The Fleischmann-Pons effect consists of excessheat production in experiments where palladium cathodes are electrolyzed in heavy water; the amount of energy measured in such experiments is much too large to be of chemical origin; and energetic particles commensurate with the energy produced are absent. When first described in 1989, the response of the scientific community was one of skepticism and disbelief. Early efforts to confirm the effect were largely unsuccessful, due to a lack of understanding as to what are the critical issues. Subsequent
Abstract: Total heat generation in a vertically-shaped closed hydraulic circuit of specific section, supplied with a special device (SD) used to lock the circulating liquid medium, i.e. regular water, is analyzed in order to detect possible excessheat with regards to input electric or mechanical power. Long experimental runs were carried out in order to extract transient continuous equilibrium periods, i.e. constant water temperature, distinguished by the imposed recovery pressure and the SD model, while equilibrium series were obtained after connecting the main circuit to a heat exchanger with adjustable dissipation power. The generated heat was measured after observing the flow to the heat exchanger and the temperature difference between the supply and return lines. The heat dissipation from the main circuit was measured as a function of the difference between the circuit and environmental temperatures, as well as a calibration test without any SD was carried out in order to estimate the pump’s motor efficiency on the basis of classical energy conservation. The results show a sharp dependence of excessheat generation from height of installation and statistically significant dependence of excessheat generation upon both water temperature and hydraulic pressure. This evidence agrees with predictions from the theory of byuons about the occurrence of a new force of nature acting upon quickly rising substance in the Earth’s gravitational field, the work performed by such force increasing with the vertical distance traveled by the substance. The results of experiments with heat installation practical show a decision of problem of A. Einstein, i.e. the creation of Joint Theory of Fields.
UM Main Library building has applied the right orientation where a long facade is directed towards north and south while the short facade is directed towards east and west. Excessheat from east and west with the short facade will enable only low entry of heat into the building because only a small part of the facade is exposed to sunlight heat. UM Main Library building is equipped with glass window at the east side only meanwhile the west is covered completely with brick wall. So, only the east side will absorb energy without fail. Furthermore, no window is facing the west side because it is covered by brick wall and only the east side is using glass window and the heat effect can only be felt in the morning because the sun rises from the east. Looking at UiTM Perak Library building, it has vast surface that is facing the west side compare to the north and south side. The design of the building has breached the principle of building orientation to reduce the heat volume that hit the wall building. The designer of the library building should lengthen the main core towards east and west as significant wall exposure can be directed towards south and north. Using this method, the total rate of wall surface that is exposed to sun heat can be reduced. Apart from that, this method will also reduce the total cooling load of the air-conditioning system in the building. Thus, the objective to efficient energy saving into the building can be suited with the building orientation effect with the total heat rate that goes into the building through sun passageway.
for the research was to develop an optical means for assess- ing temperature at spots on cathodes in LENR experiments. Such a capability would be very useful for determining non- uniform energy production, as some theories postulate. It could also be applied for temperature measurements in micro-fluidic devices, which are on the market for medical and other diagnostics. The key to the methodology is the fact that the quenching of fluorescence from some materials is temperature dependent. One example is an oligo (ethyl- ene glycol) methacrylate (OEGMA) based copolymer. Unwanted processes, such as photobleaching and oxidation, challenge use of this approach. Using Rhodmine 6G (R6G), the authors measured a decrease in fluorescence intensity of 17% by changing temperature from 28°C to 60°C. They obtained a linear variation in fluorescence intensity over this temperature range. The authors expect the method to be useful up to 250°C, when R6G starts to decompose. They then did experiments with Pd in a heavy water electrolyte of 0.1M LiOD. Loadings as high as D/Pd = 0.92 were achieved by using 100 to 400 ppb of Hg in the electrolyte, as described in the preceding paragraph. Images in the fluorescence intensity were obtained. Variations in fluorescence intensi- ties were measured at two grain boundaries and within one grain over periods as long as 48 hours. Temperature differ- ences as large as 193°C were reported from regions as small as 0.3 μm. The authors expect to be able to monitor the spa- tial and temporal characteristics of excessheat in future experiments.
Fig. 3 demonstrates the difference of water temperatures of lower and upper basin throughout trial days. Climate condition always affects the temperature gained by passive solar still during summer and winter experimental day, hence summer and winter experimental day, maximum temperature achieved at 15:00 pm and 14:00 pm. It is also experiential that, the lower basin water temperature remnants high through the day during summer and winter experimental day, due to augmentation of vacuum tubes. During winter experimental day, temperature is found more than 60 °C during 14:00 pm. Generally, water temperature of passive solar still remains lower during winter, but here lower basin removes excessheat to the upper basin, hence water temperature remains higher during peak hours. It is a main benefit found in this arrangement of passive solar still.
Jian Tian and five collaborators from Changchun University performed experiments in which two Pd wires were wound on coaxial ceramic tubes in a double-jacketed chamber. D 2 gas at a pressure of about 90% of one atmos- phere filled the chamber interior, and water flowed between the inner and outer walls. The inner ceramic was wound with a Pd wire 0.5 mm in diameter and 210 cm in length. It was the active wire in the system. The outer wire was the same diameter and 400 cm long. It served as the “triggering” wire. Currents up to 8 A were put through that outer Pd wire. An average excess power of 87 W was measured during a run of 40 days. It released a total of 300 MJ. The ratio of output energy to input energy was about 1.2. The experiment gave excess power in 16 out of 16 successive triggering attempts, each about two hours in duration. Data indicating transmu- tations were also obtained, as noted in the following section. George Miley, with two others from the University of Illinois, and a colleague from the University of New South Wales, reported on the use of D and H clusters in gas loaded nano-particles to produce excessheat. Three different mate- rials—only designated as Types A, B and C—were studied. With D 2 gas, pressures up to about 100 psi were employed. A temperature rise upon D unloading of 50°C was observed. Energy gains greater than unity were achieved in six of seven experiments. The highest gain values were 11.5, 12.0, 12.2 and 15.1 in the series of experiments. Comparison of the measured energy outputs with those from other non-LENR power sources are given in the paper.
Three types of meat were chosen for the experiments: beef sirloin, pork belly, and duck. Approximately 500 g of each type of meat, which is an average serving for two to three people, was used for each cooking experiment. Approximately 500 g of white charcoal was used as a fuel for grilling and was burned for ca. 30 min prior to grilling. Each type of meat was cut into small pieces suitable for eating and heat cooked for approximately 5, 16, and 25 min for duck, beef, and pork, respectively. In addition, pan broiling was also conducted in the same manner as charcoal grilling using a portable butane range.
 G. Douheret, A. Pal, M.I Davis, “Ultrasonic speeds and isentropic functions of (a 2- alkoxyethanol + water) at 298.15 K”. J. Chem.Thermodyn. 22 :99-108, 1990.  G.C. Benson, O. Kiyohara, “Evaluation of excess isentropic compressibilities and isochoric heat capacities:. J. Chem. Thermodyn. 11 : 1061- 1064.1979.  J.D. Pandey, R.D. Rai, R.K. Shukla, A.K. Shukla, N. Mishra, “Ultrasonic and thermodynamic properties of quaternary liquid system at 298.15 K”. Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 31:84- 89 , 1993.
SaharMrad et .al   studied the thermophysical behaviour of the binary mixtures N,N-dimethylacetamide + methanol and N,N-dimethylacetamide + ethanol through the measurement of density, speed of sound, refractive index, and kinematic viscosity, over the entire mole fraction range at the temperatures of 283.15, 298.15 and 313.15 K. . Excess volumes, excess isentropic compressibility, refractive index deviations and viscosity deviations were also calculated and correlated with the Redlich-Kister equation. The experimental results were interpreted based on strength of specific interactions, size, and shape of molecules.
In 2010, 99.9% of power generation input was coal, only a small fragment (0.4%) are diesel aggregates. Since 2009, coking gas is also used for power generation, but currently only to a very small extent (0.2%). Process heat (thermopower) is 100% coal generated. In 2010, the pe- troleum refineries in Wuxi can produce the city’s kero- sene demand. The consumption of diesel has to a large extent be supplemented by imports (60.6%). Gasoline and fuel oil, however, are also produced for interregional exports.
Figures 3a and 3b represent respectively the variation of excess free volume for the mixtures of iso-propanol + aqueous ethylene glycol/propylene glycol. These excess values are negative over the entire composition range of mixtures. This suggests that the component molecules are more close together in the liquid mixture than in the pure liquids forming the mixture, indicating that strong attractive interactions between component molecules such as hydrogen bonding, dipole- dipole interactions. The geometrical fitting/interstitial accommodation of smaller molecules in the voids created by bigger molecules also favourable for the observed negative free volume 27,29-31 .
droup et al., 1976; Waldroup, 1982; Austic, 1985). However, Alleman and Leclercq (1997) showed that pro- viding a low protein diet (16% CP with added lysine, methionine, threonine, arginine, and valine vs 20%) did not prevent the negative effects caused by heat with re- sulting poor performance. The second strategy recom- mends the use of high protein diets to offset the decreased protein intake related to the lower food consumption under heat exposure. In this way, increasing dietary pro- tein level could be favorable during hot conditions (Temim et al., 1999). The objective of this study was to measure the response of male broilers to dietary protein supply under high or normal temperature conditions dur- ing 4 to 6 wk of age.
5. Costs: The operating and capital costs of replacing an aging multiple hearth by either a new fluid bed system or a new multiple hearth followed by a RTO system are presented in Table 6. The data on the costs of the fluid bed system is from the 1998’s T.Z. Osborne operating year (White, et al, 1999). For the multiple hearth and RTO system, the data of the 1995-1996 operating years at the Hatfield plant are used (Chilson, et al, 1998). Comparisons are presented based on the operating year’s cost per dry ton of biosolids combusted. Because of the form in which data is available, in both plants, dewatering is included in the operating costs but not in the capital costs. Capital cost of the Osborne plant includes a 60 dry ton per day fluid bed incinerator with feed pumps, a heat exchanger, a Hydro Sonic Tandem Nozzle® scrubber system and a ash treatment system by belt press. Capital cost of the Hatfield plant includes a 24 dry ton per day multiple hearth, a venturi scrubber, a wet ESP and a RTO. While it is true that there is an impact on cost due to the difference in capacity of the two plants, both operating and capital costs per dry ton are approximately double for the multiple hearth and RTO than for the fluid bed system. In operating costs, the differences between the two systems are especially pronounced in electrical power, fuel and labor costs. The ash disposal cost difference can be explained by the geographical location of the two plants and because the fluid bed ash is used as landfill cover at significantly reduced landfill cost. For a 60-tpd unit operating 50 weeks per year, the savings derived from the fluid bed would be approximately $2,19 million per annum.
Table 2 presents the OT and 84th percentile value of daily maximum temperature in the cities of the other countries examined in this study. The OTs and 84th per- centile values were close to each other in a majority of the cities. There were 3 US cities (Dallas/Fort Worth, Houston, and San Diego) that did not show a V-shaped relation. These 3 cities are located in the south, and it is possible to speculate that air-conditioned houses are very popular in these hot cities such that residents of these cities have adapted to heat exposure. However, other southern cities showed a V-shaped relation, even when the OT was higher than 40 °C. Also, in many mid- to southern Japanese pre- fectures, more than 90 % of households are equipped with air-conditioners (based on the 2009 National Survey of Family Income and Expenditure, for example), but these prefectures still showed V-shaped temperature–mortality relations. Hence, these 3 US cities may be exceptions due to statistical variation. From this multicountry examination, we concluded that OT can be estimated by the 83.6th percentile value of daily maximum temperature.
Spatial patterns for d-excess are also relatively well cap- tured: a minimum in the Southern Ocean and over the coasts of Antarctica, a minimum over northwestern America and Alaska, a minimum over the Sahel region (associated with rain re-evaporation; Risi et al., 2008b) and a maximum over the Mediterranean and Middle East region (interpreted as the effect of strong kinetic fractionation during sea surface evaporation in a dry environment, Gat et al., 1996). Even the land-sea contrast with higher values over land, traditionally interpreted as the effect of fractionation during continental recycling (Gat and Matsui, 1991), is well captured by the model even without representing this process. The latitudi- nal structure, with a local minimum near the equator, max- ima in the subtropics, a strong poleward decrease in mid- latitudes, and a poleward increase in high latitudes (> 60 ◦ ), are well captured (Fig. 4). The root mean square error is only 3.2 ‰ globally.
) with the mole fraction of Ethylene Glycol ranging from 0 to 1 at different temperatures in the present binary liquid mixtures are as shown in Figure 1. It is observed from Figure 1 is that the excess internal pressure values are negative for entire mole fraction range. The negative values of excess internal pressure suggest that there exist strong interactions between the components of liquid mixture 10 .
measured over entire volume concentration range at 298K. Measured properties are further used to determine Bruggeman factor, molar refaction & excess parameters. The deviation of the excess properties indicates the strength of interactions in the pure and mixed component and also predicts the nature of intermolecular interactions.