Notably, in recent years Mars Sample Return has been proposed as a mission objective for missions in the near future (e.g., McLennan et al., 2011). This study aimed to develop a methodology for the characterization of a Martian rock sample and a preliminary evaluation of the potential habitability of its subsurface source horizon using techniques common to geology departments at universities and institutions around the world. This framework for thorough sample characterization can easily be applied to unknown samples returned from the surface of Mars. It is unlikely that the initial group of rocks returned from Mars will contain definitive evidence of life or habitable conditions, as they will be influenced by engineering and logistical constraints of what can be safely returned to Earth. However, a novel methodological approach to characterization of the potential habitability represented by these samples can be applied to help guide the next phase of surface exploration (and sample return). Studies such as this one, applied to unknown returned samples, can be used to prioritize samples for follow-up and help “vector” future exploration missions towards areas representing high potential for the detection of
– Flexible implementation strategy and operations at all conditions: the muon instrument is a passive detector with no moving parts, weak pointing requirements, a single operating mode, and relatively low computational and processing requirements. Thus, its impact on op- erations, command and control, and ground resources makes it an easily accommodated, low-impact payload. In a Mars rover configuration (Fig. 4a), the instrument could be either a primary or a secondary payload that would continuously gather data on geological targets along the rover’s route. In fact, as viewing geometry varies during the rovers, accurately recorded, traverse, additional structural information would be gained on the internal structure of these targets. Large objects sev- eral kilometers in diameters that would require sev- eral weeks of muon integration can be strategically tar- geted for observation during periods when the rover is sedentary, whereas smaller objects (∼ 1 km diame- ter) can be observed during routine rover operations without affecting the rover primary science mission. As was recently demonstrated by Tanaka et al. (2012), the technique was able to resolve density variations inside Mt. Omuro, Japan, using a “roving” detector. The de- tector was mounted in an automobile and repositioned at 18 different locations around the target volcano, col- lecting data for 20 min at each location. This rover con- figuration enables the instrument to image sections of the structure and function as a tomograph, eliminating the need to have detailed knowledge of the target to- pography. A rover configuration provides tremendous flexibility in target selection by using route optimization to trade spatial and temporal resolution for shorter inte- gration times. Alternatively, a muon detector could also be mounted on a Discovery class small lander (Fig. 4b) and target in turn multiple geological features of interest around the landing site.
Two novel mission concepts have been presented which use continuous and constant low-thrust propulsion to enable highly non-Keplerian orbits in support of future high-value asset exploration of Mars. Detailed analysis of a Mars communications relay showed that current, or near-term, technology, such as the QinetiQ T6 thruster can be used to enable continuous communications between Earth and Mars during solar conjunctions, it was also found that a Ka- band communication system, rather than an X-band system, significantly relaxed the propulsion system requirements. The use of solar electric propulsion and a hybrid solar sail/solar electric propulsion spacecraft were considered for the communication relay, the addition of a modest solar sail proves some advantages for the case of a communications relay using Ka-band and particularly for communication with assets stationed near the poles during summertime. Several propulsion system failure and contingency schemes were considered, with it being shown that transferring a spacecraft between potential relay locations is relatively inexpensive. Analysis of a solar storm warning mission was presented for the first time. It was found that for this mission to provide a meaningful advantage over a conventional Sun-Mars L 1 halo orbit a hybrid solar sail/solar electric propulsion spacecraft was
14 Additional significance has recently been placed upon the exploration of Mars with the reformulation of the MarsExploration Program, which aims to assess both near-term mission concepts and longer-term foundations of program level architectures for future robotic exploration of Mars. The goals of the program are to discover whether life ever arose on Mars, characterise the climate and geology of the surface and ultimately prepare for human exploration, with the challenge of sending humans to orbit Mars in the decade of the 2030s. Thus, missions must be developed which are responsive to the scientific goals of both the National Research Council Planetary Decadal Survey  and the ESA Aurora Programme 3 , and extensive investigation is required into the Martian surface, subsurface, lower atmosphere, winds and densities. Research has consequently been conducted into a variety of Mars orbits to allow the best possible opportunities for remote sensing and in support of future Marsexploration . This thesis therefore employs similar methods used to derive new orbits at Earth to also develop novel orbits around Mars to enable new and unique investigations.
Beginning in the 1960s, the former Soviet Union and the United States have both repeatedly carried out successful launches of Mars vehicles and, thus, obtained an enrich- ing experience in deep space exploration. However, China’s advent to the technological exploration of Mars is still in a developmental stage, with preliminary proposals that engineering research of deep space exploration would materialize within the next ten years. With the smooth progress of China’s exploration of the Moon, it is ex- pected that exploration of Mars will also make it to the research agenda. Traditionally, the dynamical basis of the two-body problem, through the patched conic method, has been used for preliminary design of interplanetary trajectories, but this method consumes large energy. To satisfy rendezvous constraints and reduce maneuever costs to acceptable levels, techniques such as gravity assists and, more recently, low thrust trajectories are now being investigated. In addition, in the past few decades, mission scenarios have increased in complexity and science goals
The Martian polar layered deposits are an enigmatic geologic formation that have excited and motivated generations of planetary scientists. It is likely they contain a historical record that is rivaled in detail and variety only by terrestrial ice and deep sea cores. More than thirty years have passed since Murray et al. (1972) first reported the existence of what they termed “Laminated Terrain” at the Martian south pole. These polar layered deposits (as they later became known) were first imaged by Mariner 7 (Figure 1.1) and have been studied as part of every Mars orbiting mission since. At the time of their discovery they were immediately seized upon as a possible record of Martian climate (Cutts, 1973b; Ward, 1973; Cutts and Lewis , 1982). These sediments are commonly interpreted as being composed of varying proportions of atmospherically deposited ice and dust. This thesis is focused on using the new MGS (and to a lesser extent Mars Odyssey) data to examine both contemporary processes and the historical record contained within the polar layered deposits.
Microbes on Mars did the same thing in this photo, which is the same as Figure 2 above. In the red circles are Martian ooids with holes bored by Martian microbes. Image width: ~3.3 cm. Original-sized figure: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ fossil_lin/24749890260/sizes/o/ Context: the left side in http://i.imgur.com/VK79Uz2.jpg Image Credit: NASA/JPL- Caltech/MSSS Image source: http://mars.nasa.gov/ msl/ multimedia/raw/?rawid=1182MH0003650010402637C00_DX XX&s=1182. More evidence for microbial borings: http://wretchfossil.blogspot.tw/2016/04/ more- martian- microbes-boring-holes-in.html Note 1: “The ooids have the same pattern of microboring alteration across the region. The surface and outer cortex of the ooids are punctuated with unfilled microborings, whereas the inner cortex contains two morphologies of aragonite cement filling the microborings.” (quoted from the abstract of article in Ref. 1 below) Note 2: “Examination of such micritic ooids by scanning electron microscopy often shows evidence of microbial borings later filled by fine cement.” (quoted from Wikipedia article on ooids) Note 3: Example of Earthly
It is clear from Fig. 2 that 10 basis functions give best performance for prediction of min. So, 10 basis functions have been introduced in forward algorithm. However, the final MARS model contains 6 basis functions. So, 4 basis functions have been deleted in backward algorithm. The expression of the final MARS model is given below (by putting y= min , a 0 =0.189 and M=6 in Eq. (3)): Table 3 summarizes the expression
The intent of this study was to investigate if revising PROMs in order to lower their RGL would illicit different results to the original versions, and also if the resulting revised PROMs would have better test-retest reliability than the originals. The PROMs chosen for revision were the DOSO, the IOI-HA, and the MARS-HA. Participants were recruited from five different clinics in the United States, and completed one copy of the original PROM, along with two copies of the revised version over a six-week period. The results indicate that the study was statistically over-powered. Though the trends in the data are encouraging, with regard to the hypotheses, there is too much variation in the results to conclude that the results support the hypotheses categorically. This chapter will discuss the results and their clinical implications in relation to the literature.
such as bases and equipment. 82 However, as noted above, the rights in such chattels are not full property rights such as those exercised by terrestrial landowners as there is no exclusivity – treaty requires parties to allow others to use these equipment and facilities when requested. 83 On one hand such compulsory property sharing is economically efficient because it would encourage further development by minimizing one of the costliest aspects of settlement. A subsequent arrival could benefit from existing infrastructure devoting resources to the more productive development of the region without redundant expenditure that would impede overall progress. However, the common property regime envisioned by the space treaties ignores the reality that without adequate compensation for such sharing there might be an incentive to free-ride by waiting for another explorer to incur the initial costs of establishing a Mars base with oxygen / fuel production facilities. It would therefore be more cost effective to be the second or third Mars colonizer, potentially inducing a strategic waiting game. To resolve this problem it should be permissible to charge a fee for the use of one’s facilities because such fees represents the fundamental economic gain of granting property rights in land on Mars – developed land, such land with a base upon it that could sustain human life, becomes valuable to subsequent visitors and this can generate revenue that will offset the initial costs. Bargaining would naturally set the use fee at an optimal level that encouraged subsequent parties to land and make use of existing facilities but yet would not be too low to deter the initial landing and construction. Thus the direction to share resources in the Moon Treaty might be unnecessary – sharing might increase wealth for all parties, much as land values increase in proportion to the rise in population of an area.
PHOBOS 2 ASPERA found indirect evidence of a dust/gas torus when many works started on the subject on the Martian dust ring. There, ion mass spectrometry suggested the ex- istence of a large mass number particles, which could be ascribed to very fine dust (<0.1 micron) (Dubinin et al., 1990). Recent theoretical studies (e.g., Juhász and Horányi, 1995; Hamilton, 1996; Ishimoto, 1996; Sasaki, 1996) show that solar radiation pressure as well as Martian oblateness should enhance the orbital eccentricity of particles (from both Phobos and Deimos) and inclination of particles (from Deimos only) greatly. As for particles from Phobos, eccen- tricity of particles smaller than 200 micron is greatly increased owing to the resonance of phase shift due to Martian ob- lateness. And eccentricity of particles smaller than 20 mi- cron becomes so large that they are quickly captured by Mars. Since inclination is not largely increased, dust particles from Phobos would form a thin dust ring whose thickness would be less than 300 km. The eccentricity of dust particles from Deimos is also enhanced by radiation pressure, but the combined effect with Martian oblateness also increases inclination to be as high as 0.2 to form an extended torus, which would contain smaller particles than those of the Phobos’ ring.
parameters such as ambient and surface temperature, regolith diffusion properties, and wind (Williams et al., 2008). Here we estimate the likely minimum sublimation rate for the upper bound on the time required to remove 500 m of ice. The likely range of ambient temperatures in Ophir Chasma (Millour et al., 2012) gives rise to sublimation rates (Chittenden et al., 2008) that are as much as five orders of magnitude greater than the globally averaged Hesperian to Amazonian surface erosion rates, result- ing in a maximum time of ~57 m.y. to remove 500 m of ice. Although it is unknown whether ice formed a significant volume of the ILDs, the possible rate of ice sublimation is likely always several orders of magni- tude greater than the globally averaged erosion rate under a given envi- ronmental condition, and so cannot be ruled out as a contributing loss mechanism. Importantly, if the ice sublimation model is correct, it would imply that large ice-rich deposits were present as recently as 400–200 Ma at the equator on Mars.
particulate composition of the atmosphere and hence the strength of the greenhouse effect are unknown. In order to gain some initial idea of the influence of water distribution on an ancient Mars-like world, an idealized set of simulations are considered in this study. Conceptually, the limiting case of an early Earth-like Martian atmosphere and climate is, in fact, the current atmospheric thermal state of the Earth, in which the mean global surface temperature is sufficient to sustain surface liquid water. Thus, for this study, we use the Na- tional Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) and, specifically, the finite volume dynamical core and slab ocean model (Collins et al., 2006). To examine precipitation as a function the available water fraction for various Mars landmass distributions, we have changed the topographic boundary condition in CAM to mimic the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) global topographic map (Smith et al., 2001). Selecting an effective sea level elevation relative to the MOLA reference specifies the water distribution. All other environmental and orbital parameters were left at their terrestrial values. This is reasonable for a first study of the influence of water distribution since the dynamics of the terrestrial and Martian lower atmospheres are in a similar regime and there are large uncertainties in true ancient Mars conditions.
DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2019.710162 2385 Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics a big obstacle. Since the Soviet Union launched its first Mars probe in 1960, 46 missions have been launched around the world, with less than a 45 percent suc- cess rate. In the last century, a total of thirty-three detectors were launched worldwide, but only 9 of them were completely successful. The key concerns of launching process are the calculation of the track and the unknown accidents. When the detector approaches Mars, a slight deviation in the orbital calculation will cause amplified error enough to pass the planet. Also to be practical, fuel is another serious problem, which means the limited size of the aircraft restricted the amount of fuel carried. Then in order to solve these two problems, we try to figure out a better trajectory that can minimize the use of fuel with our careful calculation. We chose the Hohmann transfer as the basic model of our trajectory, because it’s undoubtedly the most fuel-efficient one of all the orbital paths, which has been proved hundreds of times, such as the article Journey to Mars: The physics of travelling to the red written by Stinner and Begoray (2005) . In this paper, we simulate the launch of a detector from the Earth’s low Earth orbit, continuous moving by passing the sun and entering the orbit of Mars under so- lar gravitation with the help of PYTHON. In addition, on the basis of Hoh- mann’s orbit, we compared the 365 launch dates, the path generated, and the shortest distance path on a daily basis, which allows a relatively small amount of required fuel and short time. And then we calculated the time required, and the initial position of the Martian Earth, and chose the ideal launch date.
allowing water from the aquifer to burst out of the side of the slope and run downhill, forming a gully. Liquid water has been shown by multiple authors to have a residency time of up to a few hours on the martian surface under the temperature and pressure conditions of both the present and the geologically recent past [e.g., Carr, 1983; McKay and Davis, 1991; Haberle et al., 2001; Hecht, 2002; Heldmann, 2005]. This model is consistent with many observations. Mellon and Phillips  found that ground ice is only stable poleward of 30°, consistent with the latitudinally restricted extent of gullies. They also found that the 273 K isotherm underwent the least amount of change over obliquity cycles between ~60°S and 65°S and therefore predicted a relative lack of gullies in this latitude range, consistent with results from gully surveys [Bridges and Lackner, 2006; Heldmann et al., 2007; Kneissl et al., 2010]. Aquifers also provide an explanation for the observed regional clusters of gully occurrence, with some clusters appearing to have a common rock layer from which gullies originate (e.g., Hale Crater, Nirgal Vallis [Gilmore and Phillips, 2002], although these observations were made with MGS MOC; higher resolution imaging with HiRISE has discounted this observation [McEwen et al., 2007]) and gully orientations in local clusters appearing to be affected by the local topography [Márquez et al., 2005; Allen et al., 2008]. Hartmann  proposes a shallow aquifer formed by localized geothermal melting (not significant enough to have any surface expression, as no signs of geologically recent volcanic activity have been observed on Mars with any spacecraft [Edgett et al., 2010]) of ground ice. Debris flows are then triggered either by direct rapid release of water to the surface or by saturation- induced failure. This also provides an explanation for the recharge of shallow aquifers. Gully activity from water traveling along impermeable layers in the subsurface and then exiting at a cliff face has been directly observed in Iceland [Hartmann et al., 2003; Decaulne et al., 2005], demonstrating that the phenomenon does occur in nature.
The primary magnetic field in our altitude range is the crustal magnetic field (Brain et al., 2003). Our model mag- netic field is from the spherical harmonics fit to a selection of Mars Global Surveyor crustal magnetic field vector data by Cain et al. (2003). The magnetic field in ARTS is an extrac- tion of the fit of Cain et al. (2003) that has been gridded at a global resolution of 0.5 ◦ latitude, 0.5 ◦ longitude, and 5 km altitude from the surface up to 100 km altitude. This means that the magnetic field is allowed to change along the path of the radiative transfer in our simulations. If the magnetic field had changed more dramatically through the radiative transfer than it does, then this might have reduced the magnetic signal by changing the polarization of the signal propagation. Since this is not a problem that we encounter, we will not pursue any ideas on how to deal with it. The model by Cain et al. (2003) is based on a 90th-order Legendre polynomial, so the spatial resolution is limited to ∼ 130 km. As mentioned, other models, such as that of Morschauser et al. (2014), differ from that of Cain et al. (2003) by about 2000 nT at most (see Fig. 9 of Morschauser et al., 2014) but are otherwise close. This 2000 nT difference is therefore an estimation of the ac- curacy of the magnetic field components with the present data. Some authors (Brain et al., 2003) speculate that the strongest field strength at the surface is up to 20 000 nT. Cain et al. (2003) give the strongest field as 12 000 nT, so 8000 nT serves as an estimate of the potentially largest discrepancy today of the crustal magnetic field strength of Mars.
According to Viking Orbiter observation, there is a con- tinuous dust haze at 10 ∼ 30 km altitude even during no dust storm periods (Jaquin et al., 1986). The optical depth of this haze is 0.1 ∼ 0.2. From wave structure of the haze in limb imaging, we may directly obtain information for wavelength and amplitude of atmospheric gravity waves. Moreover, ver- tical structure of the haze would give information for merid- ional circulation as well as turbulence intensity. There is also a thinner detached haze at higher altitude (30 ∼ 90 km). Since the detached haze is condensed water ice, the water vapor mixing ratio in the atmosphere can be obtained from its bottom height. To investigate the vertical and horizon- tal structure of the atmospheric hazes, MIC should observe the scattering of solar light at the limb. When Planet-B is close to Mars, MIC can observe the planetary limb in spatial resolution as high as 2 km, enough for investigating the ver- tical structure of Martian atmosphere with atmospheric scale height of 10.8 km.
In our survey, the identification of other geometric patterns inside craters that were not previously docu- mented was possible: Crater with a complex of three triangles inside, in which the great original triangular struc- ture gives rise to two self-similar smaller fractal aligned scalable triangles, identical in disposition to the Giza pyramid complex (Figure 22, Figure 23, Figure 24, Figure 25). Another dynamic characteristic of Mars craters is the visible dipole energy generated in their interior. Due to an inward and upward motion of the target rocks, accompanied by compression and accretion, the uplift displays a system of intricate small folds, faults, and thrusts reflecting mostly the last phase of centripetal motion. Expansion or centrifugal energy in one semicircle crater area is balanced with contraction centripetal energy in the opposite one. Expansion-centrifugal zones show well-defined edge rim wall borders with star-like patterns of dissemination, whereas contraction-centri- petal zones show evidence of stratification hyperdensities with flattened edges (Figure 26, Figure 27). From the wall of contraction areas emerge collision bodies formed by the hypertrophy of identical helicoid bands compar- ative with the embryoid bodies documented by us in cancer tissues, and derived from DNA-like helical bands (Figure 28, Figure 29, Figure 30).