Experiences of Daily Life

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A Q methodology study of flare help seeking behaviours and different experiences of daily life in rheumatoid arthritis

A Q methodology study of flare help seeking behaviours and different experiences of daily life in rheumatoid arthritis

It is likely that individual patients experience life with RA and help-seeking for RA flares in different ways. Thus, producing overall consensus on these experiences creates the potential problem of providing a ‘bland gen- eralisation’ of the issues [22] and masking individual differences, to provide an unrealistic averaging of beliefs [23]. It was therefore decided that Q-methodology would be an appropriate method to understand patients’ experiences of daily life and flare help-seeking as it pro- duces Factors (groups of opinion) that each represent a different and independent understanding of the issue [24]. Identifying clearly distinct opinions and beliefs about the experiences of living with RA and of help- seeking behaviours would enable clinicians to tailor care to patients’ individual experiences and needs.

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Neurophysiological Manifestations of Auditory Hypersensitivity Correlate with Daily Life Experiences

Neurophysiological Manifestations of Auditory Hypersensitivity Correlate with Daily Life Experiences

SPD may limit participation, decrease social skills, impair friendships and re- lationships, self-confidence and self-esteem affect the interaction with the phys- ical and human environments and cause the person to withdrawal from specific daily activities, that includes choice of clothing, where they go and with whom they relate emotionally, type and choice of a person’s activities and also on their interpersonal relationships [1] [16] [17] [18] [19]. SPD also, negatively impact the ability to parent, work, or engage in home management, social, and leisure activities [20]. Since sensory processing affects participation, therefore, if signif- icant correlations were found between sensory hypersensitivity as measured by the adult/adolescents sensory profile (AASP) and neural responses, as measured by event-related potentials (ERPs), then a link between daily life experiences and neural mechanisms related to hypersensitivity could be established, supporting the evidence from both subjective and objective perspectives.

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Older persons’ experiences of adapting to daily life at home after hospital discharge: a qualitative metasummary

Older persons’ experiences of adapting to daily life at home after hospital discharge: a qualitative metasummary

A key challenge of transitional care is providing healthcare adapted to the needs of older people—as per- ceived by themselves, not as defined by the professionals. Previous systematic reviews have found that transitional care interventions can be effective in improving out- comes [26–28]. However, challenges still remain in en- hancing older persons’ satisfaction with the healthcare services included in transitional care [9, 29]. Knowledge about the experiences of older people regarding their own care is crucial to identifying and addressing issues related to the transition from hospital to home and may help reduce deficiencies and facilitate more satisfactory healthcare [30]. Thus, this metasummary aims to inte- grate current international findings in order to enhance the understanding of older persons’ experiences of adapting to daily life at home after hospital discharge.

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“Struggling with daily life and enduring pain”: a qualitative study of the experiences of pregnant women living with pelvic girdle pain

“Struggling with daily life and enduring pain”: a qualitative study of the experiences of pregnant women living with pelvic girdle pain

Previously, quality of life in pregnant women with back pain has been studied using quantitative methods. Find- ings show that pregnant women with back pain rate their total health – related quality of life significantly lower than pregnant women without back pain in late pregnancy. The significant differences are also present regarding some of the subscales (sleep, energy, pain and physical mobility). Additionally, women with back pain report increased negative affection on occupation, ability to perform jobs around the house, social life and hobbies than women without back pain in late pregnancy [15]. Further, the association of poorer sleep and back pain in pregnant women is described. These quantitative find- ings of poorer health-related quality of life are similar to the results of this interview study. Our informants expressed their experiences of bodily failure leading to sick leave and dependence of others to manage their daily life. Also, the informants expressed how the pain disturbed their ability to sleep and recover. Other studies have shown that sleep difficulties in pregnancy may be related to increased levels of depressive symptoms later in pregnancy [30], and in a population-based study of in- somnia and depression in late pregnancy, the presence of PGP and lower back pain were significantly related to insomnia, but not associated with depressive symptoms [31]. Furthermore, emotional distress during pregnancy in women with PGP is associated with persisting pelvic girdle syndrome postpartum in a Norwegian study. The more severe pain problems during pregnancy, the less recovery rate six months postpartum. Furthermore, reporting emotional distress at both gestational weeks 17 and 30 show associations with persistent pelvic pain syndrome [32]. The impact of pain and decreased ability to fulfil the expectations from family and colleagues expressed by the informants may contribute to an in- creased vulnerability and risk of developing depressive symptoms. Also, as a number of women experience catastrophizing during and after pregnancy [18], this could also contribute to the experiences expressed. An overall assessment of sufficient pain management should be considered in all clinical consultations of pregnant women with PGP as the findings from this and other studies indicate that the experience of per- sistent pain contributes to sleep problems, poorer quality of life and may contribute to increase depres- sive symptoms.

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The Relationship between Experiences of Athletic and Daily Life and Personality in Senior High School Students

The Relationship between Experiences of Athletic and Daily Life and Personality in Senior High School Students

Senior high school students (n = 307; 189 males and 118 females) in Japan com- pleted a questionnaire assessing their experiences of crisis, exploration, and commitment on four issues (Teammates, Authority figures, Competition results, Contest continuation) in the athletic domain, and on six issues (Study, Future courses, Values, Family, Opposite sex friends, Same sex friends) in the daily life domain (Takenouchi et al., 2006). The age of respondents was 16 - 18 years. Their sporting experience from most common to least common is the following: Football (n = 51; 34 males and 17 females), Basketball (n = 37; 19 males and 18 females), Athletics (n = 34; 23 males and 11 females), Boat (n = 34; 23 males and 11 females), Kendo (n = 29; 19 males and 10 females), Handball (n = 26; 14 males and 12 females), Hockey (n = 21; 12 males and 9 females), Shooting (n = 15; 7 males and 8 females), Archery (n = 14; 5 males and 9 females), Canoeing (n = 13; 7 males and 6 females), Fencing (n = 12; 5 males and 7 females), Tennis (n = 12; 12 males), and Water polo (n = 9; 9 males). All of the subjects participated in physical activities after school.

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Adolescents' and young adults' experiences of childhood cancer: descriptions of daily life 5 years after diagnosis

Adolescents' and young adults' experiences of childhood cancer: descriptions of daily life 5 years after diagnosis

. This theory explains the relationship between stressors, coping and health and can be measured by the SOC scale 30 . In a study examining SOC among adolescents with congenital heart disease, results show a relation between low SOC and negatively perceived health 31 . Furthermore, young adults who had an occurrence of epileptic seizure scored lower on the SOC scale than those that were seizure free 32 . Furthermore, in another study of young adult survivors of childhood cancer, those in need for support rated their SOC statistic significantly lower, compared to those reporting no need of support 33 . These prior studies indicate that SOC is an important factor in relation to well-being and perceived health 34 . In the present study, the informants in the three identified groups described different views of how having childhood cancer affected their daily lives. Our results and the three categories that describe the differences between the groups will be discussed in relation to the three components of the SOC.

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Consequences and adaptation in daily life – patients’ experiences three decades after a nerve injury sustained in adolescence

Consequences and adaptation in daily life – patients’ experiences three decades after a nerve injury sustained in adolescence

As they were teenagers when the injury occurred some stated it made them realize that they were not immortal. Depressive symptoms, such as feelings of sadness, dark- ness and hopelessness were mentioned. In addition, par- ticipants described living a passive life after the injury, isolated and withdrawn from social events. Bitterness, frustration and anger over the situation were mentioned during the interviews and a sense of grief over the hand and the life they had before the trauma was expressed. Their identity changed with the trauma and one partici- pant said - “I became the injury”. Another participant still felt ashamed, 31 years later, for not telling the truth about how the injury occurred throughout the years. In the interviews, the participants described different stra- tegies used to cope with the trauma experienced in the acute phase and later in life. Some participants described the social support from family and friends as very important for processing the trauma and stressed the importance of talking to others about it. Another stra- tegy described was to try to dissociate oneself from the circumstances after the nerve injury. Minimization, comparing oneself with other hand-injured patients, was mentioned. In addition, comparisons with other disease groups, such as disabled people gave one perspective - “You have to play down the situation, it is only a hand”. Following the trauma and currently, an awareness of risks and a fear of a new injury existed - “I am still afraid of windows”. By avoiding certain situations, they tried to protect themselves and their family members. Accepting their limitations were important, as well as accepting the new appearance of the forearm - “You learn to live with your defects”. Another way of dealing with the new appearance was to hide or to cover the hand with scarves or bandages. One participant said - “For several years, I wore a thin bandage around my hand to hide it, but later I decided I was done with that…”

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“Our daily life was mainly comprised of eating and sitting:” a qualitative analysis of adolescents’ experiences of inpatient eating disorder treatment in China

“Our daily life was mainly comprised of eating and sitting:” a qualitative analysis of adolescents’ experiences of inpatient eating disorder treatment in China

interviews were conducted at one time-point in the partic- ipants’ recovery and future work could explore how their perceptions of inpatient treatment change after a longer period of time. Indeed, further work is needed to explore in more depth the damaging aspects of treatment dis- cussed by participants and how these might impact them in the longer term. As representatives from the medical team at the hospital were not interviewed, it is not pos- sible to know whether participants’ experiences of in- patient treatment corroborate the treatment plan offered. Further work could build on this limitation by interview- ing staff and family members to as have Davidson et al., 2019 [49] and Bravender et al., 2017 [50]. This would in- crease the reliability of the findings and better understand the training needs and anxieties of the staff working with this complex illness. The semi-structured interview tended to confine the construction of participant narratives to questions related to their experiences. Therefore, oppor- tunities to generate data that richly described their identity negotiations was limited in the data collection phases. Fu- ture qualitative research is needed to scaffold participant narratives between experience to questions of identity to further analyze some of the effects of inpatient treatments on a person’s identity formation. As our research question was focused on the Chinese patients’ experiences of treat- ment, the data analysis did not analyse transcript data for the implicit identity negotiations that might be happening in the reported extracts and this would be an important construct to explore in future work with this group. None- theless, this work which was the first study to explore the experience of inpatient treatment for an ED in China highlights the usefulness of investigating health issues cross-culturally, as a means of improving global wellbeing based on a deeper understanding of illnesses. It would also be of interest to explore how the experiences of shame and stigma present in some of these experiencing people’s narratives might be understood in these individuals’ cultural context and how this experience might be similar or differ- ent to other cultural contexts. Shame, for example, has been discussed by Norwegians experiencing an ED [51].

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Reconstructing the Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Daily Life in the 19th Century City: A Historical GIS Approach

Reconstructing the Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Daily Life in the 19th Century City: A Historical GIS Approach

The daily commute to work and its related social histories have long been of interest to historical geographers and urban historians. This article revisits the existing scholarship on the nineteenth-century journey to work and outlines a new methodological framework that uses a historical GIS to overcome many of the challenges identified in previous studies. These challenges include a reliance on small, atypical samples of workers, approximations of the spatial relationship between home and work, and unrealistic interpretations of journeys travelled by employing only Euclidean paths. Combining city directories and decennial censuses through the use of probabilistic record linkage techniques uncovers the relationship between work and home for over 5,000 workers in London, Ontario in 1881. A GIS network-derived journey to work model recreates more realistic journeys that considers the many natural and built environment barriers that influenced the paths and distances workers travelled on a daily basis. Empirical results of the journey to work along lines of occupational class, coincident home-work location, and gender are presented and contextualized to studies in other cities. The results highlight that experiences of commuting differ widely along lines of social class and gender.

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A Meaningful Life for Older Persons Receiving Municipal Care—Unit Leaders’ Perspectives

A Meaningful Life for Older Persons Receiving Municipal Care—Unit Leaders’ Perspectives

In action research it is important that the participants take part as co-researchers [26]. In the present study, the leaders can be seen as co-researchers in the collection of data. Thus, they were able to change, delete or advise shortcomings as well as add to the data. To achieve credibility in the study, in the repeated interviews the au- thors continually discussed and reflected together with the leaders. The results contain direct quotations, which give the reader an opportunity to judge the credibility. To strengthen credibility the same opening question was asked in each interview regarding what a meaningful daily life is for an older person [11]. The number of lead- ers who took part could be considered small. According to Sandelowski [27], the sample size in qualitative re- search should be large enough to achieve a variation of experiences and small enough to permit a deep analysis of the data. A strength, however, could be the repeated interviews, which totalled 20. The leaders considered participation in the research valuable and considered it to be a positive experience.

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The impact of hyperhidrosis on patients' daily life and quality of life: a qualitative investigation

The impact of hyperhidrosis on patients' daily life and quality of life: a qualitative investigation

The current findings suggest that individuals with hy- perhidrosis have healthcare needs that are currently not being met such as access to treatment, adequacy of pa- tient information, and support in dealing with the psy- chological scourge of hyperhidrosis. Similar information problems have been noted in other dermatologic condi- tions such as psoriasis [35]. This suggests that individ- uals with skin disorders including hyperhidrosis may benefit from interventions helping them deal with the wider impacts of their condition such as counselling, education and psychotherapy, accessible within and out- side the clinic. In this context, online platforms may offer a wide scope for increasing the availability of such services. The depth and nature of data collected across the three data collection approaches – focus group dis- cussions, semi-structured interviews and online surveys were different; however, examining such differences was not pertinent to our research objectives. The focus group discussions generated in-depth data and rich de- scriptions of experiences, although there was a tendency for participants to go off-topic to talk about issues most pertinent to them (e.g. use of different deodorants or armpit pads) but of limited relevance to the research question. On the other hand, the semi-structured inter- views were more focused, and resulted in greater self- disclosure. For example, the theme related to sex-life only came up during semi-structured interviews. The

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Evaluation of Physical Activity, Kinesiophobia, Daily Life Activities and Quality of Life in Individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Different Phenotypes

Evaluation of Physical Activity, Kinesiophobia, Daily Life Activities and Quality of Life in Individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Different Phenotypes

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common chronic disease and the most common cause of respiratory failure [1]. Due to the slow progression and the chronic nature of the disease, the individual experiences an increased burden of disease [2]. As COPD causes progressive airway obstruction and dyspnea, the level of daily activity is restricted and there is a gradual deterioration in the level of functional performance [3]. When the dyspnea is acute and severe, it causes emotional stress, which prevents any activity (such as hobbies that require physical effort) that would increase the symptoms of the individuals. The physical activity level of patients with a more sedentary lifestyle is decreasing steadily for fear of dyspnea and the low physical activity level severely affects the emotional, social, behavioral, self-care, mobility, sleep and rest functions of individuals with COPD [4, 5]. Another important symptom of COPD is a pain. Previous studies have reported that in individuals with COPD, pain affects physical activity, anxiety, and depression [6, 7]. Pain affects individuals with COPD 3.7 times more in daily activities than healthy people [8]. Studies of kinesiophobia as a cause of physical activity avoidable in individuals with COPD with differing severity of respiratory symptoms is limited [9-11]. The relationship of kinesiophobia in different phenotypes of COPD has not been investigated. For this reason, our study was planned to "Evaluate physical activity, kinesiophobia, daily living activities and quality of life in individuals with COPD in different phenotypes".

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Introduction

Introduction

questions I pursued was what, if anything at all, sociotherapy as a psychosocial interven- tion can effectively do for Rwandan women with experiences of rape. I had come to know a few women in Byumba who had shared their rape experiences within a sociotherapy group resulting in a ‘relief of the heart’. In Bugesera, however, female sociotherapists told me in a focus group discussion on sexuality that experiences with sexual violence as a source of problems in people’s daily life were largely absent in sociotherapy. It is an issue they as sociotherapists also avoided in group sessions, even though they know ‘it is there’, because they did not feel confident to handle it. This observation resulted in a training to enable sociothera- pists to facilitate healing of suffering resulting from gender-based violence, in particular sexual violence.

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Gender Differences in Experiencing US Daily Life

Gender Differences in Experiencing US Daily Life

The American Time-Use Survey (ATUS), conducted by the US Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics, has been collecting data on how Americans spend their time since 2003, using the method of the daily time diary. In these diaries, survey respondents are asked to recall all of their activities across the previous 24 hours. In 2010, the ATUS began supplementing these simple activity accounts with ratings on five psychological states (sad, tired, stress, pain and happy) from a Social Well-Being (SWB) index designed to capture how these respondents feel as they engage in these daily activities. Thus, this ATUS study basically provides a continuous national monitor of Americans’ everyday subjective quality of life (QOL)—and in “real time” as personally experienced by respondents. Analysis of these 2010-12 ATUS SWB ratings from more than 12,000 Americans aged 15 and older reveal that women score significantly higher than men on all five factors, even though only one of the adjectives (happy) was in the positive direction. Thus, US women described their daily activities as more stressful, tiring, sad and painful, but at the same time also describing their activities as making them feel happier (suggesting that women see their lives as more en- gaging, intense or energizing). In order to control for this gender difference, a simple scale was derived from two of the items that conveyed basically the same emotional state, namely happy and sad. When these ratings on two items were paired, virtually no gender difference was found; nor were many gender differences found when they rated these feelings on the same activity. However, there were dramatic subjective differences across activities that were largely shared by both men and women, with child play, religious, volunteer and fitness activities rated near the top of enjoy- ment and with medical, housework and work activities nearer the bottom. These results seem generally consistent with enjoyment ratings in earlier national time-use surveys.

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The experiences of patients and carers in the daily management of care at the end of life

The experiences of patients and carers in the daily management of care at the end of life

Life expectancy is increasing (WHO, 2013) and healthcare is continually evolving to meet the changing needs of populations and communities. Deaths from communicable diseases are decreasing, but the implications of an aging world population are increases in the complex diseases of aging, such as heart failure, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), cancer and multi-morbidity. Many people now live for longer with advanced diseases (AD) (where disease is in the advanced stage and treatment focusses on symptom management) (Economist Intelligence Unit, 2010). Health care systems must respond to this changing demographic of society and support people to maintain their quality of life for as long as possible (Davies and Higginson, 2004). Although most people across Europe die in hospital (Davies and Higginson, 2004) people who are living with AD towards the end-of life frequently cite home as their preferred place of care and death (Gomes et al., 2013). Indeed, most people in the last year of their life will receive a significant component of their care in the community setting (Andersson et al., 2006, Hughes-Hallett et al., 2011, Rutten et al., 2012), even when they then get admitted to hospital at the very end of life.

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A Study on Attitude of Physically Challenged Students towards their Complicated Life

A Study on Attitude of Physically Challenged Students towards their Complicated Life

In the present study an attempt has been made by the investigators to study the attitude of Physically Challenged Children towards their complicated life in the state of West Bengal, India. The investigators have used Descriptive Survey method for the present study. The sample consists of 100 physically challenged students who were reading in the different secondary schools which are situated in the district of Purulia, West Bengal, India. The Purposive sampling technique has been used for the selection of sample. The investigators have developed a Questionnaire by themselves to measure the attitude of Physically Challenged Children towards their complicated life. For the analysis of data Mean and S.D have been used by the investigators in the present study. The overall results of the study indicate that the level of attitude of physically challenged children towards their complicated life is poor. They expressed very poor or negative attitude against the various aspects of their complicated life that they are facing in their daily living.

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Developing an Interactive Non-formal Chemistry Setting and Investigating Its Effectiveness on High School Students’ Attitudes towards Chemistry

Developing an Interactive Non-formal Chemistry Setting and Investigating Its Effectiveness on High School Students’ Attitudes towards Chemistry

backgrounds is an extremely important and remarkable result. In reaching this result, the students being volunteer and more unrestricted than classroom environment have been effective. Also the concepts which are related to daily life may contribute to this result. While evaluating the results in terms of gender and class variable, it should not be forgotten that the sample size were quite insufficient for statistical comparisons. However they inspired significant ideas for future studies. In this study, based on chemistry should be taught in non-formal environment by associating daily life with concrete observations and efforts, activities related to daily life were carried out in a non-formal environment and it was deduced that these kinds of environments had effect on students ‘attitudes towards chemistry and correlating chemistry with daily life. The results of research showed that the intended objectives were achieved. Based on the results, some suggestions were made:

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Cultural Differences in the Use of Instant Messaging Applications:
Cross Cultural Case Study of China and the Netherlands

Cultural Differences in the Use of Instant Messaging Applications: Cross Cultural Case Study of China and the Netherlands

Last but not least, the cross-cultural adaptation is also found in the results. Among the three groups of participants, which are Chinese in China, Chinese in the Netherlands, and Dutch, it is obvious to see that Chinese in the Netherlands show similarities with both Chinese in China and Dutch. These views of the three groups of people might be explained by the theory of cross-cultural adaption. With the development of cross-cultural communication, more people get opportunities to live or study in a foreign country. Such people must have noticed the cultural differences between different countries, and be aware of their impact on daily life. Culture is often seen as a border between people. However, different cultures can also be integrated, it is possible for people from another culture to adapt the new culture of the country they current live. The use of instant messaging apps between two Chinese and Dutch cultures could also be interpreted by the cultural adaption theory. According to cultural adaption theorist Wilkelman (1994), Chinese who live in the Netherlands may result differently both with Dutch as well as Chinese who live in China, they are very likely to be in between.

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Health Disparities Beginning in Childhood: A Life-Course Perspective

Health Disparities Beginning in Childhood: A Life-Course Perspective

We also need to incorporate more in- formation on life-course social con- text into routine cross-sectional data sources as well as special studies. More investment is needed for devel- oping measures that can, despite long recall periods, capture important in- formation about past experiences. We need more research on the early-life origins of adult chronic disease. Un- derstanding birth outcome disparities should receive special priority, given how powerfully low birth weight and preterm birth predict development and health across the life course. In addition to more research, we need to apply the knowledge that we cur- rently have; the available knowledge gives considerable guidance. Current evidence tells us that we need to give a higher priority to identifying and im- plementing policies that will ensure fa- vorable living conditions in early child- hood and that health care is important but not sufficient for achieving good health and reducing health dispari- ties. 119–121 Available evidence also

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Achieving Model Completeness for Hierarchally Structured Activities of Daily Life

Achieving Model Completeness for Hierarchally Structured Activities of Daily Life

Abstract: Being able to recognise everyday activities of daily life provides the opportunity of tracking functional decline among elderly people who suffer from Alzheimer’s disease. This paper describes an approach that has been developed for recognising activities of daily life based on a hierarchal structure of plans. While it is logical to envisage that the most common activities will be modelled within a library of plans, it can be impossible to imagine that the library contains plans for every possible hierarchal activity. In order to generalise the activity recognition capability outside the framework of the core activities constructed to support recognition, decision trees are constructed using a well-known induction algorithm during a train period. The motivation of this work is to allow people with Alzheimer’s disease to have additional years of independent living before the disease reaches a stage where it becomes incurable.

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