A total of 148 consecutive patients who underwent curative surgery for P T 1–3 N 0 M 0 ESCC were diagnosed and treated in Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China, between October 2006 and December 2009. The selec- tive criteria included the following: newly confirmed to have ESCC and had not received treatment previously; a negative incised margin; no distant metastasis; postoperative survival expectancy was longer than 3 months. Clinicopathological information such as age, sex, resection type, tumor location, histopathology, tumor stage, tumor length, lymphatic vessel invasion, resection margins, recurrence, and survival was obtained from patient charts.
rger configuration in the freshwater and meander belt sub-environment and seven stations were occupied in the delta axis in the salt water mangrove swamp and estuary complex of the state. Communities within the freshwater and meander belt sub-environment data in which was acquired include Yenagoa city, Oloibiri, Ammassoma, Otuoke, etc. while in the salt water mangrove swamp and estuary complex, data was acquired in Nembe town, Akassa, Twon Brass and Okpoma etc. Array spread for the current electrode spacing range between 200 and 400 m. Because the area is marshy, the vertical electrical sounding (VES) data was acquired along existing foot paths or along major roads in the communities. Vertical Electric Sounding using the Schlumberger electrode con- figuration was carried out by applying current to the ground through two electrodes (A and B) and then meas- uring the resultant potential difference (∆V) between the potential electrodes (M and N). The center point of the electrode array remains fixed but the spacings of the electrodes are increased so as to obtain information from successively greater depths. In this study, the separation (AB/2) of the current electrodes is as follows: 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.2, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 10.0, 12.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0, 30.0, 40.0, 50.0, 60.0, 70.0, 80.0, 100.0, 120.0, 150.0, 200.0 while (MN/2) of the potential electrode is as follows: 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 15.0, and 25.0. The Schlumberger data are mostly taken in over- lapping segments because at each step of AB spacing, the signals of the resistivity meter become weaker. Therefore, MN spacing was enlarged and two values for the same AB/2 were measured, one for the short and one for the long MN spacing. The Schlumberger configuration was employed not only because it is faster and less likely to be influenced by lateral variations but also because it requires a lower number of operators (as only the current electrodes A and B are displaced). Field precautions ob- served to ensure good VES data quality included firm grounding of the electrodes, and checking for current leakage and creeps to avoid spurious measurements. The instrument used was an Abem Terrameter SAS 3000, a digital self averaging instrument for DC resistivity work. The equipment is rugged, portable, and user friendly and
All the recommendations here are to do with semantics. Our approach to semantics should be able to support what is required here, building on the current work of Rumbaugh, Selic et al. on defining an action language for UML. If it turns out that some difficult aspects of the semantics can not be encoded in the meta-model itself, the external semantics (e.g. in set theory) of the meta-modelling sub-language, should allow external semantics to be built using mathematics appropriate to the task. Alternatively, we just accept that some aspects of the semantics are not given a precise definition, or are left open to tool builders to fill in (with some carefully worded guidance in the semantics document). Whatever, we will be in a much better position than the current status quo.
Whilst the majority of Sub-Saharan African countries have begun to reform their telecommunications sector, only in the value added services segment have most permitted some element of competition. Whilst the number of fixed line services in Africa has reached a standstill, the mobile sector has continued to develop from 1997 to 1999. Cellular is one of the few market segments where private investment and competition has been allowed in the African telecommunications sector. The number of GSM (Global System for Mobile) subscribers in Africa represented 3 per cent of the world's GSM users in February 1999. A dramatic increase from a negligible figure only two years earlier according to research by the ITU (1998a). In June 1997, Sub-Saharan Africa had 1.35m subscribers, compared to 9.7m in Asia and 33.4m in Europe. As of the beginning of 1999, cellular telephone services were available in over 35 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, mostly in the capital cities but also in some secondary towns.28 Most of the cellular networks can be used to access the Internet, but the high cost of calls makes this prohibitive except for important e-mail. Yet, the vast majority of Sub- Saharan African countries have fewer than 10,000 subscribers each, and in all countries where there are mobile networks, usage is restricted to urban areas, with virtually no coverage in rural areas. Although many African countries have just one mobile phone operator, governments are being encouraged to increase competition, as they can gamer much needed revenue from the fees accruing from granting operational licences. In addition there are problems with equipment supplies. Shetty (1998b) points out that in
It did occur that vandalism is often done by anonymous users, on typical high school subjects (geology, biology, history). However, the verification that these subjects are indeed the prime target of vandalism was out of the scope of this research. Another point of interest is that policies, methods and processes used to improve information quality are publicly available. When analyzing these methods they appeared very good with respect to the criteria objectivity, verifiability and accuracy. This is an advantage over other encyclopaedias, and would be the proof needed to conclude that Wikipedia was indeed outperforming other encyclopaedias which lack transparency in these processes. But problems were encountered in the enforcement and adherence to these rules. Heavy contributors and established users started displaying aristocratical behaviour. Yet, if they are committed to the cause and believe in free information for everyone, they create high quality information objects.
manifold M with an F-structure and we denote its embedding by Ψ : ˜ M → M. Denote by B : T ( M) ˜ → T (M) the diﬀerential mapping of Ψ, where dΨ = B is the Jacobson map of Ψ. T ( M) ˜ and T (M) are tangent bundles of ˜ M and M, respectively. We call T ( M,M) ˜ as the set of all vectors tangent to the submanifold Ψ( M). It is known that ˜ B : T ( M) ˜ → T ( M,M) ˜ is an isomorphism (see ).
Whenever F is clear from context (and satisfies the distinct constraint set requirement), we freely identify the constraints with their corresponding sets. In particular distributions over P are identified with distributions over the corresponding subsets of [n], and sunflowers of members of F are sunflowers of the corresponding sets with the additional requirement that µ is constant over the participating members of P .
(Wu Jichuan quoted in Chetham, 1997) Although the first reaction from government officials after China had missed entry to the GATT was “we will not open the operation o f telecommunication network fo r a considerable long time”134, the WTO accession process has been marked by a gradual improvement of the conditions offered by the Chinese side735. Telecommunication services were mostly absent from the negotiations during most of China’s accession to GATT and WTO. Before 1998, the concession made by the Chinese negotiators consisted in the limited opening of two cities for value-added services. The signing of the BTA in 1997 and consequent pressure from foreign governments marked a turning point both for domestic reforms and for the negotiation. Following the July 1998 concessions made by Long Yong Tu in Geneva, Zhu Rongji called on Mil in August 1998 to make preparations for the opening up of the telecommunication market. Shortly after that, Zhu put an end to the CCF investment scheme via State Council order 98736. While until July 1999 China continued to disfavour the “radical” idea of trading telecommunications network and services for WTO accession, the government decided to significantly lower trade tariffs and reduce non-tariff barriers, and worked out new packages of concessions in previously prohibited industry sectors to meet the WTO criteria737. A first breakthrough came with the conclusion of the bilateral agreement between China and the United States in November 1999, quickly followed in May 2000 by the agreement with the European Union. Table 40 shows the chronology of WTO commitments. A number of elements emerge. First, the scope of the negotiation grew larger with time - before 1998 the negotiations mentioned only value-added services. Second, the weight of telecommunication in the overall negotiation changed over the years. Initially, China hardly bulged from its negotiating position. But telecommunication became a core issue with the dramatic change in the international regime brought forward by the BTA
Today the manufacturing industry is still striving for stability of its production system as a major organizational goal. Therefore, in most manufacturing firms, management of change is not considered as a permanent objective. Whether, JIT or CIM, whichever way the task, coordination is managed by an integrated information infrastructure. However, information processing is found to be fragmented even in computerized applications . Therefore, in many companies the decision-making process is still based on traditional information processing-information gathering with ‘paper and pencil’ on request and from inconsistent sources. This process is at the least very time consuming and may yield only insufficient or ever unreliable information. In addition to having a fragmented information infrastructure, most companies are not organized for fast decision-making processes. Departments are still managing their affairs according to their own sub-goals rather than to real enterprise goals.
formance data and summed field selection numbers, fiber selection numbers, and their ratios. Only traits that received emphasis in the selective process of the pima pedigree breeding program were used in corre- lation analyses. Comparisons were made between population rankings for F 2 yield, plant height, and fi-
The proposed system works on text retrieval from scanned document images. Document image retrieval without OCR has its practical value, but it is also a challenging problem. Current information retrieval systems do not properly retrieve the query due to poor quality of image consisting of noise. To enhance the quality of image we pre-process the image and this image is fed to tesseract for segmentation. Tesseract is currently the best open source tool for extraction of text from image documents due to which we will be getting best retrieval of user query of image documents. Constant updated trained data helps in increased accuracy of the system. We propose an efficient and scalable system which is capable of handling large volumes of data and retrieve the word efficiently and accurately.
Abstract: Arterial stiffness is a good predictor of cardiovascular events. As a substitute for elastic modulus representing stiffness, pulse wave velocity (PWV) has been used for over a century as it is easy to measure; however, PWV is known to essentially depend on blood pressure at the time of measurement. The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a relatively new index of global arterial stiffness of the origin of the aorta to the ankle arteries. The characteristic feature is its independency from blood pressure at the measuring time. Recently, a variant index CAVI 0 was proposed, which was claimed to be a more accurate
En. The state of research into media and information flows in sub-Saharan Africa describes a situation marked by rapid growth of a wide range of media and distinctive geo-linguistic mediaspheres. This article focuses on two revolu- tions in information flow in the region: first, an expansion since the 1990s of traditional media, facilitated by satellite broadcasting and related technologies; secondly, since about 2000, the ongoing embrace of mobile telephony. It describes these developments in Luso- phone, Francophone and Anglophone mediaspheres. Building on the author’s own previous research, and that of others, the article highlights the shift from asymmetrical, elite domi- nated communications concerning the major public affairs of the day toward increasingly symmetrical and participatory electronic communications.
Since M is 3-dimensional, its curvature is completely determined by its Ricci tensor, and this obviously depends on f ; actually, M is flat if and only if f is constant 1, Corollary 7.43. Here, we are interested in the case in which no open subset of M is flat i.e., f is not locally constant and, then, we will refer M as a proper RW spacetime. Moreover, we will suppose that the curvature of M satisfies a natural geometric assumption which arises from Relativity theory. This assumption is the so-called timelike convergence condition TCC. Recall that a Lorentzian manifold of any dimension ≥ 3 obeys the TCC if its Ricci tensor Ric satisfies