a co-worker, prosocial behavior can be defined along two axes representing who the beneficiary is and toward whom the prosocial act is directed. In an organizational context, prosocial acts can either be beneficial for the individual or the organization. Also, the target toward which the act is directed can either be internal or external (with regard to the organization). With such a perspective, prosocial acts in organizations can be classified into four main groups. These main groups are (A) acts which benefit specific individuals and have an internal target (e.g. helping or assisting a co-worker), (B) acts which benefit specific individuals and have an external target (e.g. extra-rolebehaviors toward a customer or a client), (C) acts which benefit the organization and have an internal target (e.g. giving extra time and effort for organizational duties or complying with organizational norms), and (D) acts which benefit the organization and have an external target (e.g. maintain a positive company image). Building on the finding that prosocial acts which benefit individuals and organizations correlate with dispositional and situational antecedents differentially , the present study explores whether the beneficiary of the prosocial act factors in as a determining component of prosocial behavior in organizations.
There is an empirical evidence shows the relationship of transformational leadership and individual extra-role performance, organizational citizenship behaviors, OCBs through employees’ work engagement. This study applied those concepts into academic setting. It aims to study the relationship of transformational leadership in classroom and students’ organization citizenship behaviors with the mediating role of students’ work engagement in higher education in Thailand. The data were collected from 463 graduate students registered in the 1st semester of 2014 at National Institute of Development Administration, NIDA, Thailand by pen and paper questionnaire. The hierarchical regression analysis was used to test several of empirical hypotheses. The result showed that there is a significant relationship between transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behaviors with the partial mediating role of work engagement (p 0.01). This study provides valuable contributions with respect to the institution in term of faculty members’ transformational leadership in classroom perceived by students can influence students’ work engagement and their organizational citizenship behaviors .
This study aims to obtain empirical evidence about the effect of work environment and the compensation on nurse‘s job satisfaction and its implications on extrarole behavior in Efarina Etaham Hospital, Purwakarta. The method used was descriptive and verificative analysis. The data collection was an interview by using a questionnaire along with observation techniques. The population is 70 nurses. Field data collection was conducted in 2014. Data were analyzed by path analysis. The results showed that work environment, compensation, job satisfaction, and extrarolebehaviors generally are relatively good. Meanwhile, the work environment and compensation partially and simultaneously have a positive and significant effect on job satisfaction. Job Satisfaction has positive and significant effect on extrarole behaviour of nurses.
interpersonal citizenship behaviour (ICB). The concept of ICB “involve cooperative assistance for individuals in need” (Settoon & Mossholder, 2002, p. 255). Settoon and Mossholder (2002) offered construct clarifi cation of ICB and offered two forms of ICBs i.e., person and task focused ICB. The person-focused ICB “provides for self-esteem maintenance and deals with problems of a more personal nature” (Settoon & Mossholder, 2002, p. 256) such as listening, showing concern & courtesy, complementing, making extra efforts to understand problems of others while in contrast, the task-focused ICB “are more instrumental, arising in the course of work-role performance” (Settoon & Mossholder, 2002, p. 256) such as supplying information, providing work related advice, helping others who are left behind, assists others with heavy workload, help others with diffi cult tasks (Settoon & Mossholder, 2002). The ICBs look like the prominent work place behaviors through which employees may reciprocate in the workplace because ICBs include the type of behaviors (i.e., person & task focused) which are much similar like the contents of the types of coworkers’ family related social support (i.e., emotional, instrumental) focused in this studies. Thus, the fi rst objective of this study is to investigate the main effect of emotional and instrumental family related social supports from coworkers on person and task focused ICBs.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Örgütsel Vatandaşlık Davranışları; Örgütsel Bağlılık; Örgüt
Kültürü; Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesi
ABSTRACT: One of the examples of behavioral patterns of employees is positive
extrarolebehaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine the direct and indirect effects of contextual and attitudinal factors by focusing on organizational citizenship, which is one of those behaviors. The data which were collected from 384 employees of a private bank by using a survey form including Organizational Citizenship Behaviors Scale, Organizational Culture Scale and Organizational Commitment Scale were analyzed with structural equation modeling technique. The findings of this study indicate that the clan and development tendencies predict conscientiousness and courtesy, and the development tendency predicts sportsmanship and civic virtue behaviors of the employees’ extrarolebehaviors. Moreover organizational commitment has a partial mediator role in all these processes.
3. Key strata and behaviors of surrounding rock in near ﬁeld Using conventional top-coal caving method, the scale of roof movement in extra-thick coal seam can expand apparently and the main roof will turn into immediate roof. Generally, two kinds of structures of near ﬁeld in extra-thick coal seam will form. One is a key stratum in immediate roof located in caving zone during mining process where a cantilever beam can be formed. The basic overlying roof forms a voussoir beam, namely the overlying strata produce a “cantilever beam and voussoir beam” structure. The caving of cantilever beam tends to cause small periodic weighting while the collapse of the main roof can cause huge periodic weighting. Field monitoring results of strata behaviors reveal the space of 12 e20 m for small periodic roof weighting and 21e40 m for the huge one.
procedures. Egg chamber stages are according to Spradling (Spradling, 1993). Wet yeast was added 1 day before all dissections. For the EP screen, flies from the Rørth EP collection (Rørth et al., 1998) were obtained from Exelixis (CA) or from the Szeged Drosophila Stock Centre (http://gen.bio.u-szeged.hu/gen), crossed either to C306-Gal4; PZ80/CyO or to PZ80/CyO; HS-Gal4 and grown at room temperature (or, if inviable at room temperature, at 18 ° C). PZ80 (Karpen and Spradling, 1992) is an insertion into the non- essential Fas3 gene (Patel et al., 1987). C306-Gal4 (C306) drives expression in the germarium and in egg chambers (Manseau et al., 1997). Non-balancer F1 males and females were placed on wet yeast, and either heat shocked in a 37 ° C water bath for 1 hour (HS-Gal4), then placed at 25 ° C for 2 days, or placed at 29 ° C (C306) for at least 5 days with dry yeast. Three females were dissected from each line, fixed and stained for β -galactosidase activity (see below), examined under a dissecting microscope and scored (score = number of examples observed of fused egg chambers or of egg chambers with extra polar cells). EP candidates scoring 3 were crossed again to whichever Gal4 driver was not used in the first cross, and five to seven females were dissected and stained from each cross. Candidates scoring 1 on the second cross were crossed again to both drivers and to C306; A101/TM3 [A101 (Bier et al., 1989) is an enhancer trap in the gene neuralized] and re-examined, and those that scored 3 on at least three out of five total tests were retained.
Hypertension is one of the most common chronic diseases of human, affecting more than one billion people worldwide. When it becomes chronic, hypertension leaves behind cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, stroke, and kidney disease, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. Treatments that effectively reduce blood pressure can prevent these complications. Abnormalities in the production of urine by the kidneys have been implicated in increased vascular resistance, leading to high blood pressure and increased cardiac mass. By matching urinary excretion of salt and water with dietary intake, balance is usually attained, thereby maintaining a constant extracellular fl uid volume and blood pressure. Based on the capacity for the kidney to excrete sodium, this blood pressure-altering mechanism should have suffi cient advantage to limit intravascular volume and consequently lower blood pressure in response to a range of stimuli from elevated heart rate to increase peripheral vascular resistance. A major determinant of the level of intra- and extra- renal blood pressure is therefore sodium handling, and it is controlled by complex physiological mechanism by hormones, infl ammatory mediators, and the sympathetic nervous system. Homoeostasis and favourable infl uence sodium balance are a basic mechanism of effi cacy for diuretics and dietary sodium restriction in hypertension. Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) inhibitors, vasodilators, and β-blockers work to facilitate pressure-natriuresis. Also, WNK signaling pathways, soluble infl ammatory mediators, and pathways regulating extra-renal sodium disposition may be the focus towards elimination of sodium and reducing blood pressure in hypertension.
The concept of work values has emerged from the literature of general values domain (Roe & Ester, 1999). According to Schwartz (1992), values are defined as “desirable states, objects, goals, or behaviors, transcending specific situations and applied as normative standards to judge and to choose among alternative modes of behavior” (p. 362). Brown (1996) defined work values as the values that individuals believe should be satisfied relative to a context of occupational work. Work values are a critical element of work-related motivations and the establishment of personal goals (Busacca, Beebe, & Toman, 2010).
In select circumstances, preventative measures do not circumvent all negative events. During times of unexpected or inevitable injustice perceptions, it is important that employees are equipped with the ability to positively cope with resulting feelings. Stress and emotion regulation strategies training should be considered for organizations with a high potential for negative affect, such as layoff scenarios or high-stress industries; especially because negative affect alone can contribute to counterproductive workbehaviors (as shown in this study), organizations should consider emotion regulation techniques not only in relation to organizational justice, but in general (Thory, 2013). Other incentives that have been shown to promote positive emotions and general well-being should be implemented in the workplace culture (Barsade & Gibson, 2010). This may include work-life balance and flexible schedules, exercise and nutrition programs that encourage healthy habits, constructive feedback and performance appraisal methods, and industry-specific intrinsic and extrinsic rewards (Sparks, Faragher, Cooper, 2001). Lastly, companies should assess whether emotional exhaustion is a factor for employees,
hours has shown some promising potential for improvement in each of these areas, yet little is known about how gameplay affects workplace self-esteem. Cost-effective training tools have evolved over the past decade (Beard & Wickham, 2016; Chiappe et al., 2013; Lee et al., 2015; Rigby & Ryan, 2011). These tools are related to workplace motivation, workplace stress reduction, and the performance of multiple tasks at work, allowing employees to increase their overall performance (Conger, Liao, Caldwell, & Vu, 2013; Lee et al., 2015; Rigby & Ryan, 2011). Chiappe et al. (2013) reported that employees who played action video games for five hours a week for 10 weeks showed fewer errors despite their increased workload. Findings indicated that gameplay could help individuals improve reactions to work-related requests when experiencing high workloads (Chiappe et al., 2013). Evidence also suggested that gameplay enhances the process of perceiving peripheral information such as task relevance and information comprehension (Chiappe et al., 2013). According to Chiappe et al. (2013), training programs that incorporate action gameplay will likely yield improvement in employees’ frequencies of operational errors and maintenance of situational awareness when faced with multiple tasks.
Bass (1985) describes the laissez-faire model as a non-leadership model. In this approach, the “leader” provides no real direction and the laissez-faire leader does not provide negative feedback (Bass & Avolio, 1990). In a 1939 study by Lewin, Lippett, and White, the laissez-faire leadership style was compared to autocratic and democratic leadership styles. In the study, a group of adults were trained in leading boys’ clubs. The laissez-faire leaders provided materials, but refrained from giving directions or participating in the activities, except to answer questions. They gave the group freedom of action and did not make judgmental or evaluative comments to the group. The results of the study showed that the laissez-faire groups were less organized, less efficient, and less satisfying to members than the groups under a democratic leadership (Lewin, Lippett, & White, 1939; Lippett, 1940). Further studies concluded that laissez-faire leadership resulted in less concentration and poorer quality work than either
Studies have been carried out around the effect of organisational silence behaviours on employee effectiveness in countries like Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, Kenya (Anyango, Ojera & Ochieng 2015; Sabahat, Mehtap &Hatice 2016; Tony, Adrian, Mick & Peter 2011; Xiaoyan, Yating & Hansan-Rasussen 2017). Most of these research related it to organisational commitment, organizational citizenship behaviour, organisational learning (Fatimah, Salau-ud-Din, Khan, & Hoti, 2015; Nevin & Aral, 2013; Syed & Nadia, 2014). Hence, there is paucity of studies relating to organisational silence and employee performance in Nigeria. According to Abiodun- Oyebanji (2011), the problem of education in Nigeria is not lack of the institutions to perform the role of imparting education to citizens, but the poor service delivery and poor management of the human resources. In other words, poor commitment on the part of, or the failure of people who undertake different tasks in or outside the four-walls of universities is logically there for institutional failure. This is indicated in the study of Agba and Ocheni (2017) that well-managed organizations usually see average workers as the root sources of quality and productivity gains.
Despite the consensus of the researchers on the existence of negative outputs of counterproductive workbehaviors, but this did not prevent the emergence of a contrary opinion advocating the existence of positive outcomes of these behaviors, arguing that employees may participate in these behaviors in order to attract the attention of those who have the decision-making power of organizations, Example: when they find a conflict between the interests of management with the objectives of the organization, or perhaps to detect the imbalances in the organization. From this point of view, these employees can be seen as having violated regulations but are involved in the public interest of the organization (Galperin, 2002).
engineers in the telecommunications industry, and found that communication frequency between people significantly decreases as distance increases, and an asymptote is reached at 30 meters. At this point, the individual may as well be located in a different country, for communication is no longer a frequent activity. The data were reexamined years later in the context of collaboration, highlighting that pairs of researchers were unlikely to complete a technical report unless their offices were in close proximity. Researchers were four times more likely to publish together if their offices were on the same hallway as they were if their offices were on different floors of the same building (Kraut, Fussell, Brennan, & Siegel 2002). When people are collocated there is a higher probability that chance encounters will lead to conversations and that they will engage in repeated conversation. This activity leads to relationship building that benefits both individuals in future work related situations.
Sometime individuals are talented and experienced and usually show high performance level but their behavior to colleagues and their supervisors is harsh and rude which causes negative impact on the work output and can act as hindrance towards achievement of organizational goals and objectives (Veiga, 1988).
Competencies are measurable practice behaviors that are comprised of knowledge, values, and skills. The goal of the outcome approach is to demonstrate the integration and application of the competencies in practice with individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities. (Educational Policies and Accreditation Standards, Council on Social Work Education, Inc., 2008, 2012).
Studies have shown that high-quality LMX relationships can increase employees’ subjective career success (Zhao, Gu, & Zhao, 2017). This may be due to how leaders support their employees’ sense of competence and meaning in their work (Park et al., 2017). Employees who perceive their contributions to decision-making as valued and have control over their career paths can experience higher levels of subjective career success (Breland, Treadway, Duke, & Adams, 2007). Breland et al. (2007) examined the interaction between the quality of LMX relationship employees had with their leader and their political skill on their subjective career success. Political skill was defined as the ability to interact with others to enhance one’s own outcomes. Their results showed that LMX relationships were positively related to subjective career success and this positive relationship was stronger for those with lower levels of political skill than for those with higher levels of political skill. Overall, these findings indicate that increasing the quality of LMX relationships employees have with leaders can increase their individual
risk associated with employing self-reports as a measure of social justice? These are all questions that require further thought.
According to this review, the four main measures used to measure social justice practice behaviors were: self-efficacy instruments, self-report surveys, assignment grades and field evaluation. It is unclear if programs developed their instruments of utilized measures that have been tested for validity and reliability. According to the literature, few instruments have been designed to assess social justice competency. Rather the most common instruments are self- reports aimed at assessing beliefs and attitudes about poverty, diversity, oppression. The research on the use of self-efficacy instruments varies – some research proposes it is a reliable predictor of practice behaviors in social work– yet, a significant number of studies have found that self-efficacy does not predict actual practice behaviors. Therefore, it is important for training programs to consider the risks and benefits, especially when measuring social justice practice behaviors, given the challenges indicated above.