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Ebola, Experimental Medicine, Economics, and Ethics: An Evaluation of International Disease Outbreak Law

Ebola, Experimental Medicine, Economics, and Ethics: An Evaluation of International Disease Outbreak Law

Regardless of the ultimate solution, regulation is necessary to address the use of experimental medicine in disease outbreak contexts. The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa has exposed many of the problems with a disjointed international health system. One of those exposed issues was the use of the experimental medicine, including medicines previously untested on human patients, to combat the disease. As the death toll rose in West Africa, so too did the demand for medical intervention. However, the response by the medical research and pharmaceutical communities occurred before the medical regulatory bodies could respond. As a result, the law governing the distribution and use of experimental medicine has yet to be tailored to address the unique circumstances posed by the Ebola outbreak.
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pathophysiology and experimental medicine УДК 617-089 DOI: 10.15507/0236-2910.027.201703.410-427

pathophysiology and experimental medicine УДК 617-089 DOI: 10.15507/0236-2910.027.201703.410-427

cholecystitis, following percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage // Ann. Delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis: is it time for a change? / J. Лар[r]

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Oxygen Ozone Therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: An Integrative Approach

Oxygen Ozone Therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: An Integrative Approach

Oxygen Ozone Therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: An Integrative Approach.. American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.[r]

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Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus Replication by Interferon Requires Proteasome Activity†

Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus Replication by Interferon Requires Proteasome Activity†

Chisari* Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037 Received 28 September 2001/Accepted 26 December 2001 To better unde[r]

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Effects of visfatin on brown adipose tissue energy regulation using T37i cells

Effects of visfatin on brown adipose tissue energy regulation using T37i cells

Effects of Visfatin on Brown Adipose Tissue Energy Regulation using T37i cells.. Division of Translational and Experimental Medicine, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coven[r]

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Dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag85B Revealed by a Sensitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag85B Revealed by a Sensitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag85B Revealed by a Sensitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay Joel D Ernst,a,b* Amber Cornelius,b Miriam Bolzb* aDivision of Experimental Medicine, University[.]

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The Scripps Research Institute

The Scripps Research Institute

25 principal investigators with dual appoint- ments in five departments, including Chemistry, Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Molecular and Experimental Medicine.. The [r]

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Modelling the control of cell proliferation by an anti cancer agent

Modelling the control of cell proliferation by an anti cancer agent

The non-zero initial condition accounts for the injection of drug into the medium before mixing with the extracellular region takes place. Experimental measurements were of the concentrations of TPT-L and TPT-H (combined) in the extracellular region and the cytoplasm and of TPT-L in the nucleus. With this input and these measurements, it was found that the model parameters were globally (uniquely) structurally identifiable [3]. The model parameters were then estimated from the data using the software package F ACSIMILE [7], with good visual fits to the data and low

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Effects of Bu Shen Yi Sui Capsule on Th17/Treg cytokines in C57BL/6 mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

Effects of Bu Shen Yi Sui Capsule on Th17/Treg cytokines in C57BL/6 mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

BSYSC was produced by Beijing Ya Dong Biological Pharmacy Co., Ltd. (Beijing, China). Validation speci- mens were deposited at the Brain Disease Laboratory of the School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, China. BSYSC was composed of Rehmanniae radix praeparata, Radix Rehmanniae, Radix Polygoni Multiflori, Radix et Rhizoma Rhei, Leonurus japonicas Houtt., Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii, Hirudo, Scorpio, Rhiazoma Gastrodiae, Fructus Forsythiae. The proportions of these herbs were 10:10:10:2:10:6:3:2:3:6. Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii ground into fine pow- ders. The other nine Chinese herbs were extracted twice with boiling water (2 h per extraction, with a total 18-fold volume of purified water). The solutions were concentrated under reduced pressure at 70°C into powders, which were mixed with powders of Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii. The resulting mixture of powders was encapsulated. To ensure the quality and stability of BSYSC, the active ingredients were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography- quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC- QTOF-MS).
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A comparative study between Wuweizi seed and its post-ethanol extraction residue in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice

A comparative study between Wuweizi seed and its post-ethanol extraction residue in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice

Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus (FSC, Wuweizi in Chinese), the fruit of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill, is a commonly prescribed herb in traditional Chinese medicine, particularly in a number of tonic formulae. FSC has previously been reported to have a wide spectrum of biological effects, including protecting against chemically and virally induced hepatic injury [13, 14], improving insulin sensitivity [15], protecting against oxidative damage [16], producing sedative–hypnotic activity and anti-inflammatory effects [17, 18]. Our previous works have demonstrated that FSC extract and FSC-related compounds significantly altered lipid metabolism in mice [19–23]. In the present study, we endeavored to evaluate the effects of dietary supple- mentation with FSC seed (FSC-S) and the post-ethanol extraction residue of FSC-S (FSC-SpEt) on serum and hepatic lipid/glucose (GLU) contents in both normal diet-fed (ND) and high cholesterol/bile salt diet-fed (HCBD) mice, an animal model of hypercholesterol- emia (HCL). Fenofibrate (FF), the most commonly pre- scribed lipid-lowering agent in Western medicine [24], was used as a positive control for comparison. The lipid profile measurements in the serum and liver samples included total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and non-HDL (N-HDL), as well as high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), HDL/LDL ratio, and LDL/HDL ratio.
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Development and function of trophoblast giant cells in the rodent placenta

Development and function of trophoblast giant cells in the rodent placenta

Recent research has made striking progress in understanding the development and function of TGCs. There are at least four different subtypes of TGCs within the mature placenta, each arising at different times and locations in the placenta, and likely having distinct functions. While we now have a fairly good understanding of the regulation of TGC development, the functions of the different TGC subtypes remain very active areas of investigation and there are key open questions that should guide future studies. First, it will be intriguing to understand more details about the different functions of the TGC subtypes and how they are differentially regulated. Second, TGCs express a wide repertoire of hormones, but the biological function of most of these is unknown. Third, since it appears that TGCs regulate homeostatic physiological systems in the mother, it will be intriguing to see if and what type of physiological changes in the mother can alter the development and/or function of TGCs. There are insights from a variety of experimental animals that alteration of diet can affect placental development. Hypoxia during pregnancy can also alter expression of prolactin-like protein genes and supports the notion that these hormones may mediate responses to pregnancy stressors. These emerging themes will be important to pursue in order to gain better insights into the dialogue between the mother and fetus that occurs during pregnancy.
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Comparative Fitness of Multi-Dideoxynucleoside-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) in an In Vitro Competitive HIV-1 Replication Assay

Comparative Fitness of Multi-Dideoxynucleoside-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) in an In Vitro Competitive HIV-1 Replication Assay

KAVLICK,1 VICTOR MAROUN,1 RICHARD LE,1 1,2 AND HIROAKI MITSUYA * Experimental Retrovirology Section, Department of Developmental Therapeutics, Medicine Branch, Division of Clinical Scien[r]

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Animal experimental research design in critical care

Animal experimental research design in critical care

direct relationship between reported experimental design rigor and translation to novel therapies for critically ill patients will be challenging. It is also possible that some articles may not have described quality metrics that were in fact utilized in the research protocol. In addition, edi- tors and reviewers may have recommended reporting ac- cording to the more recent ARRIVE [8] guidelines during the review process. The observed difference be- tween 2005 and 2015 may, therefore, reflect more a change in reporting as opposed to a change in experi- mental practices. Of note, an innovative online tool, the “Experimental Design Assistant” was introduced in Oc- tober 2015 as a guide for researchers to assist in the rigorous design of experiments [31]. However, none of the articles included in our study mentioned utilizing this resource. Further, our search strategy may not have detected all animal research articles in critical care jour- nals in the two time periods examined. However, almost perfect agreement existed between two independent in- vestigators in this regard. Critical care relevant research is published in other (non-critical care medicine specific) journals, and we did not include non-critical care jour- nals in this study. Indeed, when comparing 2005 to 2015, the annual number of animal experimental manu- scripts published in critical care journals decreased by 139 articles. This contrasts with findings that overall, publications in the medical literature have been increas- ing in the last decade [32, 33]. Finally, publication bias was not assessed in this study. Publication bias likely has a significant impact on the quality of animal research and its ability to be translated into successful clinical tri- als [34, 35].
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Elements of Integrating Traditional and Complementary Medicine into Primary Healthcare: A Systematic Review

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This study was planned according to the “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses” (PRISMA) guidelines and registered in Iran university of medical science (identification No: 9223476203/2016). The needed data were gathered by searching PubMed (1966-present), Embase (1947-present), Web of Science (1900-present), Scopus (1966-present), and Ovid (1946-present) from January 2000 to February 2017 and the last search was run on 11 February 2017. The search keywords were: (Integrat* OR collabor* OR converg* OR incorpor* OR inclu* OR cooper* OR contribut* OR blend* OR merg* OR assimilat*) AND (Tradition* OR complement* OR alternat* OR home OR primitive OR indigenous OR folk* OR ethno*) AND (Medic* OR therap* OR remed* OR heal* OR treat* OR cure*) AND (primary healthcare OR primary health care OR primary care OR PHC). All the related fields of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and Emtree were searched. MeSH terms of traditional medicine, complementary medicine, integrative medicine, primary healthcare, East Asian traditional medicine, Korean traditional medicine, Tibetan traditional medicine, Mongolian traditional medicine, African traditional medicine, and Chinese traditional medicine were searched in PubMed. Combinations of traditional medicine keywords were also searched in the titles of the papers. The reference lists of eligible studies were scanned and hand searched for related studies. An example of the search strategy is provided in [Appendix 1].
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Original Article Combination of Qinzhu Liangxue Decoction and acitretin on the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris: a randomized controlled trail

Original Article Combination of Qinzhu Liangxue Decoction and acitretin on the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris: a randomized controlled trail

and anti-inflammatory activities has been ap- plied to treat psoriasis in recent years [9], which paves the way to develop complementary and alternative medicine therapies of psoriasis. Indeed, the Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been well defined in the treatment of sy- mptoms associated with psoriasis. The com- pounds of ingredients identified by Chinese herbal medicine expert have been demonstrat- ed to have antipsoriatic actions via anti-inflam- mation and antiproliferation effects [22]. The CHM Sarcandra glabra (jiu jie cha) functions as effective agent for longstanding treatment for psoriasis [23]. The Qinzhu Liangxue Decoction used in the present study is consisted of mag- netitum, mother-of-pearl, oyster, scutellaria ba- icalensis, lithospermum erythrorhizon, cynan- chum paniculatum, coix lacryma-jobi, Fang Feng and raw glycyrrhiza uralensis fisch. The magnetitum is useful for therapy of tinnitus, deafness, headache, dizziness and kidney qi deficiency, palpitation, insomnia, and other sy- mptoms of madness. The indications of moth- er-of-pearl are headache and dizziness, palpita- tion and insomnia; mania; epilepsy; liver heat and red eyes; veil covering the eyes [24]. The oyster is also called oyster yellow with thera- peutic effects of sweat, spontaneous perspira- tion, spermatorrhea, diarrhea, uterine bleed- ing, vaginal discharge, surprised epilepsy, ver- tigo, scrofula nuclear sputum, hernia abdomi- nal mass, heartache, carbuncle swollen and insomnia [25]. The scutellaria baicalensis is applied to release fire, neutralize poison, clear fever, stop bleeding and prevent miscarriage in forms of decoction and extracts, and it is dem- onstrated to exert anti-inflammation and anti- oxidant properties [26]. The lithospermum er- ythrorhizon is traditionally used to treat skin measles, skin cancer, hepatitis and chicken pox in China. A recent study indicates that litho- spermum erythrorhizon may exhibit anti-inflam- matory effects in lipopolysaccharide-stimulat- ed BV2 microglial cells [27]. The isolated co- mponent of antofine from cynanchum panicula- tum possesses antiviral, anti-pain, anti-inflam- matory and antitumorigenic activities as an herbal remedy [28]. The traditional herb of coix lacryma-jobi is rich in amino acids, v itamins, protein, inorganic salts and carbohydrates and may be served as a anti-inflammatory an anti- cancer agents as well as a nutrient [29]. The traditional Chinese medicine of Fang Feng is widely cultivated in cool climate regions with Qufeng solution table, dampness and relieving
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EFFICACY OF AYURVEDIC MEDICINE VITEX NEGUNDO EXTRACT ON PAIN CONTROL BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL MODEL HAFFNER’S TAIL CLIP

EFFICACY OF AYURVEDIC MEDICINE VITEX NEGUNDO EXTRACT ON PAIN CONTROL BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL MODEL HAFFNER’S TAIL CLIP

Haffner’s Tail Clip Model: Total of 24 mice were randomly divided in 4 groups (n = 6). The groups were treated as control (distilled water, p. o.) and standard (DIS 40 mg/kg, p.o.) while test - VNE-45, and VNE-90 received VNE (45 and 90 mg/kg, p.o, respectively). An artery clip was applied to the root of the tail of mice and the reaction time is noted. Groups of 4 mice of either sex with an initial weight of 18 to 22 g are used for each dose. The test compounds are administered orally. The drug was administered 60 min prior testing. An artery clip was applied to the root of the tail (approximately1 cm from the body) to induce pain. The animal quickly responds to these noxious stimuli by biting the clip or the tail near the location of the clip. The time between stimulation onset and response was measured by a stopwatch in 1/10 seconds increments. The prolongation of the latency times comparing the values before and after administration of the test compounds or the values of the control with the experimental groups and Standard Group were used for statistical comparison using the ANOVA.
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From Experimental Science to Clinical Medicine- A Historical Overview of Important Milestones in the Evolution of Organ Transplantation

From Experimental Science to Clinical Medicine- A Historical Overview of Important Milestones in the Evolution of Organ Transplantation

Between 16th and 20th century, this ancient idea began to evolve into modern day transplant medicine. The few developments that occurred in this era are noted by Hossein Shayan [8]. An upper arm skin graft was used by an Italian surgeon for nose reconstruction in 1590s [8]. In the 17th century, teeth were successfully grafted in humans. A Scottish surgeon, John Hunter, had some success with Achilles tendon allografts [8]. By the beginning of the 18th century, experiments with skin and corneal grafts; thyroid, adrenal and ovarian grafts and other connective tissue grafts were reported [9]. In the 19th century, corneal and skin graft procedures made significant progress. In 1837, Samuel Bigger
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CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION IN PERSIAN MEDICINEMohammad Attarfar, Seyed Kazem Foroutan, Latif Gachkar, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Sohrab Dehghan, Fateme Ashrafzade, Mahmood KhodadoostDOWNLOAD/VIEW

CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION IN PERSIAN MEDICINEMohammad Attarfar, Seyed Kazem Foroutan, Latif Gachkar, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Sohrab Dehghan, Fateme Ashrafzade, Mahmood KhodadoostDOWNLOAD/VIEW

medicine schools, the world health organization recommends using the benefits of CAM based on knowledge strategy including documentation and integration between categorization of clinical status and disease in PM with the conventional one, which is International Classification of Diseases (ICD)[7]. Current study is designed in order to gain clinical assessment of ED in PM since it is the cornerstone of diagnosis by any classification.

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The antidepressant effects of GM-CSF are mediated by the reduction of TLR4/NF-ĸB-induced IDO expression

The antidepressant effects of GM-CSF are mediated by the reduction of TLR4/NF-ĸB-induced IDO expression

pathway in peripheral mononuclear cells treated with LPS [8]. In our study, pP38 was not detected in the cor- tical and hippocampal tissues of any experimental group (data not shown). One important IDO-activating path- way involves pro-inflammatory cytokines which are stimulated by LPS challenge [12]. In general, GM-CSF is considered to promote inflammation and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β in immune cells [45]. The production of IL-1β by im- mune cells is also boosted through synergism of GM- CSF and LPS [46]. Furthermore, GM-CSF has been iden- tified to be a major driver of inflammation in a rat model for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) [47]. On the other hand, no significant changes in IL-1β, IL-6, or TNF-α were identified in the study by Kosloski et al. [17]. As a result, it does not seem plaus- ible that attenuation of IDO activity following GM-CSF administration would be due to a reduction of pro- inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, TLR4/NF-κB signal- ing appears to be the most promising route for IDO ele- vation in the hippocampus of mice undergoing systemic LPS administration and consequent tryptophan catabol- ite formations.
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Anaphylatoxins: From Supposed Toxin Anaphylactics to Effective Mediators of the Early Events of Inflammation

Anaphylatoxins: From Supposed Toxin Anaphylactics to Effective Mediators of the Early Events of Inflammation

C5amAb. Rat anti-mouse C5 mAb (BB5.1) was util- ized to investigate the effects of inhibition of C5 cleav- age on disease progression and severity in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU), a model of organ-spe- cific autoimmunity in the eye characterized by structural retinal damage mediated by infiltrating macrophages. In vivo, systemic treatment with BB5.1 results in signifi- cantly reduced disease scores compared with control groups, while local administration results in an earlier resolution of disease. Systemic treatment with BB5.1 results in significantly reduced disease scores compared with control groups, while local administration results in an earlier resolution of disease [84]. Structural and func- tional studies of the interaction between the mAb F20 and C5a was used to investigate the functional epitope in C5a. Association of molecular modeling, docking meth- ods and biological mutant experiment, were used to iden- tify the key epitope. Based on theoretically and predicted discreet sites in antigen and antigen the key epitope in the antigen was identified. The predicted results allowed determine Lys 68 in C5a as the key C5a epitope. This epi-
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