The radar speed display sign evaluated in this study showed the speed of the approaching vehicles as well as the speed limit to the drivers. The radar speed display sign was movable but had been placed for approximately nine months at the time of the first study and one year and nine months at the time of the second study. Discus- sions with campus law enforcement indicated that the sign required a power source, limiting the locations for deployment; thus, the sign was left at the same location for an extendedperiod of time. The authors used this opportunity as a test bed for the long-term effectiveness of radar speed display signs in a University environ- ment.
The controlled release drug delivery system aims to release the drug at the desired rate over extendedperiod of time to maintain the therapeutic level in blood. Nowadays, the oral route of administration for controlled release drug delivery system has received more attention due to its more flexibility, reduced dosing frequency and better patient compliance. The design of oral controlled release drug delivery system depends on various factors like, physic-chemical properties of drug, type of delivery system, disease being treated, patient condition, treatment duration, presence of food, gastrointestinal motility and co-administration of other drugs.
The goal of many of the original controlled-release systems was to achieve a delivery profile that would yield a consistently high blood level of the drug over a long period of time. With traditional tablets or injections, the drug level in the blood rises after each administration of the drug and then decreases until the next administration . This level of the agent in the blood must remain between a maximum value, which may represent a toxic level, and a minimum value, below which the drug is no longer effective. However, the actual drug levels will fluctuate widely between these boundaries . In controlled drug delivery sys- tems designed for long-term administration, the drug level in the blood remains constant, between the desired maximum and min- imum, for an extendedperiod of time. Depending on the synthesis and the application, this time may vary between 24 h (Procardia XL Ò , Pfizer Inc., USA) to 1 month (Lupron Depot Ò , AbbVie Inc., USA). In recent years, controlled drug delivery synthesis and the poly- mers used in these systems have become much more sophisti- cated, with the ability to do more than simply extend the effective release period for a particular drug. For example, current controlled-release systems can respond to changes in the biologi- cal environment and deliver—or cease to deliver—drugs based on these changes. The common release mechanisms for PLGA particles are usually the diffusion of the drug, solvent penetration/device swelling, and degradation of the polymer matrix. A combination of these mechanisms can also take place at different time points .
Greek government obligations in the hands of private investors were successfully restructured to give the sovereign an extraordinary amount of debt relief, but as of early 2013 the victory was looking Pyrrhic because of the seemingly enduring reputational and market damage done in the process. According to a June 2012 survey of major financial institutions that are primary dealers in debt issued by European governments, Greece may have to wait at least another five years before it can again sell bonds to investors: three of 20 respondents expected it to take at least a decade before Greece can place new debt again, ten said that investors would not purchase Greek bonds any sooner than 2017, while five predicted that it would be 2015 at the earliest. 54 This suggests that the default and restructuring may have turned Greece into a ward of the ECB, EU and IMF for an extendedperiod of time, a prospect reinforced by the fact that, after the
Abstract: Some laws insist on a ﬁ xed, compulsory waiting period between the time of obtaining consent and when abortions or sterilizations are carried out. Waiting periods are designed to allow for re ﬂ ection on the decision and to minimize regret. In fact, the cognitive processing needed for these important decisions takes place relatively rapidly. Clinicians are used to handling cases individually and tailoring care appropriately, including giving more time for decision-making. Psychological considerations in relation to the role of emotion in decision-making, eg, regret, raise the possibility that waiting periods could have a detrimental impact on the emotional wellbeing of those concerned which might interfere with decision-making. Having an extendedperiod of time to consider how much regret one might feel as a consequence of the decision one is faced with may make a person revisit a stable decision. In abortion care, waiting periods often result in an extra appointment being needed, delays in securing a procedure and personal distress for the applicant. Some women end up being beyond the gestational limit for abortion. Those requesting sterilization in a situation of active con ﬂ ict in their relationship will do well to postpone a decision on sterilization. Otherwise, applicants for sterilization should not be forced to wait. Forced waiting undermines people ’ s agency and autonomous decision-making ability. Low-income groups are particularly disadvantaged. It may be discriminatory when applied to margin- alized groups. Concern about the validity of consent is best addressed by protective clinical guidelines rather than through rigid legislation. Waiting periods breach reproductive rights. Policymakers and politicians in countries that have waiting periods in sexual and reproduc- tive health regulation should review relevant laws and policies and bring them into line with scienti ﬁ c and ethical evidence and international human rights law.
In this paper K-means clustering algorithm is used to extract place, a system that automatically clusters GPS data taken over an extendedperiod of time into meaningful locations at multiple scales. These locations are then incorporated into a Markov model that can be consulted for use with a variety of applications in both single user and collaborative scenarios .
This present study focuses to analyze the trend and variability seasonally of climatic parameters in tarai region of Uttarakhand. Climatic parameters data over a period of 33 years (1981−2013) has been processed to detect out seasonal trend and variability. The seasonal trends and variability detected here, to achieve the objective which has been shown with 33 years of data. Statistical analysis were carried out, application of parametric statistics tests, regression analysis, coefficient of determination R 2 , Q. Q. Plot or Normal plot for seasonal rainfall, trend as general movement of weather parameters over an extendedperiod of time, weather parameters under study were not normally distributed we have calculated median, standard error of median, confidence interval for weather parameters under study and observed seasonally an increasing trend in maximum, minimum temperature, rain fall, rainy days, relative humidity 1412, decreasing trend in relative humidity 712 and wind speed, indicates an increase in maximum temperature is about 0.1934 o C, minimum temperature an increase is about 0.0217 o C. The relative humidity 1412, an increase is 0.0637%, relative humidity 712, decrease is − 0.0075% and wind speed shows slightly decrease is − 0.0054Km /hour. Rainfall seasonally increases about 0.0319 mm over the region; with slightly increase in rainy days is 0 .0315 days. Quantile-Quantile trend test of monsoon season rainfall, observed skewed to right. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was applied to measure degree of relationship between seasonal mean rainy days and seasonal mean rainfall, at α = .01, level of significance (two tailed test) and observed the highly significant positive correlation between seasonal mean rainy days and seasonal mean rainfall. Fluctuations are observed in weather parameters of tarai region of Uttarakhand.
Primary MRV transcripts continuously express viral pro- teins during the GuHCl blockade of dsRNA synthesis. Previ- ous reports have suggested that 80% or more of MRV protein molecules are expressed from secondary transcripts, i.e., tran- scripts synthesized by nascently formed core particles (24, 61). The data presented above, however, infer that 15 mM GuHCl inhibits MRV secondary transcription by blocking dsRNA syn- thesis and nascent core morphogenesis (Fig. 5A), even though it does not prevent the assembly of morphologically normal viral factories (Fig. 4). We therefore sought to determine whether continued translation of primary transcripts, in cells treated with 15 mM GuHCl, yields viral protein concentrations similar to those produced in untreated cells or whether sub- maximal concentrations of viral proteins are produced and are sufficient for formation of the normal-looking viral factories. To address these questions, we infected L929 cells with T1L virions (MOI ⫽ 5) and incubated in the presence or absence of 15 mM GuHCl. Cell lysates were collected at intervals between 3 and 48 h p.i., and total proteins were separated by electro- phoresis in 10% polyacrylamide gels, transferred to nitrocellu- lose membranes, and probed with an anti-T1L polyclonal an- tiserum. In untreated cells, newly synthesized viral proteins were readily observable by 12 h p.i. and accumulated to max- imal concentrations by 36 to 48 h p.i. (Fig. 6A). When 15 mM GuHCl was present, however, MRV proteins were not readily observable until 18 to 24 h p.i., with significantly smaller quan- tities having accumulated by 48 h (Fig. 6B). When we exam- ined early time points after infection more carefully, by over- developing the blots, we observed (consistent with results from in vitro translation assays [Fig. 3]) that comparable quanti- ties of MRV proteins were synthesized by 6 h p.i. irrespec- tive of the presence of 15 mM GuHCl (Fig. 6C, arrowheads, lanes 3 and 4). By 9 h p.i., when dsRNA synthesis and secondary transcription had likely begun in the absence of GuHCl (see Fig. 5), less protein accumulation was seen in the presence of GuHCl, as would be expected from the lack of secondary transcripts. In sum, these data provide further support to the conclusion that GuHCl does not directly influence translation of the MRV proteins. These and pre- ceding data also suggest that translation of primary tran- scripts over an extendedperiod of time produces enough viral protein to assemble and maintain morphologically nor- mal viral factories but that, as previously reported, second- ary transcripts produce the majority of MRV proteins in infected cells in the absence of GuHCl.
There are many patterns of suicide seen in LAD patients, and the cases described represent the two most common patterns of suicide that have been observed. These cases demonstrate not all patients follow the same pattern in the development of suicidal risk. In the first case, the suicide risk evolved and increased over an extendedperiod of time and was well planned with an overwhelming severity of multiple symptoms including all of the symptoms associated with suicidality that were demonstrated in the chart review. This case had similarities to the suicide case described in the Lyme vaccine trials. The second case was unpredictable with no advanced planning, and these cases are often bizarre and senseless. In this case, there appeared to be an acute trigger, possibly sleep deprivation, which is a recognized trigger for suicidal behavior in the presence of other psychiatric risks for suicide. 109
diameter in comparison to span 60 of 14.41microns. The formulation of niosomes within combination of span 20 and cholesterol in 1:1 ratio has 93.8 % PDE and in combination of tween 60 and cholesterol in 1:1 ratio was 95.94 % PDE. The in vitro diffusion study suggests that higher entrapment efficiency was related with slow release comparatively. The in-vitro drug release of 68 %was found to be for the extendedperiod of time of 12 hrs of optimized one. Niosomes prepared from combination of span 60 is a promising approach to improve the bioavailability of chlorpheneramine maleate as antihistamine even for an extendedperiod of time which showed good physicochemical properties with controlled drug release pattern, thereby improving the bioavailability of the drug with minimization of side effects due to
This study demonstrates that the rate of departure over an extendedperiod of time was significantly higher for assistant professors in surgery compared to se- nior faculty ranks, and that assistant professors were more commonly leaving academic medicine for private practice. Although drastic changes in models of care and technology may alter some of the estimates of surgeon shortages, it is clear that AMC’s must remain competitive in replenishing retiring surgeons for leadership roles with a limited supply of qualified newly graduating surgeons. Furthermore, effective recruitment and retention of the new assistant professor must be part of any multi-pronged plan towards strategic, organizational and fi- nancial success of the AMC.
In this paper we have demonstrated that self-reported measures provided by business students at the onset of the course regarding their online learning preferences can be used as predictors of their course performance upon completion of the course. Knowledge of this predictive relationship can aid the student make corrective measures or seek other modes of learning, if needed. This knowledge can help a distance educator adjust her teaching methods during a given semester or gradually over an extendedperiod of time, and can also aid business schools in navigating their student enrollments toward course offerings that best match their students' individual backgrounds and learning preferences. While such a navigational task may be an administrative challenge, if deployed during the pre-registration period or early days of the semester, it would enable students to seek course offerings that are optimal matches for them and enhance their educational experience. By doing so, learning outcomes in many institutions can be improved, and it is therefore hoped that the framework presented in this paper inspires distance educators in business schools to apply a similar approach to helping their students reach higher levels of academic performance.
This paper presents an infinite horizon New Keynesian model with forward guidance and compares the results under two types of expectation assumptions. Under the assumption of rational expectations, Evans and Honkapohja (2001) state agents form expectations based on the true model of the economy. However, adaptive learning agents do not know this information, and instead, act as real-life economists and construct their expectations using standard econometric techniques. The results of this paper show that the desired effect of forward guidance depends on the manner in which agents form their expectations. When the central bank gives the same forward guidance information such that the interest rate equals zero for an extendedperiod of time to both types of agents, the adaptive learning paths of the output gap and inflation overshoot and undershoot the ones of rational expectations. In addition, the impulse responses of the macroeconomic variables show that adaptive learning agents miss the precise response to forward guidance shocks. The impulse responses under adaptive learning display a more persistent effect than its rational expectations counterparts. During a period of economic crisis (e.g. a recession), the effects of forward guidance under rational expectations are overstated relative to adaptive learning. Specifically, the output gap is larger under the assumption of rational expectations than adaptive learning. These results occur because rational expectations agents precisely understand the effects forward guidance has on the economy as they form their expectations from the true model of the economy. However, adaptive learning agents must estimate the effects of forward guidance on the economy as they do not know the true model of the economy. Furthermore, these latter results have implications for policymakers. If the effects of forward guidance are based on a model with rational expectations, which is the standard assumption in the macroeconomic literature, the results may be misleading relative to a more plausible theory of expectations formation (e.g. adaptive learning).
In recent years, many attempts have been made to enhance the bioavailability of drugs and therapeutic effectiveness of oral dosage forms. The most convenient and accepted route of drug delivery is the oral route. Gastro retentive drug delivery system is a novel drug delivery system and has gained immense popularity in the field of oral drug delivery. This drug delivery system is employed to retain the dosage form in the stomach for an extendedperiod of time, and thereby increase the gastric residence time of drugs and also release the drug slowly that can address many challenges associated with conventional oral delivery, including poor bioavailability. Apart from in-vitro characterization, successful GRDDS demands well designed in-vivo study to establish enhanced gastro – retention and prolonged drug release. Recently applied gastrointestinal technologies such as expandable, super porous, hydrogels, bio/mucoadhesive, magnetic low and high-density systems have also examined with their merits and demerits. This review focus on various aspects useful in the development of gastro retentive drug delivery systems, including current trends and their application and factors controlling the gastric residence time of dosage forms.
Overall, we have demonstrated that the construct should be able to mitigate pain over an extendedperiod of time via bupivacaine release. Furthermore, the bupivacaine construct more effectively limited eMSC exposure and hence preserved cell viability. Although the eMSC secretory functions that were quantified in our studies were relatively stable despite the delivery mode, other functions may be more sensitive to small changes in drug exposure. In either case, alginate encapsulation of both LA-containing liposomes and MSC provides a superior dual therapy for pain mitigation and anti- inflammatory control due to its potential for 1) positional control, 2) improved drug release profiles for pain mitiga- tion, and 3) sustained eMSC immunomodulatory secretions. Nevertheless, even though this prospective therapy presents
In today’s market, the remanufactured products are also sold with time limit warranty. A common product warranty is usually an agreement made to a purchaser for the specified period during product use stage [3, 4]. Under this specified period, manufacturers are fully responsible for its product replacement, repair and/or refund. Sometimes, manufacturers can also provide certain compensations to a purchaser for a product’s major failure . In practice, this specified time limit for a remanufactured product is legally bounded in 3 and/or 12 months of the base warranty. For the extendedperiod of the product servicing life cover, purchasers are required to pay some additional extended warranty costs . For the operational terms and conditions, manufacturers usually have the sole authorization to release and impose their pre-defined specifications of the extended care and operating maintenance procedures for remanufactured products. In fact, purchasers/users must comply with it, otherwise the product