Abstract: Background: The incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing with the ageing population. The development of low cost non-invasive diagnostic aids for AD is a research priority. This pilot study investigated whether an approach based on a novel dynamic quantitative parametric EEG method could detect abnormalities in people with AD. Methods: 20 patients with probable AD, 20 matched healthy controls (HC) and 4 patients with probable fronto temporal dementia (FTD) were included. All had detailed neuropsychology along with structural, resting state fMRI and EEG. EEG data were analyzed using the Error Reduction Ratio-causality (ERR-causality) test that can capture both linear and nonlinear interactions between different EEG recording areas. The 95% confidence intervals of EEG levels of bi-centroparietal synchronization were estimated for eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) states. Results: In the EC state, AD patients and HC had very similar levels of bi-centro parietal synchronization; but in the EO resting state, patients with AD had significantly higher levels of synchronization (AD = 0.44; interquartile range (IQR) 0.41 vs. HC = 0.15; IQR 0.17, p < 0.0001). The EO/EC synchronization ratio, a measure of the dynamic changes between the two states, also showed significant differences between these two groups (AD ratio 0.78 versus HC ratio 0.37 p < 0.0001). EO synchronization was also significantly different between AD and FTD (FTD = 0.075; IQR 0.03, p < 0.0001). However, the EO/EC ratio was not informative in the FTD group due to very low levels of synchronization in both states (EO and EC). Conclusion: In this pilot work, resting state quantitative EEG shows significant differences between healthy controls and patients with AD. This approach has the potential to develop into a useful non-invasive and economical diagnostic aid in AD.
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Ground force reaction was capture by Force Platform OR 06.07.1000 (Advanced Mechanical Technologies, Inc—AMTI, Watertown, USA) with an ICC = 96 of four sensors , with dimensions 464 × 508 × 82.5 mm. The BioDynamicsBr and BioDynamicsBr Analysis software were used for data collection and analysis of data, respectively. The main variables analyzed were the maximum displacement in the x-axis (MDx), maximum dis- placement in the y-axis (MDy), total displacement (Dt), the mean velocity in the x-axis (MVx), mean velocity in the y-axis (MVy), and mean total velocity (MVt) of center of pressure (COP). Assessment of static balance on the force platform was assessed in the frequency of 100 Hz, with three replications maintained for 60 seconds with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC), bipedal support, in random sequence defined by simple drawing. For the EO evaluation, the participant should looked fixedly toward a dot placed one meter away, adjustable to eyes’ height -.
The mean values of the Radius measured with eyes opened and closed in the NPH patients before shunt implantation were 13.5 and 13.1 mm, respectively; the difference was insignificant (Table 1, column B, row 4). This small difference is shown on a column chart in Fig. 5–middle panel, which also shows that differ- ences in individual patients were rather random. The Radius values measured with eyes open and closed in the same NPH group after the shunt implantation treatment differed significantly (p<0.01, Table 1). The respective mean values were 6.2 and 7.9 mm for EO and EC condition. The mean difference achieved approximately 25% of the mean value (Fig. 5 – right hand panel). Here, differences in individual patients were similar, showing a growth in the Radius in each subject after closing the eyes. In the control group, eye closure resulted in lengthening of the mean Radius from 4.2 to 4.9 mm, i.e., by 15%, depicted in the left hand panel of Fig. 5. Therefore, the effect of visual stimulus in the NPH patients after shunt implantation was stronger than that in healthy sub- jects.
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in cognitive process related to ex- ecutive function, but is also active during resting states. Quantifying prefrontal cortex activity during resting states provides a baseline for interpreting task-induced brain ac- tivity. Researchers commonly use resting conditions where participants are prompted to stare at a screen (eyes open) or close their eyes (eyes closed). Are these two condi- tions equivalent representations of a baseline resting state? Further, does prefrontal cortex activity during these conditions change as a function of development? The aim of this study was to examine differences in prefrontal cortex activity between eyes open and eyes closed conditions during resting states in children and adults to provide a ra- tionale of proper selection of baseline condition in future research. Thirty-six partici- pants in 3 age groups were recruited in this study including twenty-four adults, five 12 - 15 years old children, and seven 8 - 11 years old children. Relative changes in concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin (Δoxy-Hb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Δdeoxy-Hb) were obtained by using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) in eyes closed (EC) and eyes open (EO) conditions, 3 minutes each. Contrasts were tested to compare the differences of Δoxy-Hb and Δdeoxy-Hb between eyes open and eyes closed conditions. The EC condition had significantly higher Δoxy-Hb than EO when all groups were combined (t (17.268) = 3.021, p = .008, Cohen’s d = −0.72). When comparing Δoxy-Hb between eyes conditions within each group, the younger group had significantly higher Δoxy-Hb in EC than EO (t (9.459) = 2.734, p = 0.022, Cohen’s d = −1.46). Based on these results, the EO condition may be a better baseline condition, particularly in studies with younger children, since it has less activity in the PFC that could interfere with interpretations of task-induced activity.
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On the force plate, the participants were placed with the feet in a standardized position with 30° of external rotation, marked on the force plate. The neck was posi- tioned in 20° of flexion, and the participants were asked to focus eyes on one spot on the wall, at a distance of 1.5 m, individually adjusted to height and neck position. This is to avoid proprioceptors from the neck to have an impact on the postural wobbling . The participants could not see the force platform’s computer screen dur- ing the measurements. The verbal instructions were standardized. The participants were instructed to keep the arms hanging freely and during the test not to speak. Each participant then performed a test measurement for 30 s with eyes open and on a firm surface, in order to familiarize themselves with the plate and the test approach.
The purpose of present investigation was to assess the reliability and MDC of the COP measures in the elderly subjects. Reliability of the COP measures has previously been ad- dressed. Previous research into reliability of COP measures has not been as conclusive and comprehensive as the present study due incor- poration of different levels of postural difficul- ty manipulated by sensory information. It is dif- ficult to compare our results specifically with the previous studies due to different setting such as; sample duration, feet stance, eyes open versus eyes closed and firm surface versus foam surface.
Background: WII Balance Board (WBB) being one of the latest, advanced technologies of high sensitivity in monitoring change in balance over time and owing to, ease of use, and portability, it is being used in physical therapy clinics as a popular substitute for the expensive and complicated force plates to improve dynamic strength and balance. Despite its growing popularity, the WBB’s reliability as an intervention and assessment tool for balance is still being investigated. So this study aims in finding the accuracy of WBB. The objectives of the study are to find the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient and Standard Error Measurement on both day 1 and day 2 with eyes closed and eyes open in older adults.
To compare PD patients before training (PD-Pre) to HCs, the sway measures as well as the model parameters were compared using a 2 × 2 × 2 mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA). Mixed model ANOVA included two groups (PD and HC) as between-subject factor as well as two visual levels (eyes open (EO), eyes closed (EC)), and two surface conditions (rigid (R), foam (F)) as within- subject factors. The Tukey test was used for post hoc multiple comparisons. In order to evaluate the patients’ improvements, the paired sample t-test was done, com- paring different clinical (TUG, and FRT) and posturo- graphy measures, and model parameters before and after training. Clinical improvement in BBS was tested with non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The signifi- cance level was set at 0.05. Moreover, the relationship between the percent changes of sway measures and clin- ical improvements were calculated with Pearson correl- ation test.
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the vestibular levels was significantly higher than that of the control group because the AIS group showed greater energy content (%) in eyes closed condition than that in eyes open condition. The human body is composed of multiple segments that are continuously moved by joints to align the body over the base of support to maintain postural stability [55–57]. However, the morphological deformity of the spine may alter the orientation of the head in 3-dimensional planes [11, 12]. The change in head position is not only the main cause of a change in trunk CoM . It also changes the ability to provide in- formation about the vestibular system [59, 60]. The hu- man body adopts a strategy that utilizes more vestibular information in maintaining postural stability in case of visual information paucity while in eyes closed condition [37, 61]. For this reason, the ΔE EYE % of the AIS group
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posturography and also correlated postural stability and glycemic control. The study included 54 diabetic subjects with neuropathy and 18 diabetic subjects without neuropathy. The diabetic neuropathy group was further divided into 2 groups based on the glycosylated hemoglobin values (HbA1c) as 24 controlled diabetics (HbA1c ≤ 7) and 30 uncontrolled diabetics (HbA1c >7). The sensory organization test was done in eyes open and eyes closed and with sway referenced vision condition on fixed and moving platform. The composite equilibrium score was significantly less in the neuropathic group when compared to the diabetic group without neuropathy. The HbA1c value had a neg ative correlation( r = -0.395) with poor glycemic control and not with good control. 11
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First, the participants rotated their heads sinusoidally as fast as possible at a frequency of near 3 Hz and slowed down gradually until coming to a complete stop on the instruction of the examiner. The whole duration of each VAT was about 2 minutes. There were four test conditions, including horizon- tal head autorotations (head shaking) with eyes open (HO), horizontal head autorotations with eyes closed (HC), vertical head autorotations (head nodding) with eyes open (VO), and vertical head autorotations with eyes closed (VC). Each test was repeated once for data averaging and a 2 minute break was allowed between tests. In the open eye conditions of HO and VO, the participants gazed at a projected bar 1 meter in front of
Objective: To estimate the reliability and sensitivity to change of the timed standing balance test in children with Down syndrome (DS). Methods: It was a nonblinded, comparison study with a convenience sample of subjects consisting of children with DS (n = 9) aged 8–17 years. The main outcome measure was standing balance which was assessed using timed standing balance test, the time required to maintain in four conditions, eyes open static, eyes closed static, eyes open dynamic, and eyes closed dynamic. Results: Relative reliability was excellent for all four conditions with an Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) ranging from 0.91 to 0.93. The variation between repeated measurements for each condition was minimal with standard error of measurement (SEM) of 0.21–0.59 s, suggestive of excellent absolute reliability. The sensitivity to change as measured by smallest real change (SRC) was 1.27 s for eyes open static, 1.63 s for eyes closed static, 0.58 s for eyes open dynamic, and 0.61 s for eyes closed static. Conclusions: Timed standing balance test is an easy to administer test and sensitive to change with strong absolute and relative reliabilities, an important first step in establishing its utility as a clinical balance measure in children with DS.
65 and the mode at 58 to improve the lumbar-pelvis-hip muscles (Figure 1). The physiotherapist involved in the hippotherapy intervention helped with transfers and re- mained with the subjects throughout each session. Par- ticipants were evaluated in each session. Each session included the assessment of static standing balance using the Interactive Balance System (IBS) (Tetrax Inc., Israel) (Figure 1). This system uses four separate platforms, each measuring the vertical pressure fluctuations induced by the two heels and toe parts, respectively [20-22]. A pattern analysis of the postural performance of the above measurements was conducted at the following eight posi- tions: head straight with eyes open (NO); head straight with eyes closed (NC); standing on elastic pads with eyes open (PO); standing on elastic pads with eyes closed (PC); head right with eyes closed (HR); head left with eyes closed (HL); head up with eyes closed (HB); and head down with eyes closed (HF). Fourier transforma- tions were derived from four independent wave signals and presented in the form of a spectrum. These frequency bands were divided into four frequency signals: low (0.01 - 0.1 Hz), medium-low (0.1 - 0.5 Hz), medium-high (0.5 - 1.0 Hz), and high (1.0 Hz and above). F1 (low fre- quency; 0.01-0.1 Hz) frequencies are linked visual con- trol, and they typically dominate normal steady and
The current study extends these findings by exploring the visuospatial significance of keeping the eyes open while standing in total darkness. Monkey studies have shown that with the eyes fixated on a target, half of the so-called visual neurons in the posterior parietal area (V6), which receive inputs from the occipital region, were found to be active under total darkness condition . These neurons are thought to be involved in general motor control rather than eye movements . In human studies, the right posterior inferior parietal region, among other areas, was found to be active when the eyes are open in the dark compared to eyes closed . Certain brain areas were also active during eye closure. Other than the somatosensory cortex, however, the parietal region remained relatively quiet. The primary visual cortex is silent when the eyes are open and moving in the dark , so it is not the source of parietal activation. Eye blinking per se also does not activate the posterior parietal region  unless it is induced artificially via electrical stimulation .
OSI was suggested as the best balance indicator . The platform was integrated with computer software (Biodex, Version 3.1, Biodex Medical Systems) that enables the device to calculate the stability indexes. Since BSS assessed deviations from center, lower index score indicated greater stability. Subjects were instructed to step on the BSS platform and stood with a standardized position with each foot positioned 17 cm between the heel centres and 14˚ between the long axes of the feet to eliminate between-subject variability or biased results during balance testing . To ensure this standardized position was maintained accurately for each test across all subjects, the positions were marked on the balance platform. During the test, subjects were asked to maintain their arms alongside the body, and look straight ahead at a point on the wall approximately 1.5 m away at eye level to prevent vestibular distraction and head movement. The platform was then locked into stable position, and foot placement was recorded as manufacturer ’ s guidelines . Each testing trial lasted for 20 seconds and three testing trials were measured for reliable measures , both with eyes open and eyes closed. A standardized instruction was given to all subjects to “stand as still as possible” to ensure high consistency in their body sway during static posturography assessment . Subject was allowed to a 30 seconds rest periods in a sitting position between the trials and were instructed not to change the position of their feet on the platform. The handrails at both sides of the BSS were positioned and could only be used to prevent falling if the subjects totally lost their balance. In addition, an assistant stood at the back of the subject for additional safety. In the event of malposition of the feet or loss of balance, the trial was deleted and data collection was continued until all trials were completed.
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We believe that understanding and addressing the so- cial determinants of health and health disparities starts by contemplating questions such as those above. We encour- age practitioners, educators, and learners in public health and medicine to ask these questions of themselves and re- flect on them before, during, and after global work experi- ences. Only by opening ourselves to such self-dialogue can we develop abilities to see others from positions of equity and solidarity, rather than from dominance and ex- ploitation. Only by probing deeply into our own personal consciousnesses can we know others as real people living in real situations, rather than as intellectualized variables in uncontrolled environments. Only by examining individ- ual presences relative to the much larger political, eco- nomic, ideological, and social forces (many of which have created environments that frame the very problems we aim to eliminate) can we effectively address pressing issues of disease management . Even if we enter into our global health endeavors with good intentions—and we are inclined to believe that few in the healing profes- sions do not—by avoiding such introspection we limit our capacity to see and understand, with eyes and minds wide open, the reality and meaning of life concerns as they are seen from perspectives of those who are foreign to us.
with the only relevant difference being occasional < uy > for /y:/. We may be fully confident of the phonological value of the graph < u > when used of stressed long vowels here, and reasonably confident when it is used of short vowels. As in Serjeantson’s material, a small number of instances show the variant form < u > for reflexes of conventional < eo > , and in view of the otherwise consistent orthographic system, these must represent /y(:)/ reflexes. Given the infrequency of the relevant forms, and the absence of an electronic text, for this initial survey, relevant forms were sought in the glossary to Harley 2277 and Corpus 145 by Charlotte d’Evelyn and Anna J. Mill, which while not being complete, aims to record ‘primarily the more unusual words and the more unusual meanings of common words… But occasionally familiar words … are included when the variety of their forms is of interest’. 11 The glossary, then, should have
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We evaluated how the features extracted from the FP and WBB devices can be used to discriminate between HS and MS subjects during both the eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. In this analysis we trained four classifiers (open/closed and FP/WBB) and assessed the outcome of classification on our dataset. The classifiers were based on a Support Vector Machine (SVM) design with Gaussian Kernel. We chose to use the SVM design given the success of this approach on binomial classifica- tion problems. The choice of kernel and parameters were made so to maximize the classification perform- ance for the FP dataset (data not presented). After an initial screening of the SVM classification performance we decided to train the classifiers using only the classic features, thus excluding the SDA-based features. Fea- tures were standardized before being fed to the classifier. Classifiers were 10-fold trained/validated for 100 itera- tions. The average classification ratio for the 100 classi- fier trained in each condition was calculated.
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The antibacterial efficacy of EO is related to the con- centrations of active components. However, studies have shown that most EO are absorbed quickly after oral ad- ministration. According to Kohlert et al., peak plasma thymol concentration was reached after 2 h in humans . In piglets, plasma thymol and carvacrol concentra- tions peaked at 1.39 and 1.35 h, respectively, and thymol and carvacrol were almost completely absorbed in stom- ach and proximal small intestine . To exert antibac- terial activity in vivo, it has been suggested that delivery protection is needed to aid EO in reaching target sites within the gut [44, 45]. In the present study, the EO product was stabilized with glycerides. Since little infor- mation is available regarding the release of active EO components in broiler intestine, thymol and carvacrol concentrations in intestinal digesta were measured in the present study. It was observed that intestinal thymol and carvacrol concentrations increased linearly with in- creased dietary EO dosages. The highest concentrations observed for thymol and carvacrol were 0.80 and 0.71 μ g/g, respectively, in broilers fed 240 mg/kg EO. This was in accordance with the linear inhibition effects of EO on Escherichia in broilers. Similarly, Michiels et al. have investigated thymol and carvacrol concentra- tions in piglet gastrointestinal digesta . They ob- served 5 μ g/g carvacrol in the proximal small intestine of piglets fed 2 g/kg carvacrol diet, and 13 ~ 24 μ g/g thy- mol in piglets fed 2 g/kg thymol diet . Although the EO used here was coated with glycerides, the analyzed luminal concentrations of thymol and carvacrol were quite low (much lower than their MICs in vitro), which may partially explain the unchanged C. perfringens pop- ulations in vivo. To our knowledge, this is the first time
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Origanum vulgare L., popularly known as oregano is an annual and shrubby herb belongs to Lamiaceae family that is indigenous to the Mediterranean, Euro-Siberian and Irano-Turanian regions. A total of 38 Origanum species and 6 subspecies are recognized in the world that usually grow on stony mountain areas with 0-4000 m altitude (Aligiannis et al., 2001; Couto et al., 2015; Moradi et al., 2014; Şahin et al., 2004). Aerial parts of this plant are aromatic, rich in EO and have been traditionally used as spices and remedy for its spasmodic, diuretic, antimicrobial, stomachic, anti-neuralgic, expectorant, sedative, stimulant, and carminative charac- teristics (Daferera et al., 2003; Dundar et al., 2008; Şahin et al., 2004; Sokovic et al., 2002). In addition to its traditional and domestic uses, nowadays it is used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries for its biological properties and in food products and alcoholic beverages as a flavoring agent (Aligiannis et al., 2001; Novak et al., 2000). The chemical composition of different species of Origanum EOs previously has been investigated and the major components were phenolic monoterpenoides main- ly carvacrol and occasionally thymol (Figiel et al., 2010; Mechergui et al., 2010; Teixeira et al., 2013; Vale-Silva et al., 2012). Biological activities of Origanum species mainly depend on carvacrol. Antioxidant and antifungal activities of Origanum species are mainly due to this component as an oxygenated monoterpene (Baydar et al., 2004; Chami et al., 2004; Dundar et al., 2008; Ipek et al., 2005; Nostro et al., 2004; Sokmen et al., 2004).