Whilst eye contact has been investigated in real-life social situations in people with CdLS, the use of eye- tracking methodology to investigate face scanning has not previously been attempted. Investigating the visual exploration of social information such as faces and emo- tional expressions using robust methodological tech- niques is important due to the relationship this may have to the striking social impairments present in this group. Furthermore, brain-imaging studies have not been conducted in CdLS. Therefore, studying eye look- ing and emotion processing, which has been associated with amygdala damage, may further our understanding of amygdala function in an under-researched population. RTS is also a genetic syndrome associated with intellec- tual disability, affecting approximately one in 100,000– 125,000 live births . Mutations in the CREB-binding protein gene (CBP) account for approximately 40 % of cases, whereas mutations in the EP300 gene account for a limited number of cases [44–48]. Whilst studies investi- gating the social characteristics of RTS are limited, those that have been conducted to date suggest that social skills are largely intact in this group relative to their level of in- tellectual functioning . Individuals with RTS have been reported to initiate and maintain social contact despite cognitive impairments . One study, for example, de- scribed three children with RTS as being friendly and as making good social contacts . Families of children with RTS have also described them as friendly and loving [50–52]. Increased social interest in children with RTS particularly relating to eye contact, initiating play, and use of facial expressions, compared to a group of chil- dren matched for age, gender, and developmental abil- ity  has also been reported. However, this report of increased social interest given the level of intellectual ability may be age-specific, as an increase in anxiety and depression in adults with RTS compared to chil- dren with RTS has recently been reported . How- ever, as the majority of research indicates typical levels of social interest in this group, if not increased, it would be interesting to investigate the visual explor- ation of social information in this syndrome group. Similarly to CdLS, eye-tracking methodology has not
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Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) is quickly becoming an important imaging tool to explore three-dimensional biological structure across spatial scales. At probe-beam-electron energies of 2.0 keV or lower, the axial resolution should improve, because there is less primary electron penetration into the block face. More specifi- cally, at these lower energies, the interaction volume is much smaller, and therefore, surface detail is more highly resolved. However, the backscattered electron yield for metal contrast agents and the backscattered electron detector sensitivity are both sub-optimal at these lower energies, thus negating the gain in axial resolution. We found that the application of a negative voltage (reversal potential) applied to a modified SBEM stage creates a tunable electric field at the sample. This field can be used to decrease the probe-beam-landing energy and, at the same time, alter the tra- jectory of the signal to increase the signal collected by the detector. With decelerated low landing-energy electrons, we observed that the probe-beam-electron-penetration depth was reduced to less than 30 nm in epoxy-embedded biological specimens. Concurrently, a large increase in recorded signal occurred due to the re-acceleration of BSEs in the bias field towards the objective pole piece where the detector is located. By tuning the bias field, we were able to manipulate the trajectories of the primary and secondary electrons, enabling the spatial discrimination of these signals using an advanced ring-type BSE detector configuration or a standard monolithic BSE detector coupled with a blocking aperture.
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In tracing the developmental origins of these putative face scanning differences in the autism phenotype, we motivate our study on the basis of well-established developmental models that have demonstrated that the infant in the first year is an active and efficient forager of environmental input in general (Robertson et al., 2004), with increased attention to potential social communicative situations in particular (Csibra and Gergely, 2009; Gliga and Csibra, 2009). Specifically, we consider individual differences in the ability to modulate attention in response to a complex and varying environment as reflecting variation in ‘endogenous control’. The latter is defined as variation in infants’ ability to exert control over their own looking behaviour, irrespective of conflicting demands for attention from the environment (Johnson, 1990). Endogenous control is often contrasted with exogenous control, where attention is driven reflexively by external events. It is largely accepted that the two orienting mechanisms rely on overlapping neural architecture, but experimental studies can manipulate the extent to which endogenous mechanisms are engaged relative exogen- ous ones (Johnson, 1990). For example, the degree to which endogen- ous mechanisms of attention are engaged in extracting socially relevant from complex stimuli has been previously studied in typical individ- uals (Langdell, 1978; Deaner and Platt, 2003; Nummenmaa and Calder, 2009). Such manipulation often relies on manipulating the social context, its complexity and/or other task demands. In individuals with autism, such factors have a profound impact on performance.
Abstract: This paper describes an unsupervised algorithm, which segments the nuclear envelope of HeLa cells imaged by Serial Block Face Scanning Electron Microscopy. The algorithm exploits the variations of pixel intensity in different cellular regions by calculating edges, which are then used to generate superpixels. The superpixels are morphologically processed and those that correspond to the nuclear region are selected through the analysis of size, position, and correspondence with regions detected in neighbouring slices. The nuclear envelope is segmented from the nuclear region. The three-dimensional segmented nuclear envelope is then modelled against a spheroid to create a two-dimensional (2D) surface. The 2D surface summarises the complex 3D shape of the nuclear envelope and allows the extraction of metrics that may be relevant to characterise the nature of cells. The algorithm was developed and validated on a single cell and tested in six separate cells, each with 300 slices of 2000 × 2000 pixels. Ground truth was available for two of these cells, i.e., 600 hand-segmented slices. The accuracy of the algorithm was evaluated with two similarity metrics: Jaccard Similarity Index and Mean Hausdorff distance. Jaccard values of the first/second segmentation were 93%/90% for the whole cell, and 98%/94% between slices 75 and 225, as the central slices of the nucleus are more regular than those on the extremes. Mean Hausdorff distances were 9/17 pixels for the whole cells and 4/13 pixels for central slices. One slice was processed in approximately 8 s and a whole cell in 40 min. The algorithm outperformed active contours in both accuracy and time.
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Although much research has focused on the infant ’ s ability to process auditory speech , and while some has examined how infants extract visual information from talking faces  and integrate auditory/visual speech input (e.g., ), little is known about how these basic- level abilities are used to construct higher-level language skills. This is because few studies have explored the link between face scanning and language ability. One study, involving typically developing (TD) infants and infants at high risk of developing autism, used growth curve anal- yses to demonstrate that 6-month-olds who fixated more on their mother ’ s mouth during live mother-child interaction develop language at significantly higher rates and have significantly higher expressive scores at 24 months than infants who fixated more on their mother ’ s eyes . This effect amounted to a difference of more than 4 months in developmental age, which suggests that gaze to mouth is a useful predictor of individual differences in language develop- ment. Importantly, no differences were found between the high-risk infants and TD controls. The finding was also independent of autism diagnosis at outcome. Thus, the authors concluded that their finding reveals a normative mechanism of language development. Because an infant’s ability to perceive phonemes facilitates his or her acquisition of language , Young and col- leagues  hypothesise that any developmental phenomenon—including visual attention to the mouth — that facilitates speech perception will also facilitate later language development. Furthermore, adult research by Schwartz, Berthommier, and Savariaux  has shown that viewing a speaker ’ s mouth improves the intelligibility of their speech when embedded in noise. In other words, not only does visual input from the mouth contribute to infants’ learning of auditory phoneme categories  — and thus to their ability to acquire language — but it may be especially helpful at all ages for speech perception under noisy conditions .
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Human infants show rapid development of speech processing capabilities in the first year of life. One crucial aspect of early phonological development is the ability to integrate auditory and visual speech cues. Several studies have demonstrated that infants attend to visual cues during audio-visual (AV) speech perception tasks. Very young infants can learn arbitrary face-voice associations (Brookes, et al., 2001), and by 4 months they detect AV asynchrony when observing speech production
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Faces are often described as a ‘window to the soul’, because facial expressions signal a person’s emotional state, and gaze direction can tell you what they see and what they know. Attention to facial features can be observed in the first few hours or days of life. Newborns preferentially orient to faces [1,2], especially those with direct gaze . Eye-tracking studies have demonstrated that infants start to show adult-like face scanning behaviour, such as preferential fixations on the eyes and mouth , from as early as 6 weeks after birth . Atypical patterns of face scanning behaviour can be found in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD), whereby individuals show profound difficulties in social interaction and communication . Although the mechanisms underlying atypical face scanning behaviour in ASD are still unclear, it highlights the potential relationship between face scanning behaviour and the development of social skills.
Serial section transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and tilt series combined with electron tomography, have been the primary tools for reconstructing ultrastructure within a defined volume. These methods have contributed significantly to our current understanding of the local 3D organization of biological samples (White et al., 1986; Bumbarger et al., 2007; Noske et al., 2008; Anderson et al., 2011; Saalfeld et al., 2012; Bock et al., 2011; Doroquez et al., 2014; Lee et al., 2016). Unfortunately, these procedures require a high level of training and are both time- consuming and prone to occasional loss of sections, resulting in loss of information. Recently developed alternative methods for serial sectioning, such as serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), which use back-scattered electrons to image the block surface, have helped to address biological questions that require the analysis of large EM volumes (Denk and Horstmann, 2004; Heymann et al., 2006; Knott et al., 2011; Kizilyaprak et al., 2014; Titze and Genoud, 2016). During these approaches, the block surface is imaged, and then sections are removed. The new block surface is then imaged again. This cyclical repetition results in the generation of an automatically aligned stack of numerous sections. Although these approaches result in efficient 3D data acquisition, re-imaging the same sample at another region of interest or at a different resolution is impossible, as is on-section immunolabeling or post-staining contrast enhancement with heavy metals. These problems can be overcome, as has been shown in several studies that correlated light and FIB-SEM data on cells in culture, in brain tissue and in developing blood vessels in zebrafish (Bushby et al., 2012; Lucas et al., 2012, 2014; Maco et al., 2013; Bosch et al., 2015; Blazquez-Llorca et al., 2015). Notably, such elegant studies require rare and expensive equipment, available only in specialized labs with limited external access.
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The effects of selectively different experience of eye contact and gaze behav- iour on the early development of five sighted infants of blind parents were investigated. Infants were assessed longitudinally at 6–10, 12–15 and 24–47 months. Face scanning and gaze following were assessed using eye tracking. In addition, established measures of autistic-like behaviours and standardized tests of cognitive, motor and linguistic development, as well as observations of naturalistic parent–child interaction were collected. These data were com- pared with those obtained from a larger group of sighted infants of sighted parents. Infants with blind parents did not show an overall decrease in eye con- tact or gaze following when they observed sighted adults on video or in live interactions, nor did they show any autistic-like behaviours. However, they directed their own eye gaze somewhat less frequently towards their blind mothers and also showed improved performance in visual memory and atten- tion at younger ages. Being reared with significantly reduced experience of eye contact and gaze behaviour does not preclude sighted infants from developing typical gaze processing and other social-communication skills. Indeed, the need to switch between different types of communication strategy may actually enhance other skills during development.
Here we first employed translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) technology combined with micro- array analysis to obtain a genome-wide sleep/wake pro- filing of astrocytic transcripts in the mouse forebrain. The expression of an eGFP-L10a ribosomal transgene was targeted to cells expressing 10-formyltetrahydrofolate de- hydrogenase (ALDH1L1), with the goal of tagging poly- somes and immunoaffinity purify mRNAs . Although there is no comprehensive and entirely specific molecular marker for astrocytes , ALDH1L1 is more inclusive than glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and its expres- sion is not limited to specific cortical areas or layers . As a result, we isolated astrocytic mRNAs attached to ribosomes, and thus presumably poised to become pro- teins. We then used serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM)  to test whether sleep, acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction affect the ultrastructure of astrocytic processes contacting cortical spines. Both sleep and astrocytes affect synaptic plasticity, and sleep need increases not only with the duration of wake, but also with the extent of the plastic changes that occur during wake . We focused on layer II of the pre- frontal cortex, because supragranular layers are highly plastic  and the slow-wave activity (SWA) of NREM
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less likely to look at salient features when exploring faces [33, 34, 50 – 52]. Future research should further investigate the dynamic and the temporal evolution of the initial fixation positions to better understand the mechanisms underlying these particularities. Although individuals with 22q11.2DS tend to look more at the eyes compared to the mouth or nose, their scanpath remains atypical when compared to the TD group. In- deed, the proportion of time spent on mouth and fea- tures outside of the face region (shower cap) was greater than what was observed in the TD group. These results could indicate that participants with 22q11.2DS have difficulties to identify and maintain attention on socially relevant features (e.g., eyes) dur- ing face processing, which is line with previous re- search [13, 17]. Another possible interpretation for these findings is that an early bias toward the mouth and a return to the scanning of non-salient features occurring during the initial phase of face processing impair an optimal information extraction in partici- pants with 22q11.2DS. These results have implications for the design of socio-emotional intervention pro- grams aimed at improving efficiency in visual explor- ation and correcting face scanning from the very first fixations in individuals with developmental delay [53, 54]. Using cueing techniques, either explicit (e.g., a verbal cue) or implicit (e.g., a cross on the screen), may be one way to correct the bias to the mouth and improve sensitivity to configural changes in salient fa- cial features. Further, targeting CFP may allow us to indirectly improve emotion and face recognition [23, 24]. For example, Russell et al.  found that verbal
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2.2 Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscope Set-Up The end-face of the prepared samples was examined with the help of a modified Nanonics NSOM/SPM-100TM scanning probe configuration (Fig. 3). This system integrates an upright optical microscope (Nikon Eclipse 300 W) for con- ventional optical imaging, while cantilevered optical fiber NSOM probes were simultaneously incorporated for the near-field and topographic assessment of the samples. NSOM is now an established technique to achieve image res- olution beyond the diffraction limit. 20 All probes (Nanonics) were fabricated with the known micropulling technique from an optical fiber manufactured for single-mode operation over the 488 to 514 nm range. The sides of the probe tip were aluminum/chromium coated and a number of different size aperture probes (200, 150, 100, and 50 nm) were employed over the course of the investigation of the samples. The accuracy of the measurement is indicated by the probe diameter while the single-mode operation is important for the successful transport of light to and from the specimen.
Security of information and communication systems has become one of the most crucial concerns for both system developers and users . The threats to our computer network infrastructure are increasing and constantly changing in every day . Hackers are launching more sophisticated attacks on every possible weakness in our computer network system and trying to damage or crush our security system. It is crucial that we train adequate cybersecurity professionals to defend our system and prevent cyberattacks. One of the main reasons of successful attacks, malicious intrusions and virus infections are software vulnerabilities in computer systems, communication equipment, smartphones and other intellectual devices. Most courses in cybersecurity education are concentrating on defensive techniques such as cryptography, intrusion detection, firewalls, and access control; or offensive techniques such as buffer overflow attacks, exploitation, and post-exploitation. Before conducting network defence, understanding what kind of vulnerabilities that exist in computer systems is the first and the most important step in protecting our security system. Therefore, understanding and teaching vulnerability scanning is a key element in cybersecurity curriculum. Vulnerability scanning as one of the initial steps in ethical hacking and network defense education. Higher education institutions have made remarkable advances in physics, medicine, and applied sciences . However, these advances create a target for malicious cyberattacks. Higher education institutions depend on the confidentiality and integrity of sensitive data stored at their facilities (e.g., intellectual property, financial data). Institutions find security implementation difficult due to culture, staffing, and resources conflicting with the demand for robust security . Technical vulnerabilities such as weakness in software or misconfigurations are key contributors toward risk in enterprise networks. Systems protecting data regularly contain exploitable flaws, many of which can be detected with popular vulnerability scanners (e.g., Nessus) . Organization of the report
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Based on basic knowledge in stomatology and mechanical engineering, the students in two majors can study some special techniques for modern dentistry, including medical image processing, oral tissue reconstruction, plaster model scanning and reconstruction, plan design, and tool design and fabrication. These techniques also can be divided two parts for dentist or engineer, for example, the surgical plan design generally is implemented by dentist, such as Simplant TM (previous owner Materialise NV, Belgium, now is owned by Densply Implants) [3-4] or Nobel Clinician TM (Nobel Biocare, Sweden)  for dental implant plan design, as well as a similar tool from China named 6D Dental TM implanting software . The design and fabrication of surgical guide or customized implant are commonly implemented by engineer, but in recently years, some dentists are involved in customized implant design, such as titanium implant for mandible repair, and some dentists like doing some research work related to biomechanics via finite element method (FEM), so the need to learn some advanced tools for tissue model dealing.
Figure 6.—Results of the second round of tree scanning on the ApoE haplotype tree for four lipid phenotypes in three human popula- tions stratified by gender. The tree-drawing conventions are the same as those given in Figure 5. Only the peak associations after cor- rection for multiple testing are shown above the branch cut in addition to the conditional cut, which is indicated below the correspond- ing p vk value. Above every peak association are
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The previously characterized shunting events can be divided into three classes (30). Class I includes cauliflower mosaic virus 35S mRNA (6, 10), rice tungro bacilliform pararetrovirus RNA (25, 26), and the prototype foamy virus RNA (31). Shunting in this group is characterized by scanning along the message, translation of an sORF and release of the product peptide, pausing of the ribosomes at the base of a large stable RNA stem-loop, translocation of the ribosome across the base of the stem-loop to the acceptor site, and reinitiation of translation at the target AUG. Class II includes the adenovirus late mRNAs and the HSP70 mRNA (43). This class is characterized by the presence of multiple strong secondary structures in the 5 ⬘ UTR and direct binding between the 5 ⬘ UTR and the 18S rRNA. The mechanistic role of the mRNA-rRNA binding is not clear, but the interaction is needed for shunting. Class III includes translation of the Y1 and Y2 proteins from the Sendai virus P/C mRNA. This class is characterized by a lack of a clearly defined donor element, lack of a requirement for an obvious strong secondary structure in the 5 ⬘ UTR, an essential short cis-acting element just 3 ⬘ of the initiation codon, direct transfer of the ribosomes to the initiation codon, and lack of a require- ment for AUG as the start codon (5, 17). Insufficient informa- tion exists to place translation of the Sendai virus X protein on the P/C mRNA (5), the ␤ -secretase (28), or the papillomavirus type 18 E1 protein (27) into any of these classes.
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My approach to humor in this film was drawn from animated television shows and shorts I watched frequently in my youth. Visually, I was inspired by series such as Ed, Edd n Eddy and SpongeBobSquarePants, both of which used simplistic characters whose designs changed in humorous situations. For example, whenever characters were struck in Ed, Edd n Eddy, their entire bodies would contort and squish to exaggerate the blowback of the hit and to demonstrate howstrong or weak they were. I applied this level of distortion tosimilar situations in my thesis, such as when Cameron hits a glass door at a high speed and his entire face and body squish against the glass. I also took inspiration from SpongeBobSquarePants’s pushing detail with characters. In many reaction shots and close-ups, this technique gave the characters more
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In summary, we have presented a selective overview on the use of in situ scanning electrochemical probe microscopy (SEPM) techniques, such as scanning electrochemical microscopy, scanning micropipette contact method and scanning electrochemical cell microscopy, to study processes and materials related to energy applications and demonstrated the information that can be obtained with SEPM techniques. With a large drive toward the development of new in situ SEPM methods with nanoscale spatial resolution, we envisage SEPM will greatly contribute to energy research by unraveling nanoscale electrochemical processes and aid in obtaining fundamental insights needed for the development in new energy technologies.
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Domain scanning mutagenesis by inserting a signature tag in-frame of a gene of interest is a powerful way to study the domain functions of a gene of interest. Random mutagenesis methods based on transposons are often used for such purposes (1-3). However these methods have two major hindrances. One drawback is that they are time consuming and laborious. For example, we previously invested more than six months to mutate a 1- kb gene (4). Another drawback to random mutagenesis strategies is the uneven distribution of the mutations throughout the gene. As a result, an excess number of
Secondly, is about the high end technology use in modern 3D scanner. Most of the current product provides device with high technology to achieve the best output. But the problem is not most of the users know how to use it and just for who is an expert in scanning can use it. By redesigning and makes the new model which is more user friendly not just for industrial use, but also can use for educational and hobby.
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