It is evident that the pipeline for the development of new, effective antibiotics with activity against MDR organisms looks grim . Soon we may have no medica- tions available in our therapeutic arsenal to treat these highly resistant microbes. This current state of urgency motivated some authors to investigate an innovative approach for inhibition of MDR microorganisms: herbal extracts . In fact, many medicinal plants are used for treatment of infections worldwide [7,8]. A number of in vitro studies have shown antimicrobial activity of herbal extracts, and several clinical trials have been performed to date .
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when compared to the sensitivity of some of the life of antibiotics, which has affected within the concentration of 50 mg / mL (MIC) organic extract (ethanol 99%) of the bacteria s. aureus at a concentration of 50 mg / mL, and it can be explained by the fact that these bacteria these extracts were not familiar with before so I did not show resistance to them, and there is another explanation is that the material learned intimacy chemical to interact with the bacterial cell components and the presence of recipients on the bacterial cell wall and vectors suitable for molecules to inside the cell in order to help stop doing enzymes and molecules effective (14.13) REFERENCES
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Based on the statistical analysis of the results and findings of the study using chi-square test, it was shown that no significant relationship existed between different antibiotics and edible onion extract used in this study, and resistance or susceptibility of isolates. Furthermore, using the reviews and Students’ independent t-test the difference between the different antibiotics used in this study as one group and the edible onion extract tested as another group, regarding the 3 characteristics that this study was testing, meaning the resistance of the bacteria, moderate resistance (semi-susceptible or intermediate state) of bacteria, and the sensitivity of bacteria to substances or compounds with antibacterial effects was studied. This showed that there was a difference between the antibiotics groups and plant extracts regarding the number of resistant bacteria, and moderate resistance and susceptibility. Therefore, it is concluded that the edible onion extract cannot be used as an alternative to synthetic chemical antibiotics used in this study to deal with the bacteria tested in the present study that include a large number of important bacteria regarding food hygiene. In fact, based on the results of this study and similar research, it can be argued that edible onion extract cannot be used as a good antibacterial compound, although the organic extracts (alcohol, ether, and etc.) of this edible plant have shown significant antibacterial effect on some microorganisms. Therefore, it seems that more research is needed to examined this issue more closely and determine the antimicrobial effects of the edible onion plant. Thus, maybe by using other methods of extraction or serum concentrations other than the one used in this study, the antibacterial effects of onion extract can be explained more clearly. Moreover, with further studies on the organoleptic properties of this extract, it can be used as a coating material for different food types.
The well diffusion assay was performed according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Mueller-Hinton agar plates were seeded with a 24 hrs culture of the bacterial strains and inoculum was adjusted to an optical disc (OD) of 0.8 abs. Wells of 6 mm diameter were punched in the agar, and plant extracts (PE) and antibiotics were added in a concentration of 100 mg/ml and 5 µg, respectively. Plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hrs. For strain where antibiotic did not showed any inhibition zone alone, the combination of PE with antibiotic was calculated on the basis of growth inhibitory indices (GIIs) values and the combination was considered as synergistic, additive and antagonistic when GIIs >1, 1 and <1, respectively, whereas antibiotic showing inhibition alone and in combination, synergistic, additive, and antagonistic activities of PEs with antibiotics were defined with GIIs >0.5, 0.5, and <0.5, respectively .
This study has shown that Morinda lucida extracts have antibacterial property which may offer a scientific basis from the traditional curative use of the plant. The bacteria tested are implicated in Typhoid Fever; therefore, constituents of the leaf could be useful in chemotherapy. Morinda lucida compete favorable with antibiotics, hence it is recommended for treating typhoid fever
The antibacterial drugs are said to be costlier and have more side effects. Moreover multiple drug resistant strains are on the raise in this era and thus complicating treatment. On the other hand, herbal preparations are comparatively cheaper and have lesser side effects. So, herbal preparations can be used as medicine for the treatment of infections caused by bacteria and fungi. Medicinal plants have been a major source of therapeutic agents for alleviation and cure diseases. In the present investigation comparative analysis of antibacterial activity of Acorus calamus and commercially available antibacterial antibiotics Ciprofloxacin (5µg), erythromycin (15μg), penicillin (5µg), tetracycline (30μg) and ampicillin (10µg) on wound infection causing pathogens was carried out. The antimicrobial activity of different extracts of Acorus calamus was analyzed by using agar well diffusion method and antibiotic sensitivity by paper disk diffusion method. The results revealed that the Acorus calamus produce a significant reduction of bacterial pathogens compared to the antibacterial antibiotics.
simulate one or more of the mechanisms by which IFAs function. It is believed that immune stimulation in meat-type chickens is important because these birds have lower antibody responses and non-speci ﬁ c proliferative responses than do layer-type strains (Koenen et al. 2004). McReynolds et al. (2004) reported that immunosuppression increases the severity of NE in broilers. Therefore, increasing the immunomodulating capacity of broilers to respond effectively to the diversity of antigens during early life is important. Guo et al. (2004) observed that mushroom and herb extracts may have signiﬁcant impacts on the inductive immune responses against Eimeria tenella infection in broilers, by enhancing both cellular and humoral immunity. Prebiotic compounds such as oligosaccharides may also act as immunomodulators at the intestinal level. Kudoh et al. (1999) reported that Immunoglobulin A (IgA) secretion from caecal mucosa was promoted by orally administered highly fermentable, indigestible saccharides. Kleessen et al. (2003) reported that fructans-rich Jerusalem artichoke syrup administered via drinking water resulted not only in a signiﬁcant reduction in the numbers of C. perfringens in caecal chyme, but also decreased the levels of microbial endotoxins in the blood of broilers. However, there is very little information available in relation to the inﬂuence of most of these prebiotic and bioactive substances on immune responses in chickens challenged with C. perfringens or Eimeria spp. In view of the growing interest in investigating potential alternatives for IFAs in poultry feed, testing novel forms of prebiotic and bioactive compounds is of utmost importance.
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The leaves are rich in mono-terpenoids and ses-quiterpenoids which exhibited antifungal activities.  Minor furano-coumarins are also reported from seeds.  In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to investigate antimicrobial screening of crude Curry leaves extract in comparison with standard antibiotics. Plants have been used empirically long before the concept and recognition of etiological infectious agents had been developed. Indian Medicinal plants and their products are used to manage diverse diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, ulcers, liver diseases and diarrhea. Hence additional studies pertaining to the use of plants as therapeutic agents should be emphasized; particularly those related to the control of antibiotic resistant microbes. The objective of this study is to evaluate and compare the potential of the crude Curry leaves extract on selected enteric pathogenic bacterial strains against the standard antibiotics.
When the obtained results were compared to antibiotics findings; it could be concluded that the ethanol and ethyl acetate extract of the leaves obtained from M. oleifera was more effective than the standard antibiotics used. According to high antimicrobial activity of the M. oleifera leaf extracts further research work should be done using this plant. More studies are needed to isolate and characterize the active compounds to be tested in vivo to determine the toxicity and the optimum dose to be used as effective as antibiotics. Selected extracts could be promising natural antimicrobial agents with potential applications in controlling bacteria that cause diseases. The extracts can provide a cheap and sustainable method toward disease reduction and can eventually improve the quality of life of the rural and peri-urban poor in developing countries. However, Moringa extracts should not be regarded as a panacea for reducing the disease incidences since issues of safety and toxicity need to be evaluated.
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Four strains: E. faecalis DMST 4736, E. coli ATCC 25922, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 were susceptible to crude extracts of gac fruit aril. Significant antimicrobial activity was exhibited in the ME extract when compared with acetone (AE) and hexane extract (HE). However, crude HE of gac fruit aril could not inhibit the growth of S. aureus ATCC 25923 in this study, which is consistent with previous our research that had had anti-S. aureus (7.83 ± 0.26 (10 mg/ml) and 8.58 ± 0.20 (100 mg/ml)). 8 This may be due to different of during time the harvesting in the testing. Since, the antimicrobial activity of natural compounds could be influenced by various factors including botanical source, time of harvesting, stage of development, and method of extraction in addition to the composition, structure, and functional groups of the natural compounds. 19 From these data, it is clear that the effectiveness of the extracts largely depended on the type of solvent used. Similar observations are reported by many researchers. 20-22 Antimicrobial Activities of Plant Extracts by MIC and MBC Values
Some medicinal plants are used traditionally in Saudi Arabia to treat many bacterial infections. Three plants, lemongrass ( Oymbopogon citrates ), lantana ( Lantana ca- mara ), and wild olive leaves ( Olea europaea ) were collected, identified, extracted with either hot water or organic solvents (methanol, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol) to investigate their antibacterial activities against E. coli . The methanol extracts of lemongrass, lantana and olive showed the highest activities against Eshe- richia coil while aqueous extract exhibited the lowest activities. Thus, the antibacteri- al activities of the methanolic extract of the three tested plants were determined using agar well diffusion method against some bacterial pathogens, isolated from urine samples. The highest antibacterial activity was recorded for themethanolic extract of lemongrass against all tested bacteria, E. coli , K. pneumoniae , P. aeuroginosa , P. mi- rabilis , E. faecalis and S. aureus. The tested bacteria differed with regard to their sus- ceptibility to plant extracts. Lemongrass was the most active extract followed by lan- tana and wild olive extracts. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the me- thanolic extract of Lemongrass and some used antibiotics, Erythromycin, Tetracyc- line, Amoxicillin, Ciprofloxacin and Chloramphenicol were determined usingfluo- rescein diacetate method. Synergistic effect of the methanolic extract of lemongrass with the previous antibiotics against the tested clinical bacterial isolates was deter- mined and the Fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) of different combination of the extract and the antibiotics were determined. FIC index (FICI) was calculated and it was ranged from 0.08 - 0.98. The interaction between the tested plant extract and the tested antibiotics was either synergistic or additive effects and no antagonistic ef- fect was recorded. In conclusion, methanolic extract of lemongrass singly or in com- bination with some antibiotics can be used to treat pathogenic bacteria that cause urinary tract infections.
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between ethanolic extracts of Rhus coriaria (seed), Sacropoterium spinosum (seed), Rosa damascene (flower) and certain known antimicrobial drugs against three multidrug- resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The synergy between R. coriaria and antibiotics showed a high decrease in MIC and a strong bactericidal activity. These results indicated that combination between R. coriaria extract and antibiotics could be useful in fighting emerging drug-resistance P.aeruginosa. Similarly Toroglu 53 has reported in vitro
In this study 117 isolates from Namibia and 37 isolates from South Africa were analyzed and they were con- firmed as GBS based on the scpB gene. All the isolates showed absolute sensitivity to benzyl penicillin, ampicil- lin, ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, linezolid and vancomycin with only one isolate (0.6%) showing resistance to cefo- taxime as shown in Table 2. In reports from other stud- ies done in other African countries, such as in Malawi , Ethiopia , Zimbabwe , South Africa  and Nigeria , GBS has not shown resistance to the β lactams. In a study in Brazil, GBS also exhibited no re- sistance to β lactams . However, resistance to β lac- tam group of antibiotics has been evolving as noted in reduced MICs for more than a decade and recently an Italian study recorded outright resistance by some GBS isolates to penicillin .
Nature is a source of a variety of medicinal agents and an impressive number of modern drugs have been isolated from plants. There is no plant that does not have medicinal value. The effects of plant extracts on bacteria have been studied by a very large number of researchers in different parts of the world. [8, 10] The selection of crude plant extracts for screening programs has the potential of being more successful in initial steps than the screening of pure compounds isolated from natural products. [13,22,23] Leaves of the C.papaya contain an enzyme called Papain (vegetable pepsin) which works in relieving the pain of people suffering from osteoporosis, arthritis and edema. Present study evaluates the presences of major bioactive compounds which have the ability to show anti-allergic, anti- inflammatory, antimicrobial activity. The good antibacterial activity was found in ethanol, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of papaya leaves was believed due to the presence of flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. The wound healing property of this plant can be attributed to the presence of tannins. [24, 25] Aqueous extract demonstrated sensitive activity towards pathogens. Ethyl acetate extract was effective against P.aeruginosa with inhibition zone 17mm followed by S.enterica 16mm. Organic extract shows effectiveness than aqueous extract. This may be due to the better solubility of the active components in organic solvents. [6, 26, 27] When results were compared with the inhibition zone of antibiotics, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and methanol extract found to be more effective.
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Select the first 6 kinds of CTHs extracts which had the bigger inhibition zone for each microbial strain to determine the Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) by double broth dilution method with Microdilution Checkerboard Techniques (MCT). The microorganism was seeded into 96 well plates and incubated in an inverted position for 20 hours at 35°C to observe whether it turned red after an increase of 5% MTT. The concentration of the last no-reddened well plate was MIC . After MIC experiment, 200μl taken from each well with the concentration being no more than MIC bacterial suspension was inoculated in blood agar plates for 24h for observation. The lowest drug concentration that yielded no growth was documented as MBC . All CTHs liquid were conducted three times. The MIC and MBC of 3 antimicrobial agents against strains were examined by the same method. The antibiotics were Penicillin (used for G+), Gentamicin (used for G-) and Natamycin (used for fungus) respectively through the evaluation of the effect on the inhibiting between antibiotics and the CTHs.
Dental plaque, biofilms of microorganisms on tooth surface, plays an important role in the development of caries and periodontal disease. Our aim was to check the prevalence of bacteria in dental plaque and to test in vitro antibacterial activity of antibiotics and pomrgranate extracts against dental plaque bacteria. Doxycycline and clindamycin showed highest range of antibacterial activity against the dental plaque bacteria. Ethanolic extract of pomegranate seeds was compared with petroleum ether seed extract. Both extract of Punica granatum had equal antibacterial activity except Staphylococcus sp. We recommend more studies to demonstrate practical approaches of using natural materials on the oral biofilms.
According to Baur , the activity is resistant if the ZOI is less than 8.00 mm, intermediate if greater than 11.00 mm. Comparing this Xanthomonas campestris, Agrobacte- rium rhizogenes, and Aspergillus fumigatus could be regarded as sensitive to aqueous extract of Prosopis juli- flora. The aqueous extracts of some plants did not form any ZOI; this could be due to compounds of other class un dissolved in water. Aqueous extract of Hyptis sua- veolens formed low ZOI probably due to compounds of class partially dissolved in water. Other test plant extracts that did not form inhibitory zones may not contain the water dissolving active antimicrobial compounds or con- tain it in other complex forms un dissolved in water. Sta- tistical analysis (ANOVA followed by LSD P = 0.05) of the data on antifungal activity of aqueous extract of eleven plant species and two antibiotics on Aspergillus fumigatus indicate that ZOI formed around aqueous ex- tract of Prosopis juliflora and Ageratum conyzoides leaves were significantly high in comparison to that of Hyptis suaveolens and Jatropha gossypifolia. In the pre- sent study the evaluation of antimicrobial activity of aqueous plant extracts was based on formation of zone of inhibition around the 5 mm well on the Petri dishes filled
The free radical scavenging activity of the extracts was evaluated based on the ability to scavenge the synthetic DPPH. This assay provided useful information on the reactivity of the compounds with stable free radicals, because of the odd number of electrons. The reducing properties are generally associated with the presence of reductones, which have been shown to exert antioxidant action by breaking the free radical chain by donating a hydrogen atom . Therefore, antioxidants with free radical scavenging activities may have great relevance in the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with oxidants or free radicals . Extract of Abutilon indicum showed variable activity against all the tested microbial strains. It was observed that the zone of inhibition varies from one organism to another at different concentrations. According to Prescott , the activity of antimicrobial agent is concentration dependent. Among the Gram positive and negative bacteria tested, Gram positive bacteria were more susceptible to the extracts. These results are in accordance with the earlier reports indicating that plant extract are most active against Gram positive bacteria than that of Gram negative bacteria . The activity of extracts was comparable to those of standard antibiotics in case of Gram positive bacteria and found to be more active, in case of yeast (C. albicans).Thus, extract of Abutilon indicum, showed broad spectrum activity against the tested bacteria and in case of C. albicans, it showed activity greater than the standard drug, so it can also be used for the treatment of candidiasis.
Extracts of seeds of Nigella sativa Linn (Ranunculaceae) were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity by agar diffusion method in comparison with standard antibiotic ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, gentamycin and levofloxacin. The antibacterial activity of hexane, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extract of seeds of the plant were studied using Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Clinical isolate, Bacteria) as test organism. All the extracts were effective against all the four microorganisms. Only levofloxacin showed a higher zone of inhibition while all other standard antibiotics had a zone of inhibition less than the extracts of Nigella sativa indicating that the plant can fight these organisms effectively and it could be better alternative to the modern medicine.
Generally, plants contain bioactive components [21, 22], that are less toxic and environmentally friendly . Their antibacterial activity have been documented against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and a variety of other bacteria [24, 25] such as Escherichia coli, Klebsi- ella pneumonia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis , Brevibacterium ammoniagenes, Streptococ- cus mutans and Propionibacterium acnes . Despite the fact that global interest has been shifted to plant based antimicrobials , many plants still remain largely un- tapped against antibiotic resistant bacterial isolates. This study therefore investigated not only susceptibility of iso- lated bacteria to different antibiotics but also antibacterial activity (in vitro) of plant extracts on selected antibiotic resistant bacterial isolates. These isolates were obtained from water, feed, crop, gizzard, and faeces of poultry layer chicken. The isolates were characterized and assayed as multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria and then subjected to different plant extracts. Apart from Mangifera indica (Mango), other plant extracts used have not previously been evaluated on the antibiotic resistant bacterial isolates from poultry chicken.