).Based on the studies we concluded that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Aphanmixis polystachya stem bark might contain some active principles against ulcer healing.
Fig. 5: Normal control group Fig. 6: Swim stress group
Fig. 7: Omeperazole group Fig. 8: Extract treated group
Ulcer index parameter was used for the evaluation of anti-ulceractivity since ulcer formation is directly related to factors like gastric volume, free acidity and total acidity. 23, 24 Water immersion stress is one of the best methods of stress in rats to induce ulcer. The model provides both emotional as well as physiological stress to the animals. Which affect gastrointestinal defense and increased accumulation of acid due to influx of H + into the lumen of the stomach by parietal cell plasma membrane bound H + , K + -ATPase leading to auto digestion of the gastric mucosa and generation of free radicals which further increase the ulcers in the body. 10, 25
The objective of present research work was to investigate in-vitro digestive property and in-vivo anti-ulceractivity of Pep-Up Tablet in aspirin-induced acute gastric ulcer. In-vitro investigation of Pep-Up Tablet for digestive property was performed by means of evaluating amylolytic, lipolytic and proteolytic activity in comparison with blank. For In-vivo evaluation, on aspirin induced acute gastric ulcer model in rats, animals were divided in to three groups where each group was consisting of six animals. Group-I, II and III was considered as Normal control, Disease control and Pep-Up Tablet treated respectively. Pep-Up Tablet (200 mg/kg/day) treatment was provided for 7 days orally. Ulcer index, gastric wall mucus content, lipid peroxidation level in stomach tissue and tissue anti-oxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione and catalase enzyme activity were carried out. Histopathology of stomach tissue was also performed. Statistical calculations were done by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc Bonferroni’s test, with significant level of p<0.05. In present study, Pep-Up Tablet showed noticeable amylolytic, lipolytic and proteolytic activity. Pre-treatment of Pep-Up Tablet showed significant protection against aspirin induced ulceration and loss of gastric wall mucus content. Study also revealed significant increase in tissue anti-oxidant parameters. Histopathology study revealed that Pep-Up Tablet provides significant cyto-protection against aspirin induced mucosal damage. On the basis of study data, it can be concluded that Pep-Up Tablet possesses considerable property of digesting starch, lipids and proteins. Data also revealed that Pep-Up Tablet exhibits anti-ulceractivity against aspirin induced acute gastric ulcer.
In the present study, extract decreased the gastric juice volume which may be because of its anti-secretory mechanism.
Ethanol extract showed elevation in pH indicating its capacity to reduce the acidity of the gastric juice when compared to control animals. The mean ulcer number value of ethanol extract at 400 mg/kg is almost equipotent as that of ranitidine. The extract of C. fl exuosus has signifi cantly exhibited a signifi cant decrease in both total acidity and also free acidity in pylorus ligation model. The reduction in acid output, peptic activity and increase in mucin secretion were the major mechanisms behind the protection shown in the pylorus ligation model. The reduced acid output measured after pyloric ligation indicates the effect of the extract’s protective mechanism on gastric mucosa, causing an inhibition of
Pyloric ligation-induced ulcers are probably mediated by histamine release with enhancement in acid secretion and a reduction in mucus production.
Histamine plays a mediating role in the gastric secretion stimulated by gastrin, vagal excitation and cholinergic agent (37). Volume of gastric secretion is an important factor in the production of ulcer due to exposure of unprotected lumen of the stomach by the accumulating acid (25). Decrease in mucosal secretion is considered important in gastric ulcera- tion (38). The results of the present study indicated that PIL signiﬁcantly increased the mucous content at lower dosage. At higher dose, ie 160 mg/kg, PIL only showed prominent reduction of the mucous content, which was insigniﬁcant. Thus, the increa- sed gastric wall mucous may be responsible to some extent in reducing the severity of gastric lesions in pyloric ligation model.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is characterized by inflamed lesions or excavations of the mucosa and underlying tissue of the upper gastrointestinal tract.
The ulcers are the result of damage to the mucus membrane that normally protects the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum from gastric acid and pepsin. The pathophysiology of this gastro-intestinal disorder is viewed as an imbalance between mucosal defensive factors such as bicarbonate, prostaglandin, nitric oxide, peptides, growth factors and injurious factors like acid, pepsin. Gastric ulcer is often a chronic disease and may persist for 10 – 12 years characterized by repeated episode of healing and re-exacerbations.( Coles, G.C., 1997.)
The preliminary phytochemical screening of the hydroalcoholic extract of Nelumbo nucifera revealed that the presence phytochemoicals like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, triterpinoids, steroids and saponins. The significant antiulcer potential could be attributed to the presence of flavonoids such as quercetin has been reported. Flavonoids prevent gastric mucosal lesions in various experimental models by elevating the level of neutral glycoproteins mucosal prostaglandins and by inhibiting the action of histidine decarboxylase in the mast cells. The anti oxidant property of flavonoids has been reported to protect the gastrointestinal tract from ulcerative lesions. They additionally act by chelation of transition metal particles, restraint of oxidant enzyme age of a tocopherol of α-tocopherol from α- tocopheroxyl radicals in this manner promoting mucus formation, reducing acid secretion and hindering the generation of pepsinogen causing a diminishing in the ulcer seriousness 16 .
Although some studies have found correlations between smoking and ulcer formation, others have been more specific in exploring the risks involved and have found that smoking by itself may not be much of a risk factor unless associated with H. pylori infection. Some suggested risk factors such as diet, spice consumption and blood type, were hypothesized as ulcerogens (helping cause ulcers) until late in the 20th century, but have been shown to be of relatively minor importance in the development of peptic ulcers. Similarly, while studies have found that alcohol consumption increases risk when associated with H. pylori infection, it does not seem to independently increase risk, and even when coupled with H. pylori infection, the increase is modest in comparison to the primary risk factor.
10 . Many factors and mechanisms are involved in the ulcerogenesis and gastric mucosal damage. Ethanol induced gastric ulcer was employed to study the cytoprotective effect of the extracts. The ethanol-induced ulcers are predominant in the glandular part of stomach and were reported to stimulate the formation of leukotriene C4 (LTC4), mast cell secretory products and reactive oxygen species resulting in the damage of rat gastric mucosa. 11 Alcohol rapidly penetrates the gastric mucosa causing cell and plasma membrane damage leading to increased intra cellular membrane permeability to sodium and water. The massive intracellular accumulation of calcium represents a major step in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal injury. This leads to cell death and exfoliation in the surface epithelium. The beet root extract shows protection in dose dependent manner against characteristic lesions produced by ethanol and reduced values of ulcer index as compared control group suggesting its potent cytoprotective activity.
Antiulcer activity of EEPU
Pylorus ligation-induced ulcer 
In pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model, Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups containing six animals each. Group I received normal saline at the dose of 2 ml/kg. Group II received standard drug omeprazole at 20 mg/kg. Group III received EEPU at the dose of 500mg/kg. For all three groups, drugs were administered orally 1 h before pylorus ligation. Pylorus ligation was done under ether anesthesia at 35 mg/kg body weight without causing damage to stomach blood supply. Ligated rats were allowed to recover and were maintained in individual cages.
referred to as peptic ulcers. Ulcers probably due to an imbalance between the aggressive (acid, pepsin, bile and H. pylori) and defensive (gastric mucus and bicarbonate secretion, prostaglandins, nitric acid, innate resistance of the mucosal cells.) factors. Aetiology of ulcer is infection caused by Helicobacter pylori, excessive use of NSAIDs. Excess secretion of gastric acid, stress conditions, diet. Common signs of peptic ulcers are pain in the abdomen with burning sensation, pain after 2-3 hrs of food consumption, heart burn and indigestion, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and weight loss, blood vomiting and pain during night time. Various medicinal plants available for treatment of ulcers. The Platycodon grandiflorum A.DC is one of the medicinal plant belongs to family Campanulaceae, commonly known as Ballon flower. It is distributed in India, China, Kurea, Japan and East Siberia. The plant growing to 60cm tall by 30cm in wide. Balloon flower is an herbaceous perennial with dark green leaves, blue flowers and suitable for sunny to light shaded places.
Gastric ulcers the most wide state disease and are a very common global problem today. Peptic ulcer is a lesion of the gastric/duodenal mucosa occurs at a site where the mucosal epithelium is exposed to acid and pepsin. As plants are a rich source of active principles and antioxidants, there has been a growing interest to identify and scientifically validate agents that have traditionally been used in folk medicine in the treatment of gastric ulcers and related diseases. Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis a well known member of the family Malvaceae, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis grows as an evergreen herbaceous plant. H. rosa sinensis has been used for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Traditional uses of this plant are refrigerant" emollient and emmenagogue, aphrodisiac; decoction given in bronchial catarrh; infusion of petals is a refrigerant drink in fever, demulcent in cough and useful in strangury, cystitis and other genito-urinary troubles. In this experiment positive control group ligation of pylorus showed increase in gastric juice, ulcer index, pH of gastric juice and fee acidity. Administration of Ranitidine (30mg/kg), HAHR (100& 200 mg/kg) showed significant reduction with respect to above parameters and showed significant increase in % gastroprotection. In present study HAHR significantly reduced the gastric acid secretion. The cyto-protective action which promotes the generation of prostaglandin and causes decreases in secretion of gastric acid, mixture significantly reduced the gastric ulceration in pyloric ligated rats without affecting the gastric secretion or pepsin. Phytochemical examination revealed that HAHR contains saponins, sterols and flavonoids. Saponins, sterols and flavonoids present in HAHR may be responsible for antiulcer activity in pylorus induced ulcer model.
ABSTRACT: Objective: Oecophylla smaradina (Formicidae) is an ant evaluated for its variety of medicinal uses. The objective of this study to evaluate the anti-ulceractivity using albino rats. Methods: The albino rats of either sex were divided into four groups. Ethanolic extract of Oecophylla smaradina (EEOS) was tested in the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. respectively against by pylorus ligation induced ulcer models in albino rats. Results: Both the concentration (200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) of extract have provided significant activity but EEOS 200 mg/kg, p.o, extracts were less effective when compared to EEOS 400 mg/kg, p.o. The antiulcer activity was accessed by evaluate the ulcer index in the test and standard drug treated group and also estimated the gastric volume, total acid, and free acid in the pylorus-ligated rats. Conclusion:
crown of hanging, weak branches, padded foliage of tripinnate leaves, and thick, corky, profoundly fissured whitish bark. It is esteemed for the most part for its eatable natural products, leaves, blooms, roots, and seed oil, and is utilized widely in conventional prescription all through its local and presented ranges. It is developed and has turned out to be naturalized in different pieces of Pakistan, India, and Nepal, just as in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, West Asia, the Arabian promontory, East and West Africa, all through the West Indies and southern Florida, in Central and South America from Mexico to Peru, just as in Brazil and Paraguay. Moringa oleifera is a little, quickly developing evergreen or deciduous tree that generally grows up to 10 or 12 m in tallness. It has a spreading, open crown of hanging, delicate branches, fluffy foliage of tripinnate leaves, and thick, corky, whitish bark. 3-5 Since the reports about the antiulcer activity of the leaves of Moringa oleifera sparsely documented, it was considered worthwhile to investigate the antiulcer activity of the flower and seeds extact of Moringa oleifera and substantiate its ethnopharmacological claim of providing relief in PUD.
Pithecellobium dulce has been reported to exert several pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, anti inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, activities. Despite claim of its potential in the treatment of gastric ulcer, this plant so for not been screened for anti-ulcer potential activity. Thus, we take this opportunity to report the preliminary findings on antiulcer potential of Pithecellobiumdulce seed extracts for the first time here. The present study demonstrated the potential of EEPD and AEPD to significantly reduced gastric ulceration as indicated by the reduction in ulcer index in the pylorus induced assays. Based on further findings using the PL assay, the extracts was suggested to act by reducing the volume of gastric juice secreted, gastric free and total acidities. These results suggested that EEPD and AEPD possess anti-secretory potency as well s acid neutralizing effect. It is also possible to suggest that the observed antiulcer activity associated with P.dulce is the ability to exhibit antioxidant activity cited above. Oxidative stress, resulting from the increase production of oxygen derived free radicals (e.g. superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals), has been known to take part in the pathogenesis of various diseases including gastric ulcer and antioxidants help to protect cells from damage elicited by oxidative stress while enhancing the body ’ s defence systems against degenerative diseases.
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi-835215 (Jharkhand), India.
Peptic ulceration is considered to be one of the modern age epidemics, has been affecting approximately 10% of world population. Peptic ulcer occurs due to an imbalance between acid and pepsin along with the weakness of the mucosal barrier. Due to these, it is commonly associated with damage of the stomach’s mucosal layer, which is simply generated via excess generation of exogenous and endogenous active oxygen and free radicals. Some of the main causes of gastric ulcers include chronic use of alcoholic beverages and anti- inflammatory drugs, as well as stress and Helicobacter pyroli infection In this study phytochemical screening of the fruits of Helicteres isora Linn. were performed to find out the existence of various phytoconstituents. Then in vitro studies were carried out to check various antioxidant property using hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity, estimation of total phenolic content and total flavonoid content. Animal models were developed by aspirin+pyloric ligation method and ethanol ligation method on Wistar rats. The chosen drug showed a potent antiulcer activity, the effect may be attributed to the presence of flavonoids in the extract. Flavonoids are responsible for the free radical scavenging activity and are believed to be one of the important components in antiulcer activity. Potent free radical scavenging activity was found for active sub-fractions of ethyl acetate extract of Helicteres isora Linn. This study showed a potent antiulcer activity of the most active fraction of Helicteres isora Linn. that suggests, ethnopharmacological approach in selecting the plant for study may be useful.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the antiulcerogenic property of Tinospora cordifolia Miers in aspirin and ethanol induced gastric ulceration models in albino rats and to compare its efficacy with the standard drug ranitidine. 48 albino rats of either sex, weighing 130-200g were selected and divided into groups of 6 animals of either sex randomly. Aspirin, suspended in 1% carboxymethyl cellulose in water was administered in a dose of 500mg/kg orally, ethanol (99.9%) was administered in a dose of 1ml and ranitidine was given in the dose of 20mg/kg. The test compound – Tinospora cordifolia was suspended in 1% carboxy methyl cellulose in water (1ml = 100mg) and was given in the doses of 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg. In each group the total score, mean score, standard deviation, standard error of mean, P Value, ulcer index and ulcer incidence were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student ‘t’ test and Wilcoxan rank test . On evaluation, Tinospora cordifolia was found to possess statistically significant (p<0.05) antiulcerogenic effect in both aspirin and ethanol induced gastric ulceration models. But, when compared to standard control (ranitidine) statistical significant difference was not seen in case of aspirin induced gastric ulceration. In case of ethanol model, when compared with ranitidine group, Tinospora cordifolia in the dose of 400mg/kg did not show any significant difference, but in the dose of 600mg/kg showed a statistically significant (p<0.05) better protection. Hence, it can be concluded that Tinospora cordifolia pretreatment has provided significant protection against both aspirin and ethanol induced gastric mucosal lesions. At the dose of 600mg/kg, its antiulcerogenic effect was found to be better than ranidine against ethanol induced gastric lesions.
ABSTRACT: The leaves and fruits of Smilax perfoliata are traditionally used for treatment of various ailments such as rheumatism, lumbago, nourishing the functions of spleen, stomach, muscle and bone. The intent of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-ulceractivity of ethanolic leaves and fruits extract of Smilax perfoliata Linn in albino rats. Gastric ulcers were induced by employing pylorus ligation method of induction. The anti-ulceractivity was analyzed by estimation of free acidity and the total acidity. The antioxidant potential was analyzed by method of DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The results obtained showed that the leaves and fruits of Smilax perfoliata possess antioxidant potential and are capable in the ministration of gastric ulcers.
The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the antiulcer activity of Trianthema triquetra roots ethanolic extract in Wistar albino rats using NSAIDs & Ethanol induced ulcer models. Plant material was collected from Tirupati A.P, during the month of June 2014. The roots were made free from dust and foreign material and dried under shade at room temperature. After a week the roots were powdered and passed through a sieve. The powder was weighed (500 gm) and was extracted by successive solvent extraction process. The yield of ethanolic extract of trianthema triquetra was found to be 7.31% W/W. Phytochemical screening was carried out for the detection of the phytoconstituents by simple qualitative methods. The dosing was designed as per the acute toxicity study reported earlier. The anti-ulceractivity was performed by NSAID and ethanol induced ulcer model at two different doses, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg. Wistar rats weighing(130-150gm) of either sex were used for the study. There was significant reduction of ulcers in the test groups observed in both NSAID and ethanol induced ulcer models. TTEE exhibited anti-ulceractivity in both curative and prophylactic experimental models which provides the evidence of its use as a potent antiulcer drug.
Due to the mounting concentration in the alternative therapies in current years, herbal products have become popular [6, 7]. P. niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae), leaves extract is one such herbal drug currently undertaken in this study primarily to explore its anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic potential in animal model. P. niruri can be found in the tropical regions of Asia and America. The common names of the plant are stonebreaker or seed-under-leaf. P. niruri is a chief plant in the Ayurvedic tradition to treat stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney and spleen conditions. The medicinal use of the plant in disorders includes dysentery, influenza, vaginitis, tumors, diabetes, jaundice, dyspepsia etc. The various extracts of the plant also proved to act as antiviral and antibacterial agent [8–10]. Indigenous women have also used the plant for menstruation and uterus problems . Many active phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, lignin, polyphenols, tannins, coumarins and saponins have been recognized from various parts of P. niruri. Extracts of this herb have been proven to have therapeutic effects in many preclinical studies. Phyllanthus niruri has been reported to be an effective anti- inflammatory , analgesic , gastroprotective , anti-diabetic , hepatoproctive [16–18], anti-malarial [19, 14] and antispasmodic . In Bangladesh, P. niruri grows all over the country. According to a previous study, the aerial part of this plant has been reported for its anti- inflammatory activity . Besides, it has been stated that the leaves of P. niruri contain profound amount of flavo- noids and polyphenolics  which possess significant