provided a language for describing the fantasy life of the infantilised and enslaved female readers of bestsellers and romances. For Fry and Bell, ‘Dr Freud’s’ theory of wish-fulfilment provided a perfect account of ‘papers like the Daily Mail and the Daily Mirror […] which supply every day their pittance of imagined romantic love to hungry girl clerks and housemaids.’ 29 Leavis, on the other hand, suggested that only ‘a psycho-analyst’ could explain the ways in which popular fiction feeds the ‘starved desires of the vast bulk of the public.’ 30 And yet the debate about literacy, about high and low culture, maturity and infantilism, figured not just within modernist culture and literary criticism, but also inside the British psychoanalytic community of the 1920s and 1930s, where the figure of the childreader was crucial in thinking about the peculiar psychic vicissitudes of reading difficult books.
Index Terms — Accelerometer, RFID reader, child activity, activity recognition.
The child activity recognition using sensor such as accelerometer and RFID reader can be used in Varity of application. The activity recognition can be adopted in real time. As children usually start walking between 8 months and 16 months, at this age they are more risk of falling from window and staircase. Falls are a frequent cause of injury in children. At this age they go near dangerous material such as refrigerator, electric socket, wet room, kitchen etc. Accident and emergency departments systems show that falls are one of the most common mechanisms of injuries that require medical care, and the most common nonfatal injury that at times needs hospitalisation. In children younger than four years of age, most fall-related injuries occur at home. Thus, a new safety management method for children is required to prevent child home accidents. In order to overcome problem we are implementing child activity recognition using accelerometer and RFID reader. One of most challenging issue in this context is to monitor daily activity of children and prevent child from high temperature using temperature senor and determine fire at home using smoke sensor. Recently, Atallah et al. investigated the effects of sensor position and feature selection on activity classification tasks using accelerometers.
However, there were also challenges to recruiting some schools, which will be discussed in the next section.
6.4.2 Key factors affecting pupils and school impact
The key factors affecting impact revolved around the role and competence of the RRT and the effective championing of the programme within schools and LAs. The factors reported to have contributed to increased attainment for pupils on ReadingRecovery were the skills and experience of the RRT and the structure of ReadingRecovery, e.g. the daily delivery for thirty minutes and techniques used in the intervention. In addition, there were school staff members who perceived that a range of factors not related to ReadingRecovery had also influenced outcomes. If pupils on ReadingRecovery did not meet age related expectations this was attributed to the barriers to learning faced by individual pupils, including complex support needs and poor attendance. Consequently, the understanding and clarity of the role of the RRT - whether they were considered as purely a deliverer of RR or more as a focal point for improving literacy good-practice - affected the level of impact they were able to have. Understanding the role as the latter was crucial to having a wider impact, yet it is important to note that there were concerns amongst some RRTs as to whether they had the skills to perform this role, though this was more apparent amongst those with less experience.
In her very influential Learning to Read: The Great Debate, Jeanne Chall has characterized the contest as “code-emphasis (or decoding) versus mean- ing-emphasis” (Chall, 1967/1983, p. 2). The research on code-emphasis instruction was typically conducted by psychologists using large samples, random assignment of treatments, and controlled experiments. Typically the outcome measure in the controlled experiment was speed or accuracy on some specialized reading task—for example, an alliteration oddity test in which the child is asked to identify the odd man out from lists such as: pin, win, sit, fin (Bradley & Bryant, 1983). The research on meaning- emphasis, on the other hand, was typically conducted using case studies and ethnographic observation in family and school settings. The code- emphasis advocates developed performance standards and assessment instruments. The meaning-emphasis advocates investigated family literacy and the conditions under which learning to read seems naturally to occur, such as during the bedtime story (Heath, 1983; Wells, 1986). At bedrock, the two groups had very different views of how children learn to read. Is it an artificial process that needs to be closely supervised or is it a natural developmental process? Can reading be directly taught or is it something that children themselves learn, given the right conditions? Is the measure of reading success the test score on a standardized instrument or is it the delight that the child takes in hearing stories and in engaging in voluntary reading? One stubborn fact is that some children learn to read on their own before they go to school with no apparent instruction, while others fail at reading, despite intensive instruction.
Given the relationship between numeracy and literacy difficulties, a few schools also took part in the EveryChild a Reader (ECaR) programme. Many of these were able to integrate their ECC and ECaR working effectively, and it was suggested that doing both helped to normalise the notion of intensive one-to-one interventions. Nonetheless a number of schools pointed to the difficulties of adopting more than one major initiative at a time. Issues raised included availability of suitable staff, cost, and initiative overload. This was felt to be the case for head teachers with teaching commitments, limited senior staff support and lack of suitable space. In two of the schools visited it was apparent that this had been a problem, although given the number and nature of the selection criteria for the research, it would be inappropriate to generalise too much from this finding.
Fremont ReadingRecovery Teacher Training Site - Guidelines to Govern School Visits
The pattern of progress made by children will be different from child to child. Before scheduling a school visit re-read ‘Children who are finding it hard to accelerate’ in section 21 of LLDI 2 keeping in mind that Marie Clay says, “ Ideally consultation would occur after ‘Roaming Around the Known’ and not more that 10-15 lessons later.”
¨ The Act requires speciﬁc components for the READ plan, guidelines on parental involvement, and Nming of plan creaNon. As appropriate, a local educaNon provider may integrate into a student’s Individualized EducaNon Plan or Individualized Readiness Plan intervenNon instrucNon and strategies to address the student’s reading deﬁciencies in lieu of a READ plan. See handout on Guidance for SWD.
The agenda of the Alabama Education Association puts students at the center of education improvements. AEA is committed as a professional organization, just as its individual members are deeply committed, to the success of everychild. The teaching and caring for students in our public schools is a profession. We know that teachers and education support professionals must work to connect and motivate every student, yet we need parents and families to help instill values of respect, responsibility, and love for learning. In Alabama, our elected leaders must invest in classroom priorities that build the foundation for student learning; early childhood education, smaller class sizes, and fully-funded programs for reading, math, science, and technology. We need funding for up-to-date textbooks and computers, and the ability to provide a well-rounded education that includes history, arts, physical education, and music. AEA is the voice of the education profession with more than 95,000 members who believe that every student must have qualified and caring professionals in our schools. Lending your voice as an AEA member has meant many recent successes in the Legislature. AEA protected the integrity of your retirement system, stopped charter schools, prevented the loss of 1500 education jobs, began to restore classroom supplies, stopped diversion, and killed efforts to destroy the Education Trust Fund. We have much to do for our students and our schools, and your participation in AEA gives us the strength to improve our schools and improve our profession.
THE PoWER oF READING
Delivering an ambition of an early years graduate in every nursery will require additional funding from government to support university places and to subsidise the higher wages of qualified professionals. In many cases, the business models of private nurseries do not allow them to employ an early years graduate. This is particularly true in deprived neighbourhoods where nurseries have to keep their fees affordable for local parents. There is a strong case for the government to step in, given the demonstrable impact of early years graduates on children’s early learning. on page 10 we set out our preferred option for how government could incentivise this, focusing scarce resources on the most disadvantaged children.
Bertha Mason, as she appears in Jane Eyre, is anything but an indomitable figure. More of a literary device than a character, our first and most affective impression of her is through her laugh, ‘a clamorous peal that seemed to wake an echo in every lonely chamber.'’
By the time we are presented with the woman herself, more beast than person, she is the epitome of the hysterical female subject. What if Jane’s voice is taken away and the story re- told by Bertha...
Data reveal that many children in low-income neighborhoods attend chronically low-performing schools. This problem becomes evident at the elementary level, continues on through middle school, and is further intensified by the time the children reach high school. According to 2010 data from the California Department of Education, only 32% of African American and 29% of Latino students in the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) were reading at grade level by the end of
undergraduate at university in Galway. I was an unenthusiastic, unmotivated student, shuffling along through my early twenties in a kind of fog. I had no idea what I wanted to do after my studies were completed – strangely I cannot recall ever even thinking about it. Then in 1992 I spent a summer waiting tables in Chicago and feeling homesick from time to time. I began to read Amongst Women and something came alive inside me, some magical recognition. The book seemed to be describing and validating aspects of my own life from small observations about the playing of cards, the making of a mixed grill or the saying of the Rosary, to more profound insights like the impossibility of stopping time or the complicated and often painful love between father and son. From this moment on, my reading changed. It is something that happens to every lover of reading and is described better by McGahern than by anyone else I can think of:
One of the easiest ways to convert contour lines into a mental picture is to imagine the lines as high tide marks left by the sea.
As the water level drops it leaves a line every 5 or 10 metres on the landscape, forming the contour lines. It’s worth bearing in mind that smaller features may be missed by contour lines. If a feature is 9 metres high on the land it may not appear on a map with contour lines at 10 metre intervals. This can be surprising when you see the actual landscape and it contains features you haven’t imagined since they don’t appear on your map.
readings, so you will not need a dictionary until you have worked through almost everyreading.
As you begin reading on your own, however, you will need a good dictionary. There are several excellent online dictionaries, but no German dictionary is fully comprehensive, so you should familiarize yourself with several. When you look up a word, do not just stop with the first- offered definition, but look for other meanings. Listed below are some of the best and most useful German- English dictionaries.
Smart financing entails sensitivity to country context.
Thus the GFF approach in a humanitarian setting or a fragile/conflict-affected state differs consider- ably from the approach in a rapidly growing lower- middle-income country. In the former, for example, the GFF focuses on supporting countries through the transition from response to early recovery and eventually to building resilience through strengthening longer-term institutional capacity. Another important dimension of this is the way in which the GFF operates in the context of decentralization. The flexibility of the GFF’s approach enables it to play an important role in supporting decentralization efforts, such as by creating incentives for sub-national authorities to increase allocations to RMNCAH and to focus these resources on best-buy interventions (as described in the box above on Ethiopia). Experience shows that financing actual performance at sub-national levels can strengthen managerial and executing capacity at these levels, leading to more effective decentralization.
Other points of the story tell not only how ignorant we are about the condition “dyslexia”, but boils down on the following issues:
1. The issue on parenting. Parents today are easily swayed by the competitive world and often times fail to understand their own children’s dreams. Most often, parents pushes their children to strive academically, forgetting that a child may not be academically successful, but is excelling in practical skills. While intelligence can be inherited, sometimes they are not brought out to the fullest because of the influence of the child’s growing up environment. The place where he lived may not be conducive for learning, or the people around him are not supportive of his studies or the child is determined to finish a course but the financial status of the parents do not permit, etc.
There are many successful frameworks such as S TANFORD C ORE NLP (Manning et al., 2014), NLTK (Bird et al., 2009), and SPA C Y 1 for NLP, L UCENE 2 and S OLR 3 for Information Retrieval, and SCIKIT - LEARN 4 , P Y T ORCH 5 and T ENSOR - F LOW (Abadi et al., 2015) for general Machine Learning (ML) with a special focus on Deep Learning (DL), among others. All of these frame- works touch upon several aspects of Machine Reading, but none of them offers dedicated sup- port for modern MR pipelines. Pre-processing and transforming MR datasets into a format that is us- able by a MR model as well as implementing com- mon architecture building blocks all require sub- stantial effort which is not specifically handled by any of the aforementioned solutions. This is due to the fact that they serve a different, typically much broader purpose.
In the education context both truants and an absentee are students who have failed to attend to school. As it was argued earlier, what differentiate them is the quality of the reason and not how long or how many times they have been missing from school. On the one hand, the literature defines an absentee as a student who has failed to attend to school but with permission from the school administration. Thus, regardless of the number of days a child missed classes, the reasons as to why he/she has failed to attend to school or a class are deemed genuine and are officially known. It needs to be acknowledged that school absenteeism cannot be denied. Due to some genuine reasons—including sickness—every now and then, students miss some school activities and lessons (Whitfield, 2010; Komakech & Osuu, 2014). As such it only becomes a problem if a student misses a school without any official excuse. And when the permission for absence is not officially granted, the quality of that action changes from being absenteeism to truancy. Putting it in brief therefore, contrary to absenteeism, truancy is a situation where a student has failed to attend to school or a class—regardless of the number of days—without any permission from the school authority (National Centre for School Engagement–NCSE, 2006; Yahaya et al., 2010; Komakech & Osuu, 2014; Van Breda, 2014).
of the intervention on student reading was considered more important for the students’ overall academic achievement. Thus, this ethical consideration was not considered to be harmful to participants.
Further, students in the control group who did not wish to read were academically penalized; however, this academic penalty did not exceed the current guidelines adopted by the English Department at the study’s location. The control group received an implementation of AR that was consistent with the practices adopted by the English Department. If the treatment was found to be beneficial, it would benefit all participants, as the intervention could easily be applied to the control group. Thus, after examining the results of the current study, if the intervention had been successful it could also have been implemented in the control group classroom. Additionally, the intervention’s duration of three weeks meant that, at its conclusion, there was time for students to make up their grades before the semester ended and grades were finalized. Thus, no students were ultimately penalized for participating in either the treatment or control groups.
Accelerated Reader (AR) is a powerful tool that motivates students of all ages and abilities to read for pleasure. A wealth of data is routinely collected about children’s reading skills to monitor and help manage their independent reading. However, no information is collected on the “softer” reading outcomes, such as reading enjoyment and attitudes towards reading. We were therefore commissioned by Renaissance Learning to help plug that gap using data from our third annual literacy survey, conducted in November / December 2012, in which 34,910 eight to 16-year-olds participated.