We investigate the problem of providing a fairbandwidthallocation to each of flows that share the outgoing link of a congested router. The buffer at the outgoing link is a simple FIFO, shared by packets belonging to the flows. We devise a simple packet dropping scheme, called CHOKe-FS that discriminates against the flows which submit more packets/sec than is allowed by their fair share. By doing this, the scheme aims to approximate the fair queueing policy
WiMAX has been recently labeled as one of the few contending technologies for next generation of wireless networks. Among the other features of this technology, QoS and Radio Resource Management are the topics on which maximum research is being done. Many research groups have proposed schemes for physical slot, call admission and control, and bandwidthallocation strategies. Scheduling is the heart of QoS for WiMAX networks. The throughput of uplink or downlink is proportional to the number of subcarriers allocated to the corresponding SS and the achievable rate of each subcarrier . WiMAX standard IEEE 802.16e supports five service classes namely, UGS, ertPS, rtPS, nrtPS and BE. All of these classes have different QoS requirements. Considering the QoS requirements and the mobility of users in the coverage area with variable channel status, allocation of resources in fair manner and efficiently is a complex issue [11, 12]. The objective of WiMAX scheduling is to ensure that the QoS requirements for all the five classes are met efficiently. In order to make sure that this requirement of different service classes is met, several researchers have came up with different algorithms.  Apart from the commonly used techniques in WiMAX, mobile WiMAX IEEE 802.16e used some special techniques which are dependent upon quality of signal. The parameters used here are temporal fairness and throughput fairness.  The QoS in WiMAX is dependent upon better and optimized scheduling algorithms, the modulation scheme used needs to be selected along with the code rate . Since the discovery of wireless networks, scheduling for resource allocation has always been a major point of research . The main task of the scheduler is to maintain desired levels of QoS, fairness and throughput of the network. To achieve QoS and fairness, researchers have constantly worked upon several scheduling algorithms from different computing backgrounds and studied their implementation and effect on network performance . For the sake of better understanding of the problem and analyzing various theories available, the types of schedulers can be classified into four different categories which are as follows:
The fairness feature of TRUMP is unknown for general ω values and because of that most of the experiments for this algorithm are set to ω=1. According to the Fig. 2, it's assumed that there are three sources competing over a bottleneck link specified in Fig. 2. In this case, paths 2 and 3 with three hop counts get more bandwidth than path 1 consists of six hop counts. This is the main problem of fairbandwidthallocation associated to the TRUMP algorithm where Network operator penalizes longer hops.
Thus, the satellite allocates time slots to hundred’s to thousand’s of sensor terminals in a channel. We verify the change of expected operating time in our proposed method, which includes the expected required time for searching and allocation phases. We study the relationship between amount of time for searching and allocating phases when the number of dividing times varies from 0 to 4. From Fig.3(a), shows the change of amount of time for searching phase when number of dividing times varies from 0 to 8. It is clearly shown that amount of time for searching phase increases with increase in number of dividing times. This is because the increase of number of dividing times causes increase of number of times for transmitting and receiving messages between satellite and sensor terminals. Fig 3(b) demonstrates the amount of time for allocating phase from Fig 3(b) it is understood that amount of time for allocating phase decreases with the increase of number of dividing time. From Fig.3(a) and 3(b) it is confirmed that amount of time for searching phase increases and amount of time for allocating phase decreases when number of dividing time increases. Thus, the trade-off relationship between the amount of time of searching phase and allocating phase exists. Fig. 3(c) shows amount of time for allocating phase with different time slots. On demand TDMA allocation scheme can provide more efficient bandwidth utilization compared to fixed TDMA schemes.
We have assumed throughout that stable allocations are equiprobable. We next motivate this assumption in the context of a model where peers decide with whom to connect to. The nature of p2p applications suggests one-sided link formation, where peers can decide which sharer to connect to without the consent of the sharer. 1 In this setting, a simultaneous one-shot game yields a set of equilibria that coincides by deﬁnition with our set of stable allocations. Clearly, this is the set of allocations that are of interest for the analysis. 2 A one-shot game, however, provides no insight on the relative probability of each outcome. To construct a probability distribution over this set we need to consider a sequential game, where peers decide orderly with whom to connect to. To model such a game consider a randomized connecting order with myopic peers. That is, peers take the current allocation as given when choosing their connection; no forward induction takes place (which is unfeasible given the size and complexity of p2p networks). In the model described, however, the probability distribution over the set of stable allocations depends on the ﬁne details of the connection process.
Previous works related to Radio Resource Management (RRM) in WiMAX networks address a variety of scenarios, from PMP to mesh, from TDMA to OFDMA access types, and distinguishing single channel or multichannel networks, most of them from a physical (PHY) layer perspective, where the goal is to properly configure the transmission parameters. At the best of our knowledge, two main approaches are found in literature, namely: (i) formulate the problem in a mathematical optimization framework and (ii) develop heuristic algorithms. In the sequel, we briefly review some of the works. In , the author proposes an heuristic solution for the case of a single cell OFDMA WiMAX network that maximizes the network sum-rate under some fairness considerations by means of performing subcarrier and power allocation. The authors in  analyze how concurrent transmissions boost performance in mesh type networks by proposing an interference-aware routing and scheduling mechanism. In , the reader can find a discussion about the advantages of a multichannel network. Finally,  contributes with a mathematical optimization solution that falls into the Network Utility Maximization (NUM) framework, where a distributed optimal solution to the established NUM problem is obtained using a convex decomposition approach. The authors extend in  their original work to generic OFDMA mesh networks, and the contributions in [10–12] are within the same context. A common feature in the last three references is that they split the global rate control and resource allocation problem into independent and smaller subproblems in order to alleviate the complexity of the solution at the expenses of a certain loss in optimality.
It is often the case that the communication infrastructure formed by the sensors is used to transmit different types of data which may have different importance and priority. For instance in monitoring an environment the data associated with sensing vibrations may have higher priority than those measuring other phenomena such as the humidity since the former may indicate an earthquake or a tremor. Therefore, it appears natural that in the development of WSN proto- cols one should consider the assignment of the resources (fre- quency spectrum or bandwidth) according to the priorities of the sensed data. On the other hand, due to the limited amount of computational power and the limited energy sup- plies of the sensors, the design of protocols for the resource assignment should be as simple as possible and avoid energy loss due to heavy computations or packet collisions. In this paper we address the problem of the bandwidth al- location among traffic classes with different priority by in- troducing a stateless protocol inspired by back-CHOKe . The main idea of our allocation control scheme, named FairAllocation Control Window (FACW), is that each sensor maintains a control window of size N that stores the traf- fic classes of the latest packets that have been sent by its neighbours (i.e., the other sensors it can listen to) or by itself. Each traffic class c can be present in the window at most h c times, where higher values of h c correspond to
With the rapid development of cloud-computing technologies, more and more Internet applications appear with cloud platform. In this paper, cloud computing is introduced. Renting cloud platform which provides computing, storage, bandwidth resources can improve the performance of file sharing systems. The hybrid file sharing system combines P2P mode and cloud serving mode. This system provides both peer-assisted acceleration and cloud-assisted acceleration to download processes. Cloud bandwidth is scalable in the cloud-assisted file sharing system. In order to save cost while meeting QoS requirement, author conducts measurement and analysis on the QQ offline downloading system to find key factors which impact the cloud bandwidth consumption of download process. An adaptive cloud bandwidth rental and allocation strategy is proposed. The experimental results show that the system with this strategy not only ensures the quality of service but also slashed cloud bandwidth consumption.
Abstract. We consider the problem of decomposing a group norm into a set of individual obligations for the agents comprising the group, such that if the individual obligations are fulfilled, the group obligation is fulfilled. Such an as- signment of tasks to agents is often subject to additional social or organisational norms that specify permissible ways in which tasks can be assigned. An important type of social norms are ‘fairness constraints’, that seek to distribute individual responsibility for discharging the group norm in a ‘fair’ or ‘equitable’ way. We propose a simple language for this kind of fairness constraints and analyse the problem of computing a fair decomposition of a group obligation, both for non- repeating and for repeating group obligations.
In literature, the problem and the previous techniques of Fiber Wireless is described N. Kumar ET.AL Gigabit passive optical networks (GPON) give a limit supports in both the total bandwidth and bandwidth efficiency using bigger variable-length packets in Passive Optical Networks innovation. They have depicted an absolutely detached GPON perfect reach extender utilizing disseminated Raman enhancement and announced the enhanced examination through execution of a square root module by a separation of 60 km at information rate of 2.5 Gbps. An effective change in Q element is accomplished with square root module, which additionally helps in expanding the length of GPON.
In general, radio channels are fading both in time and in frequency. Hence, a channel estimator has to estimate tine- varying amplitudes and phases of all subcarriers. One way to do this is to use a two-dimensional channel estimator that estimates the reference values based on a few known pilot values. In this case, the signal has four subcarriers containing known pilot values to allow the estimation. To be able to interpolate the channel estimates both in time and frequency from the available pilots, the pilot spacing has to fulfill the Nyquist sampling theorem, which states that the sampling interval must be smaller than the inverse of the double sided bandwidth of the sampled signal. For the case of OFDM, this means that there exists both minimum subcarrier spacing and a minimum symbol spacing between pilots. By choosing the pilot spacing much smaller than these requirements, good channel estimation can be made with a relatively easy algorithm. The more pilots are used however, the smaller the effective SNR, becomes that is available for data symbols. Hence, the pilot density is a trade off between channel estimation performance and SNR loss.
In section 2, we define a museum pass program by considering a set of participating museums, a set of pass buyers and, for each pass buyer, the group of museums visited by the pass buyer. We consider natural axioms for museum pass programs. Some of these axioms have been informally discussed in Ginsburgh and Zang . Combining some of these axioms allows to characterize two allocation rules for sharing the total income of museum pass programs. The first one consists in redistributing the income of each pass equally to the museums visited by the pass buyer. This allocation rule highlights the influence of each coalition of museums in the sharing process. The second one attributes an identical share of the total income to each participating museum. These two characterizations are comparable in the sense that one can switch from the first to the second by dropping one axiom and extending the principle of another axiom. In the last section, we study this problem from a game-theoretic point of view by associating to each museum pass program the TU-game considered by Ginsburgh and Zang . It turns out that the above allocation rules coincide with the Shapley value and the equal division solution of the associated TU-game respectively. As such, our results are in the same spirit as the comparable characterizations of the Shapley value and the equal division solution obtained by van den Brink  on the class of all TU-games.
PON is called passive because other than at the central office there is no active element within the access network. A PON enables an service provider to deliver a true triple play offering of voice, video and data. PON are getting more widespread in rollout of Fiber to the Home (FTTH) infrastructure. Wavelength Division Multiplexing PON, or WDM- PON, is a type of passive optical networking, being pioneered by several companies, that uses multiple optical wavelengths to increase the upstream and/or downstream bandwidth available to end users. This technology looks forward to a day when optical technology is cheaper and easier to deploy, and end users demand higher bandwidth. WDM-PON can provide more bandwidth over longer distances by devoting rawer optical bandwidth to each user and by increasing the link loss budget of each wavelength, making it less sensitive to the optical losses incurred at each optical splitter. To overcome the problem of increasing number of users DBA , inter and intra scheduling are used.
Converged Network Architecture (GLCNA) is proposed and the control and operation of this architecture is discussed. The GLCNA scheme takes into account the specific features of the converged network to enable a smooth data transmission across optical and wireless networks. The QoS mapping strategy is defined for GPON-LTE converged networks to make efficient conversions between GPON in DiffServ and LTE in IntServ services for supporting different services. Finally, the Synchronous Interleaved Dynamic Bandwidth Assignment (SIDBA) scheme is proposed that is specifically tailored to the unique features and resolve the idle period and asynchronous problem in upstream bandwidth assignment between the heterogeneous networks. Moreover, the different period of times between polling cycle time and frame size are evaluated in this paper. The simulation results show that the throughput, packet delay can be improved, specially, in the case of 2ms/5ms. Our work in this paper only presents some preliminary study in this area with a particular focus on bandwidth assignment. Some other topics such as admission control and effect of handover on network performance can be investigated in the future.
In this paper we study convergence properties for distributed allocation mechanisms when used as fair division procedures. Specifically, we identify sets of assumptions under which any sequence of deals meeting certain conditions can be shown to converge to a proportionally fairallocation and to an envy-free allocation, respectively. We also introduce an extension of the basic framework where agents are vertices of a graph (which we might think of as representing a social network) limiting which agents can interact with each other. The concept of envy-freeness is very naturally extended to such a setting: an agent will not envy another agent if they either believe that their own bundle is more valuable or if they cannot see that other agent, because there is no edge between them in the network. This allows us to prove a similar convergence result for envy-freeness in the context of fair division on a graph. Finally, when not all assumptions guaranteeing envy-freeness are satisfied, it is interesting to study the degree of envy exhibited by an outcome. To this end, we introduce a generic framework for defining measures for assessing the degree of envy in a society and establish the computational complexity of checking whether a given scenario allows for a deal that is beneficial to every agent involved and that will reduce envy.
time occupy a single processor. G.J. Foschini et al. formulate the mathematical model for any finite number of customer types and provide solution for the case of two competing customer classes . In  the authors prove a conjecture for the optimal policy for a system introduced in . Ross and Tsang in  consider the stochastic knapsack problem motivated by the problem of accepting and blocking the calls to a circuit-switched telecommunications system which supports a variety of traffic types. The classical knapsack problem is to pack a knapsack of integer volume F with objects from K different classes in order to maximize profit. The authors discuss the optimal control policy in order to accept/reject the arriving objects as a function of the current state where for each class a portion of knapsack is dedicated. B. Kraimeche and M. Schwartz  introduce a class of restricted access control strategies capable of providing the improved system performance for integrated communications system handling traffic demands of heterogeneous users. These access strategies consist of grouping the set of user types and limiting the amount of bandwidth occupied by user types in each group. The optimum design of a restricted access strategy is a combinatorial optimization problem. In a paper by Gopal and Stern , the authors formulate the problem of controlling the access to a communication channel in an integrated service environment with traffic demands of heterogeneous users as a Markovian Decision Process and propose the Policy Iteration algorithm to find an optimal call blocking policy and sub-optimal policies which can be found with less computational effort.
Cloud systems mechanically manage and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction acceptable to the sort of service (e.g., storage, operating, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Resource usages are often monitored, controlled, and according providing transparency for each of the provider and consumer of the utilized service.
Radio resource allocation (RRA) for multimedia services has drawn a lot of attention because of its capability of oﬀering an eﬃcient way to handle the resources. In previous research, much attention has been paid to system eﬃciency improvement, that is, maximizing system utility [1–8]. It is shown that the Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS), a well- defined notion in game theory, can be used to maximize the sum of Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratios (PSNRs) in rate allocation for collaborative video transmissions . Optimal resource allocation for multiuser wireless transmissions is studied in  from an information theoretic perspective, and it is shown that sum rate maximization (SRM) is suboptimal when taking video quality into account. This work has been extended to joint power and subcarrier allocation for mutiuser video transmission in multi-carrier systems . In , Application (APP), MAC, and Physical (PHY) layers are jointly optimized using Cross-Layer Design (CLD) for streaming video delivery in a multiuser wireless environ- ments, and two objective functions are introduced, that is, minimizing the sum of mean square error (MSE) of all video users, maximizing the sum of PSNRs. As a continuous work
QPQ reflects the main idea behind the concept of linking mechanism: when a game consists of multiple instances of the same basic decision problem (e.g., saying yes or no, choosing among a number of discrete options), it is possible to define selfishness-resistant algorithms by restricting the players’ responses to a given distribution. Hence, in that case, the frequency with which a player declares a particular decision is established beforehand. Based on this, QPQ presents quite relevant features as the fact of not requiring payments, the flexibility on the definitions of the utility functions of the players, its applicability in iterative (i.e. repeated) games, the lack of central control authority, etc. While QPQ presents some very interesting properties, it only guarantees fairness and efficiency when users behave independently on each other. Nevertheless, this does not need to be the case in real environments, where users may have correlated preferences. The problem of fairness among players has been widely analyzed in the game theory literature and a wide range of fairness concept has been proposed, but, as far as we know, there is no fair linking mechanisms when players have correlated preferences. This motivates the research proposed in this paper.