The Export processing zone (EPZ) has played one of most important role in the economy of Bangladesh after 1990 though it was established in 1983. In Bangladesh economy, EPZs contribute very effectively in the terms of foreign direct investment (FDI), employment, export and investment for last ten years especially in Bangladesh’s Export Processing Zones (BEPZs).This study has explored the performance of EPZs and its benefit in the economy of Bangladesh in the term of investment, export and employment in details. It also focuses eight BEPZs performance in terms of their size, location and infrastructure and identifies the reason of the involvement of foreign investor in BEPZs. This study explores the performance of the BEPZs between 2005 and 2018. In this study secondary data is used and data were being collected from the official website of Bangladesh Export Processing Zone Authority (BEPZA).This study also tried to explore the role of EPZ in national economy, women empowerment, digitalization, poverty alleviation, per capita income, diversification of product and power plant and some policy recommendations for further development of economic zones.
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Direct interview in combination with questionnaire was applied to survey status of industrial development and environmental protection activities of Tan Thuan EPZ. Information collected based on the proposed criteria and indicator system. 113 enterprises operated in Tan Thuan EPZ were surveyed. The collected data were analyzed in accordance to the final proposed criteria and indicator system to find out problems to be solved to develop Tan Thuan EPZ towards the selected green industrial zone of HCMC. All of this information is presented in Section 3 of this article.
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To prevent the above adverse effects, the textile industry wastewater needs to be treated and discharged as per the national discharge quality standards laid down under Environment Conservation Act (1995) and Rules (1997), legislated by the Government of Bangladesh. Under the 1997 Rules fabric dyeing and chemical processing industries are categorized as “Red industries”, which is the highest category in the Rules and for which an Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) is mandatory. Due to increased awareness of worldwide environmental issues, there has been a great interest in the development of eco-friendly wet processing textile techniques in recent years (Padma et al., 2006). But before treatment, characterization of textile effluent is very important to develop strategies for water treatment and reuse (Savin and Butnaru, 2008; Mountassir et al., 2013). The objective of the present research was to characterize textile effluents for the investigation of pollution potential from five textile industries of DEPZ area in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
continuation of the existing benefits and granting new benefits is very much essential for making all the SEZs operational which are already notified and also to make SEZs a more attractive destination for the success of the government’s ‘Make in India’ program. The import taxes on small volumes of goods have been abolished and incentives have been introduced for Export Oriented Units (EOUs) and Export Processing Zone (EPZs) in the present Foreign Trade Policy 2015-2020 in support of Make in India initiatives. The table shows different concessions availed by the SEZ developers and SEZ units from the year 2006-07 to 2013-14. Tax concessions offered to SEZs are justifiable as an aggregate when we consider the sectors that perform better. But there is always an ugly side, for the underperforming sectors granting benefits and incentives in different forms is simply loss of revenue to the government. Providing incentives and benefits to offset location and infrastructural disadvantageous SEZs will lead to poor performance by the zones (World Bank 2008). Not limiting the exemptions and deductions increases the revenue loss to the government; this doesn’t bring desired level of output to the nation. So the government should make periodic review of all the benefits issued to SEZs and should get rid of unnecessary exemptions.
United Nations Development Program defines Free Zones as the various types of geographically delimitated area that exist within a country, functioning with a distinct administrative, fiscal and regulatory systems, different from the remain- ing part of the country . Economic experiments are carried out in these zones with infrastructure, regulatory, and fiscal policies, which differ from policies im- plemented in the remaining domestic economy, with the sole objective of em- ployment creation boost in export and attraction of foreign direct investment . Zones with these characteristics are given diverse names by different coun- tries. These names are; Export Free Zones, Maquiladora, Industrial Free Zone, Duty Free Export Processing Zone, Export Processing Zone, Free Export Zone, Free Zone, Investment Promotion Zone, Foreign Trade Zone, Development Zones, Economic and Technological Development Zones (ETDZs), Hi-tech De- velopment Zones (HIDZs) and Special Economic Zones (SEZs)  . The in- ternational labour organization estimates about 3500 FZs exist currently in the world in about 130 countries and territories. The number of countries using FZs increased to 130 in 2006 from 116 in 2002 and 25 in 1975 .
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Abstract: Water quality in the aquatic body of Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ) area was studied on the basis of some physiochemical parameters and heavy metal concentrations. Physiochemical parameters like pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and concentrations of some heavy metals like As, Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Hg and Zn were measured. Among different physiochemical parameters, pH, TDS and EC were found within the range. The range of pH for all of the samples was found from 7.1 to 8.17 and 120 to 450 mg/L for TDS. The Values of EC were found from 90 to 300 µs cm -1 . For pH, EC and TDS, though the ranges were within the limits but there was an increasing trend of the values was observed in every case which is highly alarming. The range of COD values was estimated from 90 to 300 mg/L and in most of the samples the values exceeded the standard range. The heavy metal containments of the surface water indicated that the concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Hg and As were obtained below the permissible limit, detection by WHO, 1996. On the other hand, concentrations of Cd, Co, Fe, Pb, Mn and Hg were exceeded the permissible limits. Correlation matrix shows a significant correlation among Pb, Cu, Co, Mn and Fe. Enrichment factor shows high concentrations of Cd, Cr and Hg. Stated environmental condition is highly vulnerable for human being, that’s why this is the time to take proper steps for remediation and preventing the pollution around DEPZ water body which is directly related to the industrial emission of DEPZ.
k. Neelam, k. Mukesh (2017) Export performance and efficiency of special economic zone in Haryana. This study tries to explain roles of SEZs in export promotion in India and Haryana. The author also tries to calculate efficiency of SEZs. The author analysed the efficiency the efficiency of SEZs with in this parameter one can observe that these SEZs are highly inefficient at aggregate level as well as individual level. The scenario changes significantly a downward trend in reference period which indicate gloomy picture of SEZs scheme. In fact, all the policy incentive in favour of SEZs turned out to be inefficient segment of economic system.
We also examined the isogenic a-factor biogenesis mutants by metabolic labeling, which permits the visualization of bio- synthetic intermediates (Fig. 1B) (20). The analysis shown here is the first time that a-factor biogenesis mutants have been tested together in a single experiment, permitting several im- portant conclusions. First, compared to WT, it is striking that no a-factor (mature or precursor) is present in the extracellular (E) fraction of any of these mutants (Fig. 1B, bottom panel of each mutant analysis). This observation indicates that only properly processed mature a-factor is competent for export by Ste6p. Second, in general each processing step appears to be dependent upon completion of the previous step. For example, in the ram1 ⌬ strain in which farnesylation is blocked, no sub- sequent steps in a-factor biogenesis occur. An important ex- ception to this rule is the ste14 ⌬ mutant. In this mutant, in which biosynthetic intermediates are not carboxymethylated (denoted P1 ⬘ , P2 ⬘ , and M ⬘ in Fig. 1B), the N-terminal process- ing of a-factor nevertheless occurs, breaking the strict depen- dency rule stated above. It is notable, then, that whereas the first step of CAAX processing, farnesylation, is required for N-terminal processing, the last step, carboxymethylation, is not essential for N-terminal processing. Importantly, the non- methylated form of mature a-factor produced in the ste14 ⌬ strain cannot be exported by Ste6p.
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Despite not finding increased dissolution with water depth between 2000 and 3700 m, it is possible that coccoliths expe- rienced some carbonate dissolution before reaching the traps. Milliman et al. (1999) suggested that the same biological pro- cesses that facilitate aggregate formation and flocculation, such as ingestion, digestion and egestion by grazers, may be responsible for significant carbonate dissolution at epipelagic depths (i.e. depths shallower than 800–1000 m). Indeed, the negligible amounts of coccospheres found in both traps, to- gether with the high sinking velocities, suggest that grazing could have been an important influence on export. This is supported by the findings of Ebersbach et al. (2011) in the PFZ north of our study location. They documented that an important fraction of the particles sinks from the mixed layer as faecal aggregates. On the other hand, the small spherules often observed on the coccoliths captured by the traps sug- gest some degree of coccolith dissolution followed by rem- ineralisation. We speculate that some of the coccoliths cap- tured by the traps could have experienced partial dissolution in the upper water column, leading to the exposure of their or- ganic coccolith scaffold (Gal et al., 2016; Lee et al., 2016) to the environment. It is possible that salts dissolved in the wa- ter column subsequently precipitated over this scaffold struc- ture, resulting in the formation of the recrystallised structures observed in some coccoliths (Plate 1e–g). However, the avail- able data are insufficient to evaluate the impact of carbonate dissolution in the upper water column and processes leading to secondary recrystallisation in the coccoliths.
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This study examined the impact of Tax incentives on economic development in Nigeria that is seen in terms of industrial growth in the nation with evidence from years 2004 to 2014. The population of this study includes 51 respondents drawn from taxpayers, management and members of staff of some selected manufacturing companies in the South-South geo-political zone of Nigeria and Federal Inland Revenue Services. Using probability method, a sample size of 45 respondents were used whilst Thirty (30) companies were studied. The classes of personnel included in the research were administrative managers, accounts managers, internal auditors, and marketing and production staff. Survey method including the use of questionnaire and interview was adopted, whilst correlation method of analysis was adopted. Twenty eight (28) correctly responded copies of questionnaire out of 30 administered were obtained for the analysis, Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient (rho) statistical tool was used in testing the hypothesis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (SPSS). The findings reveal that sufficient tax incentives enhances industrial growth and economy whilst in conclusion, it was recommended among others that, government should waive certain taxes on corporate bodies to help them develop and mature especially at their early stage. Government should not focus on the revenue that may be lost at this point because in the long-run the benefit surpasses what is lost at the initial time.
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On the basis of the data in Table 3, it can be concluded that in the Russian Federation the most significant factors of barley competitiveness are the volumes of production, the average producer prices and the coefficient of price competitiveness. In particular, during the period 2010-2016. the volume of barley production in Russia has more than doubled - from 8.35 to 18 million tons, which is about 80% of the production of this crop as a whole for the countries of the EEU in question. The dynamics of producer prices of barley is characterized by a negative trend, as in the case of wheat. The average prices for Russian barley reached the maximum values in 2013 - 216 US dollars per ton, by the end of 2016 prices fell almost twofold - to $ 116. At the same time, it should be noted that the prices for barley of Russian agricultural producers are the largest among all the countries of the EEU. The current level of export prices allows Russia to confidently compete with the leading countries in terms of barley exports in the world - France, Australia and Germany. Export prices for barley in these countries in 2016 were 182, 195, 173 US dollars, respectively, which is much higher than export prices for Russian barley, the level of which in 2016 was $ 148.
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There is an increasing body of knowledge showing that ma- jor hydrological and biogeochemical processes change as streams flow from the hillslope to the valley bottom (Covino and McGlynn, 2007; Jencso et al., 2010). Most of this re- search is based on studies performed in temperate regions where hillslope-riparian hydrological connectivity is high, especially during snowmelt (Jencso et al., 2009, 2010). In the current study, we shed some light on the effect of catch- ment position on hydrological and biogeochemical processes at the catchment-scale in semiarid regions by comparing two nested catchments with no snowpack that suffered water lim- itation during long periods. We found substantial differences in water, C and N fluxes between the hillslope and valley- bottom streams during hydrological transitions when semi- arid conditions prevailed. Based on the results presented here and on previous plot-scale studies performed at the FSW, we discuss the potential effect of the alluvial riparian zone on stream hydrology and water chemistry in these semiarid catchments.
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trade theories it was established that, intra-industry trade took place. Besides, a large portion of the intra-industry trade occurred with few costs of adjustment. Therefore, the new trade theory emerged in an attempt to describe why intra-industry trade is possible. The first contribution was that from Krugman (1979), in which it was argued that trade could occur within imperfect markets, and that trade results from economies of scale instead of differences in technology or factor endowments, and product differentiation. Increasing returns to scale makes it possible for firms to lower their average costs as they increase production, and product differentiation allows firms to produce and export their unique variety to other countries. Thus, trade can occur even if economies have similar tastes, technology, and factor endowments, and improve the productivity of firms. Accordingly, measures aimed at liberalizing trade will not only ensure that individuals are offered a wider range of choice thereby increasing the competition among firms, but also result in mutual growth in productivity of firms in the different economies.
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Processing at home: Households after harvesting fresh coffee will dry them. This method results in low and uneven product quality. This method is easy to implement but low cost. In Dak Lak province, over 90% of households use the method of drying or selling fresh fruits. In Vietnam, machinery and equipment for processing in small processing facilities and within households are still lacking and sketchy, so the mostly harvested coffee will be dried in the yard. However, due to inadequate drying yard area, the coffee beans were exposed to be too thick or piled, leading to insecurity in drying and preliminary processing of coffee within 24 hours after harvest. In addition, the level of labor for processing is low, mainly based on experience so the final coffee quality is not guaranteed.
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Coconut products exports have been a traditional foreign exchange earner for Sri Lanka from the agricultural sector. The specific objective of the study was to analyze effect of export ‘cess’ rates on 2010) on the production and exports of nalysis of the effect of export “CESS” changes on industries showed that all the simulations had no significant impact on the supply of all the coconut products exported, and also on the demand for fresh s by the processors. The results also indicated that export “CESS” changes, even in the case of complete removal, had no significant effect on the export demand for coconut products. The impact of roducts showed no significant changes, coconut. The effect of export “CESS” changes on incomes of producers, processors, exporting firms and government analyzed through 30 per cent, 50 per cent and 100 per cent reduction in export “CESS” rates products suppliers’ income, exporting loss to government tax revenue. The imposing of an export ‘cess’ on coconut products has various implications to all stakeholders. But it is essential to look into the run which urgently needs heavy investment either by or participants. Sri Lanka’s coconut products exports have to be e industry needs investment to modernize production and increase exports. Complete removal of export ‘CESS’ rates have an impetus for the private sector to
tin and natural rubber represented 1/3 of the GDP. The period of the import substitution (1950-1970) was followed by the period of the combination of the import substitution with the export promotion (1971-1985), followed by adjustment and liberalisation. Indonesia used intervention policies during 1948-1966, the economic power being concentrated in hands of some groups of exporters. In 1967, the GDP/ inhabitants was 50 USD, and 60% of the population lived in extreme poverty (The World Bank, 1993, p. 23). A big oil exporter, Indonesia was advantaged by the terms of trade during the two oil shocks. The trials of the government to develop industries like ferrous metallurgy, plastics, petrochemicals on basis of subsidised credits and protective commercial policies failed. The external orientation followed only after 1986. Thailand, in its turn, passed from exports based on resources (1955-1970) to import substitution (1971-1980) and export promotion (after 1980). In India, the trade openness and liberalisation started in 1991, which explains the more modest results of its foreign trade.
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Comparative advantage theory states that each country should specialize in producing particular products for which it possess absolute advantage, then it can exchange those products for goods which are produced cheaper in other countries (Dornbusch, Fischer, & Samuelson, 1977). This theory provides a basis for explaining and justifying why international trade occurs and why particular, countries are most suitable for exports of particular goods and services. A nation’s export is induced by its owing distinct advantages in production, such as cheap labor cost, high technology, etc. in comparison with other countries 12 .
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Traceability can be defined as being able to track a product through every stage of the overall production and handling process from fishing ground to plate (Popper, 2007). The traceability scheme of tuna pole-and-line in this study consists of two types: manual and electronic schemes. These findings are consistent with a study undertaken by (Leal et al., 2015) which reported that tuna traceability may consist of manually or electronic recordings. In Larantuka, the tuna processing companies use manual and electronic schemes to track their tuna products as part of their product traceability. Other studies found that in Bitung, Indonesia, a manual traceability scheme has been adopted by tuna processing companies (Parenreng et al., 2016). Three lesson can be learned from these traceability schemes. The first lesson is that the active involvement of all stakeholders including fishers, processing companies government retailers and end-consumers, is crucial to their success (Bush et al., 2017). The basis of the traceability process was food safety (Leal et al., 2015).
While remaining a significant burden throughout the world, the incidence of different types of workplace dis- eases and injuries varies among regions [5, 15]. Hence region-specific scientific literature could depict the actual burden and hence more useful in planning purposes. The generated evidence on occupational health hazards is not commonly found in literature related to lower mid- dle income settings . Sri Lanka is no exception for this and even what is available mainly focuses on small- scale industries . The aim of the present study was to describe the physical hazards and control measures adopted in the formal medium and large-scale industrial sector in the Export Processing Industrial Zone (EPIZ). The study was conducted in the Biyagama, EPIZ which
ABSTRACT: Chabahar is One of Iran's free zones that could help the development of regional tourism in the South East of the country. This area having numerous tourist attractions, located near the Persian Gulf states, a commercial-industrial free zone if properly managed and planned can become a major hub and one of the important tourist areas in the region. The purpose of this study was to determine and analyze the infrastructure for man-made attractions and offers an approach to tourism development in the region. In the present study research method is objective and application based on the method analysis which is centrality index. In order to explain the literature and history, library studies and field methods were used to collect data. And to determine tourism infrastructures centrality index is used. These results show that Chabahar free zone has high potentials to become a major industrial zone in the region but the main obstacles in the way are manmade infrastructures preventing the progress of this area.