Keil (2010) found that participants who discussed their emotional reactions to a public event in a group reported feeling less shocked and less emotional afterwards compared to before the discussion, and compared to participants who did not engage in group discussion. Examination of the group transcripts revealed that participants engaged in a process of negotiation as to how to respond to the event. Specifically, opinion that it was inappropriate to respond in an emotional way were voiced, validated, and accepted and opposite opinion silenced, invalidated, and rejected. Thus, the responses of other people in the group influenced the extent to which individual participants related emotionally to the event during the discussion and within subsequent reports. In summary, there is an array of research which suggests the way a listener responds and the kind of verbal feedback they provide could be an important factor in the effects of social disclosure in the fadingaffectbias.
The intensity of negative emotions associated with event memories fades to a greater extent over time than positive emotions (FadingAffectBias or FAB). In this study, we examine how the presence and behaviour of a listener during social disclosure influences the FAB and the linguistic characteristics of event narratives. Participants recalled pleasant and unpleasant events and rated each event for its emotional intensity. Recalled events were then allocated to one of three experimental conditions: no disclosure, private verbal disclosure without a listener, or social disclosure to another participant whose behaviour was experimentally manipulated. Participants again rated the emotional intensity of the events immediately after these manipulations and after a one week delay. Verbal disclosure alone was not sufficient to enhance the FAB. However, social disclosure increased positive emotional intensity, regardless of the behaviour of the listener. Whilst talking to an interactive listener led unpleasant event memories to decrease in emotional intensity, talking to a non-responsive listener increased their negative emotional intensity. Further, listener behaviour influenced the extent of emotional expression in written event narratives. This study provides original evidence that listener behaviour during social disclosure is an important factor in the effects of social disclosure in the FAB.
While the association between cannabis use and verbal and working memory impairment is well documented, the relationships between cannabis use and autobiographical memory are less understood. This study investigated the relationship between cannabis use and two phenomenon associated with autobiographical memory: the fadingaffectbias (FAB) and memory specificity. The FAB occurs when the intensity of affect associated with negative memories fades faster than the intensity of affect associated with positive memories. Memory specificity refers to the level of detail with which an event is recalled (with more details signifying more specificity). Few studies have examined the relationships between substance use and memory specificity or the FAB. Cannabis using (N = 47) and non-using (N = 52) participants recalled positive and negative autobiographical events, which they rated on affect intensity at the time of the original event and currently. Participants also recalled additional autobiographical memories using a free-recall procedure, which were coded for specificity. The affect of unpleasant events for cannabis users faded significantly less than for non-users, and memory specificity was lower in cannabis users compared to non-users.
The mobile communication channel is susceptible to multipath fades due to a large number of scaterers and reflectors. Diversity techniques are used to mitigate the effects of the multipath phenomenon. For a communication system to exhibit acceptable performance, a certain minimum signal level is needed at the receiver. When the signal level is less than this minimum threshold, the system is i n a fade. Typically, this phenomenon is described as the constructive / destructive interference between signals arriving at the same antenna via different paths, and hence, with different delays and phases, resulting in random fluctuations of the signal level at the receiver. Deep-fades that may occur at a particular point in space, or at a particular time or frequency, result in severe degradation of the quality of signals at the receiver making it impossible to detect and decode. Several mathematical models have been developed to describe such channels, taking into account, the phenomenon of multipath fading and correlation between sub-channels. Common models employ Rayleigh, Rice and Nakagami-m distributions to approximate actual channel conditions and are described in ,,. The concept of diversity, that is, providing the receiver with multiple copies of the same message, is widely known to be effective in combating channel impairment arising due to multipath fading ,. This paper discusses the application of Spatial Diversity (SD) techniques to multi antenna wireless communication systems as in the case of Single Input - Multiple Output (SIMO), Multiple Input – Single Output (MISO) and
 findings on self-serving bias showed that it negatively affected the rational decision making of investors. Similarly,  concluded that cognitive biases play a significant role in individual investment decisions. On their part  found that the optimistic CEOs are 65 percent more likely to complete mergers, are more likely to overpay for those target companies, and are more likely to undertake value-destroying mergers.  further established that a unit increase in Certain return bias is associated with - 0.468 decreases in stock investment, loss aversion 0.445, fear of regret 0.278 and random walk framing 0.340 increase while the coefficient of determination was found to be 26.5% meaning the above factors accounted for this percent while other factors accounted for 73.5% of the NSE investors financial and investment decisions.
Diversity is one of the techniques for enhancing the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR).Diversity exploits the random nature of radio propagation by finding independent (or, at least, highly uncorrelated) signal paths for communication. If one radio path undergoes a deep fade, another independent path may have a strong signal. By having more than one path to select from, the SINR at the receiver can be improved.The diversity scheme can be divided into three methods: 1) The space diversity; 2) The time diversity; 3) The frequency diversity. In these schemes, the same information is first received (or transmitted) at different locations (or time slots/frequency bands). After that, these signals are combined to increase the received SINR. The antenna array is an example of the space diversity, which uses a beam former to increase the SINR for a particular direction. Diversity techniques can be applied either at Base station or at mobile station. Most diversity systems areimplemented in receiver instead of transmitter sinceno extra transmitter power is needed to install the receiver diversity system. In CDMA PN sequence has the property that time shifted versions of itself are almost uncorrelated .Thus a signal that propagates from transmitter to receiver over multiple paths can be resolved into separately fading signals by cross –correlating the received signal with multiple time shifted versions of pseudo random sequence .Fig. 2 shows a block diagram of a typical system. In the receiver, the outputs are time shifted and so must be sent through a delay line before entering the diversity combiner. This receiver is called RAKE receiver.
A Mobile ad hoc network is a self configuring infrastructure less network of mobile devices. It consists of set of independent mobile nodes. The performance of ad hoc network depends on various parameters i.e. average delay, throughput, jitter and pdr. To evaluate the performance of wireless networks with rician fading model Network Simulator Qualnet6.1 has been used for different speed of nodes. This paper proposed the effect of speed of nodes on key network performance matrices i.e. average delay, throughput, jitter, and PDR as these parameters play very important role in the performance analysis & design of the mobile Ad-hoc network over the multipath fading environment for network performance of MANET.
Epidemiological analyses also showed that siblings of fe- male individuals diagnosed with ADHD were at higher risk for being diagnosed with ADHD than siblings of diagnosed male individuals. This con ﬁ rms results from previous family studies (29 – 31) indirectly supporting the hypothesis that female in- dividuals require a greater burden of genetic risk to manifest ADHD. Although these analyses do not distinguish between genetic and shared environmental effects, twin studies have consistently demonstrated high heritability of ADHD with typically nonsigni ﬁ cant contributions from shared environ- mental factors (2), suggesting that this effect is most likely to be genetic in origin. However, the effect sizes were not large (OR = 1.09 – 1.18), suggesting that any increased burden of inherited genetic variation might be only a small contribution to the sex bias in ADHD prevalence. These results could also occur if clinicians had a higher threshold for diagnosing ADHD in female individuals or were more likely to diagnose it if accompanied by a comorbid disorder. However, the results did not attenuate when comorbid conditions were accounted for. Alternatively, sex-speci ﬁ c ascertainment biases could in ﬂ ate estimated risk of ADHD in siblings of female individuals. Although female cases were more likely to be ascertained if they had an already diagnosed brother (64.6%) than vice versa, the sex-strati ﬁ ed results indicate that such biases cannot fully explain our results. A limitation of the analyses was restricting the sample to full siblings, which may have led to a conservative estimate of the effect size and the possibility that the results might not generalize to families with one child or half-siblings.
Consumer market is driving the high speed data communication according to advancement in device technology. LAN has achieved a speed of 100 Mbps and wireless LAN is needed at the last stage. Hence we need a WLAN speed of 100 Mbps, but the question is whether we can achieve it theoretically in presence of fading. Also we find the possible solutions for wireless handsets. Here we give the theoretical bound over the capacity and the circuits for best SNR/BER, assuming the network protocol remained hardwired controlled.
where S is the contact area associated with Schottky barrier, J is the current density through Schottky barrier, V is the applied revere bias, q is the unit charge of an electron, K B is the Boltzmann ’ s constant, E 0 is a para- meter that depends on the carriers’ density, J s is a slowly varying function of applied bias. Equation 1 indicates that the logarithmic of the current is linear with reverse bias. The log-scale plots of positive and negative current are shown in Figure 3c. We can see that lnI is linear with V in the intermediate bias range for both positive and negative current, which shows the typical I-V char- acteristic of back-to-back Schottky barriers structure. We can also find that in Eq. (1), the current value is related to contact area of the Schottky barrier. For the contact area of Au tip and SnO 2 , it is much smaller
Do-Hyung et al. researched the effect of different types of review and the quantity of such reviews on consumer intention to purchase online. The research showed that experienced shoppers regard the type of review highly for making purchasing decisions unlike novices. In addition, the number of reviews affects novices as compared to experienced shoppers . The research by Do-Hyung et al. supports that of Cheung et al. through a lab experiment that shows that online reviews have an effect on online consumer behavior. They reinforce the finding that negative online consumer reviews are detrimental to consumers’ emotional trust and affect their decision to purchase a product or service . Kamtrain established that online consumers’ behavioral intention is shaped significantly by perceived value, trust, and eWOM .Chen showed in his research that there is a positive relation between online comments and recommendations and shopping experience, shopping satisfaction, and shopping intention .
In a mobile communication environment the channel is not time invariant and is slowly varying. This characteristic feature of the channel leads to a phenomenon called Fading. Fading channels induce rapid amplitude fluctuations in the received signal. If they are not compensated for then this will lead to serious performance degradation. In this paper simulations have been conducted to study the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of a Rayleigh fading channel and it is compared to the BER performance of the AWGN channel.
The instrument detection limit of the Hg detector was < 0.1 ng m −3 and allowed discernment of GEM peaks from the baseline noise for all measurements. The gold cartridge pair offset criteria and the method detection limit were de- rived in the field from sampling the same air through up- draft and downdraft lines. For this study we defined two strict rejection criteria for (1) maximum standard deviation of the offset of 0.05 and (2) maximum difference in gold cartridge response of 10 %. The assessment of the offset be- tween the sampling lines during the Basel measurements was 0.009 ± 0.06 ( ± SD) and 0.016 ± 0.01 ng m −3 for gold car- tridge pairs 1–3 and 2–4, respectively. At Degerö the offset was 0.17 ± 0.06 and − 0.004 ± 0.02 ng m −3 for 1–3 and 2– 4. If up- and downdraft lines sample the same air, the off- set between these should be constant, independent of air Hg content. Scaling the GEM area difference detected in the up- and downdraft air by GEM area of the updraft air revealed an erroneous behavior of cartridge pair 1–3. Further inspection showed that the PTFE valves (V4–V7) seemed to restrict the air flow when energized, thus leading to erroneous air volume readings. In contrast, when air flows through cartridge pair 2–4, the valves are in the idle mode with free flow. There- fore, measurements with cartridge pair 1–3 were discarded for both campaigns due to the above threshold variability in Basel and the large gold cartridge pair offset at Degerö. Al- though data availability was reduced by 50 % this technical shortcoming may be solved by use of different valves, e.g., three-way flipper valves. Detailed results from the sampling line bias tests are presented in Figs. S3 and S4.
In this paper α-μ fading model and probability density function have been briefly discussed. The simulated and analytical results of performance metrics such as outage and BER for alpha mu fading correlation schemes have been illustrated. The effect of α and μ parameters and correlation coefficient variation on BER and outage is brought out. The result obtained in this paper will help researcher to explore correlation concept in α-μ generalized fading model.
1. Presentation of the results of a potential fading mitiga- tion technique using a circular polarized patch antenna in combination with a linear polarized antenna. This an- tenna is subject to further improvements regarding size and cost reduction. The antenna itself is a well-known design (truncated-corner square patch), however the ad- vantage of using a circular polarized antenna at one end of the link and a linear polarized antenna at the other end of the link in comparison to the conventional us- age of linear polarized antennas at both ends should be proven on the basis of a comprehensive measurement campaign.
observation noise covariance matrix. The fading Kalman filter used fading factor k to calculate the P k , k 1 , and this differs from the standard Kalman filter. The memory length of Kalman filter is limited by the fading factor to make full use of the current observations. The filter divergence has been avoided by aggravated the role of current observation data in state estimation.
Channel estimation in frequency selective has different approach then compared with flat fading environment. A comparative study using Minimum Mean Squared Error (MMSE) and Least square (LS) estimator in frequency selective fading environment has been presented in . The channel estimation based on comb type pilot ar- rangement is studied using different algorithms by bahai et al. . A novel channel estimation scheme for OF- DMA uplink packet transmissions over doubly selective channels was suggested in . The proposed method uses irregular sampling techniques in order to allow flexible resource allocation and pilot arrangement. In flat fading environment, estimation of the channel using trained sequence of data has been studied and implemented in . He presented the channel estimation in flat fading environment using some trained data. Channel phase was estimated during each coherence time. Then pilot data of some required percentage of data length (referred as training percentage in simulation) is inserted into the source data. It is used to estimate the random phase shift of the fading channel and train the decision to adjust the received signal with phase recover. The results obtained showed the great variation in BER for with and without estimation curves. It is clear from literature reviewed that phase estimation using training symbol can be imple- mented in flat fading environment to improve the per- formance of system.
a much number of OFDM preparing symbols with invalid pilots at the negative subcarrier lists of the principal half of OFDM preparing images and at the positive subcarrier records of the second 50% of OFDM preparing images. It considers FI beneficiary I/Q irregularity just and is likewise connected with the above downsides . Pilot-symbol supported channel estimation strategy is for the most part utilized to get direct state data in remote correspondence frameworks. By misusing the cognizant sparsity of the blurring channels, OFDM based channel estimation technique can incredibly diminish the pilot overhead weight. We propose a compressed channel estimation technique for Femtocell OFDM frameworks over recurrence specific fading channel. In light of the OFDM channel model, we right off the bat demonstrate the confined isometric property of the estimations by discrete Fourier change FT-based technique, and after that gauge the Femtocell OFDM channel by symmetrical strategy. simulation results demonstrate that the proposed strategy outperforms the regular least square (LS) technique and significantly declines the pilot overhead weight .This paper centers around correspondences inside a high-versatility setting with OFDM as the modulation of decision. We first demonstrate that the AWGN channel is the hardest to adjust utilizing standard channel leveling strategies .application of high mobility OFDM IS HST – High Speed Train Broadband wireless communication .This paper gives a thorough review of the ongoing improvement in broadband remote correspondences for high-speed trains.
If the signal arriving at receiver are not in coherence than multipath fading arises, to mitigate multipath fading in wireless channel transmitter power control method is used, in this method transmitter on other side of the link preprocessed the signal according to the channel condition experienced by receiver on one side of the link, in order to overcome the effects of channel.
Next, the performance of an energy detector in a Nakagami channel is explored. This is as depicted in Figure 4..From this figure, we observe that the probability of miss detection (decreased detection performance) is very high over average SNR ( ̅). Here Nakagami fading parameter m=10.We observe that spectrum sensing is harder in presence of Rayleigh and Nakagami fading and performance of energy detection degrades more in Nakagami channels than Rayleigh channels.