Background. The behavior and attitudes of employees with Plateauing not only include themselves, but also makes all members of the group in which they work to ask whether they are really suitable for the organ in which they work. Objectives. This study is to design a model of Plateauing of employees of departments of Youth and Sport of northwestern provinces of Iran. Methods. In the present study, a mixed strategy (quantitative and qualitative data), in- depth interviewing in the qualitative sector and exploratory factor analysis was used. The construct validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha of 0.839 and according to Krejcie Morgan table, a sample size of 181 individuals was determined through cluster sampling. A total of 63 indicators were identified as influencing factors on the Plateauing of the employees of departments of Youth and Sports of northwestern provinces in the form of an 11 sub-factors and five main factors. Results. Investigating exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation analysis showed that each of the main factors of skill factor (lack of technical skills and lack of work maturity) (p<0.05; T=11.07), psychological factor (lack of personal motivation, lack of external reward) (p<0.05; T=11.93), inside work factor (lack of job flexibility, lack of job transparency, and lack of promotion) (p<0.05; T=13.56), intra organizational factor (lack of proper training and lack of work communication) (p<0.05, T=14.82), and managerial factor (lack of manager support and dissatisfaction with management style) (p<0.05; T=14.49), are respectively influencing the Plateauing of the employees of departments of Youth and Sports of northwestern provinces. Conclusion. It should be mentioned that by increasing organizations with flat structure and decreasing management positions at the medium level, the possibility of vertical promotion of employees in organizations has been decreased. The prevalence of organizational Plateauing is one of the consequences of failure to compete for tenure of jobs at organizational levels, so it is clear that performing repetitive tasks and working in uniform jobs increases the phenomenon of occupational Plateauing.
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Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was done on all 20 symptoms. From the original 6 subdomains of EDQ, the symptoms were rearranged and regrouped into 4 subdo- mains without omitting any of the questions. The symptom ‘repetitive questioning’ from the subdomain concentration was noted to best fit into memory subdomain. This was supported by the literature that had stated ‘repetitive ques- tioning’ was part of memory complaints in patient with early dementia [18–20]. Confirmatory factor analysis which was done on the 4 subdomains showed that all of the symptoms had factor loadings of more than 0.4 which showed good construct validity except the symptom ‘diffi- culty in taking care of personal hygiene or using the toilet’ with factor loading if 0.35. However, this was still accept- able. This question remain in the questionnaire as changes
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CFA: Confirmatory factor analysis; CFI: Comparative fit index; ECV: Explained common variance; ED: Emergency department; EFA: Exploratory factor analysis; GFI: Goodness of fit; G-H: Generalized H index; HPWS: High performance work systems; HSOPSC: Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture; ICU: Intensive care unit; I-CVI: Item-level content validity index; I- REAL: Item residual absolute loadings; MIREAL: Mean of item residual absolute loadings; MRFA: Minimum rank factor analysis; NFI: Normed fit index; OR: Operating room; RMR: Root-mean-square residual; RMSEA: Root- mean-square error of approximation; RN: Registered nurse; SAQ: Safety Attitudes Questionnaire; S-CVI/Ave: Overall scale-level content validity index; WHO: World Health Organization
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Background: No validated instruments for the evaluation of patient satisfaction in colposcopy do exist. Therefore, this study reports on the development of a Patient ’ s Experience and Attitude to Colposcopy questionnaire. Methods: Patients who recently received colposcopy participated in a focus group. A panel of experts evaluated the transcriptions and agreed on a 15-item draft questionnaire. The draft questionnaire was completed by 68 women who subsequently came for a colposcopy. For construct validation, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were performed as well as reliability analysis. Concurrent validity was assessed with the 4-item Patient Health questionnaire (PHQ-4).
Most of our interval data and Likert items were quite nor- mally distributed and had moderately acceptable kurtosis and skewness (below two and seven respectively) . When needed, items were reverse-scored for better inter- pretation. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis using the principal component analysis method to evalu- ate the loading of variables. We used SPSS V.22 and Amos V.22 (IBM, Chicago, USA). With the exploratory factor analysis results, we executed confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling by Amos in order to create measurement and structural models. Some of the Likert items had missing values (mostly for subjective norm items), and we imputed them via a regression model in Amos.
ABSTRACT: Menstruation comprises an important procedure in women’s life. Cross- cultural studies are taking place, using instruments like Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ), which was constructed for American people and has been validated for different populations, in order to investigate menstrual aspects among women. The aim of this study is to investigate the psychometric properties of the Greek version of MAQ. The initial questionnaire was translated using forward- backward translation, and it was distributed to a sample of Greek women. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were conducted.CFA did not confirm the American factor structure along, while EFA identified a new model of five factors that reflected almost exactly the original structure and indicated very good levels of internal consistency. Greek version of MAQ was developed. Attitudes toward menstruation were found to differ among countries, confirming past studies. Greek women were found to be positive oriented to menstruation. Greek version of MAQ is a reliable questionnaire with satisfactory psychometric properties for a Greek population. This study is the first that copes with menstrual attitudes in our country and can lead to further research improving women’s life.
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In this study, a measurement tool was developed to measure the acceptance level of students with different characteristics in the classroom in a valid and reliable way. In order to develop the measurement tool, firstly a literature review was conducted, expert opinion was taken and a pool of 56 items was created. A 44-item draft scale was created in accordance with the pool of items, pilot implementation and expert opinion. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were performed to ensure the construct validity of the Acceptance of Students with Different Characteristics Scale. For exploratory factor analysis, Kaiser-Meyer Olkin test and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity were performed. KMO value was found as 0.89, and Bartlett's Test also was significant (χ²=4276.27; p<0.05). According to these results, it was demonstrated that the data was suitable for factor analysis. As a result of EFA, a 30-item scale was obtained, in which the single-factor structure explained 32.018% of the total variance.
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The use of celebrity endorsements in advertising has become a trend and a perceived winning formula of corporate image building and product marketing. As existing media get increasingly cluttered, the need to stand out has become paramount and celebrities have proved to be the ideal way to ensure brand prominence. Research has shown that the use of celebrity endorsers brings many positive effects in terms of positive feelings towards the ad and the brand, a positive brand attitude and increased purchase intention for the brand. Numerous researches have proved empirically the effectiveness and the positive influence of celebrity endorsements in advertising, particularly on purchase intention. However, there is no common consensus on whether attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise of the celebrity endorsers have a significant impact on consumers’ purchase intention. Through a survey of 336 Indian respondents who are exposed to celebrity endorsements for various products/brands, the present study attempts to find out the impact of celebrity endorsements on consumers’ purchase intention. The three-dimensional scale proposed by Roobina Ohanian (1990) has been used for the purpose. Thus, the present study considers three attributes of celebrity endorsements as suggested by Ohanian - attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise. The study also attempts to find out the individual impact of these dimensions on consumers’ purchase intention. Exploratory factor analysis was used to reconfirm the factor structure. The model used was empirically tested for unidimensionality, reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity, using confirmatory factor analysis. Structural equation modeling was used to find out the impact of celebrity endorsements on purchase intention. Results reveal that celebrity endorsements have a significant impact on consumers’ purchase intention. However, the beta coefficients reveal a low degree of correlation between celebrity endorsements and purchase intention. Further, attractiveness and trustworthiness are found to have a significant impact on the purchase intention, while expertise did not have a significant impact on purchase intention.
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Results: The exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, used to verify the construct validity of the measure, showed a clear factor structure with three independent dimensions: intrusion, avoidance, and hyper-arousal. The goodness-of-fit indices (non-normed fit index [NNFI] = 0.99; comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.99; standardized root mean square residual [SRMR] = 0.04; and root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.02) indicated a good adaptation of the model to the data. The IES-R scales showed satisfactory values of internal consistency (intrusion, α = 0.78; avoidance, α = 0.72; hyper-arousal, α = 0.83) and acceptable values of correlation with the DES-II.
Participants were randomly divided into two groups by statistical software to evaluate further evidence for con- struct validity. Specifically, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted with data obtained from one group, and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used with data from the other group. Finally, we retested the whole sample in fitting a confirmatory 3-factor model by ex- ploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM; imple- mented in the Mplus 7.4 statistical software). The coefficient calculation was available in R packages. Con- sidering the non-normal distribution of the scale item scores, we adopted the method of maximum likelihood means-adjusted estimator (Robust) to conduct the ana- lyses. The х 2 /df v alue, robust comparative fit index (R-CFI), robust Tucker Lewis index (R-TLI), robust root-mean-square error of approximation (R-RMSEA), and its 95% CI were used to assess fit estimates for the 1-factor, 2-factor, and 3-factor solutions .
This study aims to determine the construct validity of the Multi-dimensional Blue ocean strategy Scale within the telecommunication market in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The study involves a quantitative investigate approach via a questionnaire-based survey of all individuals working in the telecommunication market in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan which totalling about (1000) individuals. A total of (150) respondent returned questionnaires, of which (23) questionnaires were discarded due to the lack of some information. Thus, the total of (127) valid questionnaires was finally obtained. A Structural Equation Modeling was used through exploratory and Confirmatory factor analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and Amos Ver. 22 to evaluate construct validity. The study reveals that the blue ocean strategy constructs consisted multiple factors confirmed that the loadings for seventeen items were over (0.50). The study provides practical evidence for the testable scales that are both reliable and valid. This gives a new practical insight into blue ocean strategy philosophy. As to the managerial implications, blue ocean strategy dimensions cover most of the Initiatives used in the organizations which will affect the levels of excellence superiority on the long range. The study contributes to scientific assistance in business strategy domain. Furthermore, blue ocean strategy philosophy, validated through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, is a thorough and reliable measure considering the value of developing blue ocean strategy dimensions in the organizations, as well as the gap in business strategy literature that relevant to the development of a scale of blue ocean strategy dimensions.
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Methods: Forward-backward translation of guidelines provided in the literature was followed. Content validity was examined by nine health experts and reliability was assessed with Cronbach‟s coefficient alpha; test-retest reliability. Construct validity was explored with exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) by means of survey among 414 physicians and nurses worked at Shifa Medical Complex in the Gaza Strip in 2015. Results: Response rate was 65% and Cronbach‟s coefficient alpha was 73.2 for the entire sample. Test-retest reliability was 0.79 measured by Pearson correlation. Factor analysis with Varimax rotation revealed four factors explained 60.5% of the variance in the responses labeled as physician-nurse collaboration, doctor‟s authority, Shared education and Nursing role in-patient care. Goodness of fit indices from the CFA showed a satisfactory model of fit; Compara- tive Fit Index (CFI) = 0.89; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.06; Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) = 0.03; and Hoelter index = 206.
Which elements that make the marketing website to be more approbated by buyers marketing website as information releasing and sales channels for an E-commerce enterprise should have? Through literature analysis this paper summarizes the basic elements of the marketing website, using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory analysis theory, based on the buyer’s survey, and creates the necessity factor model of a marketing website by the means of the statistical analysis software spss19.0, and provides empirical validation of the model by means of a secondary survey methodology and analysis software, and at last gives some guiding recommendations for e-commerce enterprises building a marketing-based website.
Multiple linear regression was employed to control for potential confounders. The total ORIC, efficacy, and commitment scores were the dependent variables. Explanatory variables were selected based on earlier re- search  and simple regression. Categorical explana- tory variables were coded depending on their level. If only two (for example, the variable “group” with two cat- egories of staff and manager), the reference category was indicated. Managers were the reference category for the variable “Group”. The associations were presented as re- gression coefficients (B) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Residual plots, normal probability plots, and Cook’s distance assessed model assumptions. The final parsimo- nious model for each outcome variable is presented below. The model building procedure and the guidelines for reporting regression analysis have previously been described in detail elsewhere. [28–30] All statistical ana- lyses were done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows (version 25; IBM, NY, USA) with the level of significance set at 0.05.
Anderson-Fabry disease (FD) is a rare condition, but the second most common among the lysosomal storage dis- eases (LSD) and the only X-linked sphingolipidosis [1,2]. It is an inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A (GLA) that results in a slowly pro- gressive disease with premature death in adult males and some females due to cardiac, renal or central-nerve- system (CNS) events . FD is rare with an estimated incidence of 1 in 40,000 to 60,000 males, with clinical heterogeneity in female patients [3-6]. The disease typic- ally begins in childhood and can be diagnosed by measur- ing the level of alpha-galactosidase activity; however, this may be misleading in female heterozygotes probably due to the random nature of X-inactivation . Molecular analysis of the GLA gene is the most accurate method of diagnosis, and many mutations which cause the disease have been noted.
The exploratory factor analysis including N = 237 patients suggested a four factor model, supported by the scree test, which explained 68.1% of the variance. The varimax rota- tion converged within 6 iterations. With the exception of item 4, which formed a factor together with the two items 5 and 6 measuring exercise, EFA yielded the postulated model. The rotated component matrix displaying factor loadings is given in Table 4. It should be noted that the primary analysis population of N = 237 consists only of those patients who had no missing values in all of the first 10 items of the SDSCA-G. In order to assess the robust- ness of the achieved results, another exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the full set of N = 315 patients as a sensitivity analysis, using single mean imputation in order to replace missing values on respective item scales. The results were comparable to those on the primary ana- lysis set, the rotated component matrix is provided in the appendix (see Additional file 1).
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The original full version of the Norwegian HSOPSC comprises 13 safety climate dimensions, consisting of 46 items, in addition to two single-item outcome items [29, 35], and a relevant question is whether the Pre- HSOPSC-S is to be preferred over the original full HSOPSC. In study design, it has become more import- ant to consider specific measurement instruments, level of analysis and the selection of outcome measures . Whether the original or the short version should be ap- plied for measurements depends on the objectives. If ef- ficiency, speed and frequent measurement constitute the goal, a shorter version may be preferred. On the other hand, if an organization is conducting compre- hensive improvement programs, and there is a desire to measure changes in the patient safety climate, a full version covering all dimensions may be preferred. In essence, different objectives require different measuring instruments, implying that several validated instru- ments with different perspectives and outcomes are beneficial for both assessments of and research on pa- tient safety climate in the prehospital domain.
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The result of the reliability analysis shows that the total Cronbach's alpha value ofthe SRMEIS was 0.922 which indicated high level of internal consistency. The Cronbach's alpha values of Emotional Expression and Appraisal, Emotional Facilitation of Thinking, Emotional Understanding and Emotional Management were .859, .868, .683 and 0.893 respectively as shown in Table 4. With the exception of Emotional Understanding, all other subscales showed high level of internal consistency. Although the alpha cronbach of Emotional Understanding is slightly lower than .70, it still relatively a good indicator of internal consistency since research has indicated that a low alpha cronbach coefficient is common for scales with items less than 10 and therefore acceptable.
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Our study is the first to confirm that the 2-factor structure (physical and mental health) of the SF-36 and SF-8 found in the US is reasonable for the Chinese ver- sion SF-8 among city residents of China. Therefore, the US norm-based scoring algorithm, developed assuming the 2-factor model, could be used for calculating the PCS and MCS summary scores among Chinese. Our CFA results do not imply that the US norm-based scor- ing algorithm is the best scoring method to reproduce the summary scores among Chinese. However, using the algorithm allows comparisons of HRQOL across differ- ent populations and countries, which is desired by many . On the other hand, prior studies have reported not- able differences between the US norm-based weights and country specific sample-based weights for the 2- factor model, potentially due to cultural differences in Table 2 Summary of SF-8 items
It appears that even though the thematic analysis of prejudiced attitudes suggested that certain themes could be distinguishable conceptually, participants did not make such a distinction. Factor analysis is empirical and more objective than the more subjective thematic ana- lysis. Our thematic analysis suggested that dangerous- ness, interaction difficulty, avoidance, malevolence, and inferiority appeared to be different constructs. Nonethe- less, participants who perceived that people with MI are dangerous would also uniformly and automatically find that it is difficult to interact with them and that people with MI should be avoided. These three facets therefore formed one latent variable. In addition, participants who had malevolent attitudes towards people with MI also uniformly and automatically perceived them as inferior. Accordingly, these two facets formed one latent variable. Thus, instead of the hypothesised complex seven dimen- sions, the findings suggested a more parsimonious four-dimensional solution.
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